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Vol. XLVI 
April, 1921 — September, 1921 



V ; 

Chi ^ , ' 

New York ^ ^ 

ii2 East 19 Street 


Volume XLVI 

April, 1921 — September, 1921 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a few cases 
under titles. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under their subjects. 
The precise wording of titles has not been retained where abbreviation or paraphrase 

has seemed more desirable. 

Abbe, Ernst, 537, 538. 
Abbott, Grace, 311, 637. 

Uniting of native- and foreign-born 
in America, at Nat'l Conf., 504. 
Abbreviations, 73. 
Academic intolerance, 642. 
Accident prevention, 274. 
Accidents, tax against, 120. 
Adams, Thomas, 62. 
Addams, Jane, 75, 629. 

Chicago's School of Social Service 
Administration (letter), 220. 

German thanks to, 583. 
Adie, D. C., 450. 
Adler. Felix, 101. 
Adolescent offenders, 609. 
Adoptions of children, 206. 
"Africa: Slave or Free"(Harris), 375. 
African Educational Commission, 698. 
Agamian, Ed., An appeal to Turkish 

women (letter), 616. 
Aged, industrial pensions for, 672, 

Aggrey, J. E. Kweigyir, 579. 
Agresti, O. R.. 233. 
Agricultural school in Denmark 

Annuities, baby, 705. 

Apprentices, training in silk ribbon 

weaving, 641. 
Arbitration, restoration, 19. 
Arc, Jeanne d'. 173. 
Argentina, drugs, 85. 
Arkansas-Texas cyclone, 278. 
Armaments. See Disarmament. 
Armenia, 263. 
Armes, Ethel, Community recreational 

activities, 712. 
Armstrong, A. L., Delaware's depend- 
ent children (letter), 415. 
Aronovici, Carol, 133. 
A. I. C. P.. 579. 
Aust, Franz, 595. 

Child relief, 62. 

Land, 450. 

Land settlement, 405. 

School children's posters, 115. 

Welfare work, 233. 
Automobiles, danger signs, 252. 


Agricultural schools in Wisconsin, 

part-time. 56. 
Akron, Ohio, Americanization plan, 

Alabama, coal settlement, 52. 
Alberta, farmers' victory, 625. 
Alcohol, synthetic, 37. 
Ailing, E. T., Rural social work, 438. 
' nalgamated Clothing Workers and 
"ie newspapers, 599. 
llance airplane, 417. 
ca, permanent, 551. 
Amer. Ass'n for Community Org., 

Amer. Ass'n for Org. Family Social 

Work, 508. 
Amer. Ass'n of Hospital Social 

Workers, 510. 
Amer. Ass'n of Social Service Ex- 
changes, 507. 
Amer. Ass'n of Social Workers, 506, 

Amer. Child Hygiene Ass'n, 684. 
"American Economic Life" (Bmch), 

Amer. Engineering Council. 371. 
Amer. Federation of Arts, 427. 
Amer. Federation of Labor. 
Convention — brief report, 474. 
Denver convention, 514. 
Tablet presented to (ill.), 453. 
Amer. Friends Service Committee, 

Amer. Legion, 489. 
Amer. Library Ass'n, 513. 
Amer. Medical Ass'n, 83. 

Conf., 449. 
Amer. Public Health Ass'n. 

50th annual meeting, notice, 150. 
Amer. Relief Administration. 
Hunger map of Europe, 701. 
Poland. 554. 
Russia, 645. 
Amer. Rural Planning Ass'n, 595. 
Amer. Zionist Medical Unit, 85. 
Americanization, 489, 516. 
Akron plan, 513. 
Americanizing, 521. 
Glen Ridge, N. J., 676. 
Nat'l Council formed, 417. 
Notes, 519. 
Americans, 293. 
Books for, 15. 
Lecture, public, 461. 
Amherst College. 

Workers' classes in S-- ingfield and 
Hoiyoke, 67 1. 
Anderson, Mary, 74. 
Andrews, J. R.. Charles McCarthy 

(letter) 527. 
Ann Arbo- Union Builders Corpora- 
tion, 666. 


City, 684. 

Congress and, 200. 
Maternity bill passed, 581. 
Babushka. See Breshkovsky. 
Baby annuities, 705. 
"Backward Peoples and Our Rela- 
tions with Them (Johnston), 566. 
Bacon, G. W., Country school — then 

and now, 585. 
"Bacteriology for Nurses" (Carey), 

Baker, A. T., 133, 221. 
Baker, M. C, Mothercraft, 709. 
Balch, E. G., 629. 
Balfour, A. J., 635. 
Baltic states, 553. 
Baltimore, printing industry, 699. 
Baltimore Sun, 491. 
Bank of North Dakota, 103. 

Cooperative banks, 683. 
Spurious, 41. 
Barbed wire, 552. 
Barre, Vt., 120. 
Baruch, B. M., 640. 
Basle. ■ 

Internat'l cooperatons' congrass, 668. 
Program, 635. 
Beaufort, S. C, 713. 
Beauty, 208. 
Bedford Reformatory. 
Another situation, 133. 
Correction, 221. 
Behavior problems, 116, 306. 

Children's congress, 221, 450. 
Commission for Relief, surplus 

funds, 39. 
Labor university, 561. 
Bellingham, Wash., 712. 
Benes, Eduard, portrait, 358. 
Benjamin, P. L. 

Delaware child life, 81. 
Nat'l. Conf. of Social Work at Mil- 
waukee, report, 497. 
Pennsylvania progresses, 202. 
Rubbing Aladdin's lamp, 610. 
Social workers, 181. 
Bequests, 610. 
Berle, A. A., Jr. 

Habilitating Haiti, 433. 
Porto Rican independence, 704. 
Russian hunger, 562. 

Housing conditions, 109. 
Snapshots, 647. 
Bezruc, Petr, 345, 353. 
"Bibliography of Industrial Efficiency 
and Factory Management" (Can- 
nons), 218. 
Bierstadt, E. H., 521. 
Bigelow, Alida, 62. 
Bittner, Adela, 157. 
Black, Arthur, 51. 

"Black Man's Burden, The" (Morel), 

Blaisdeli, T. C, Jr., Fatigue and the 

steel worker, 312. 
Blanshard, Paul, Turning tables on 

the newspapers, 599. 
Bliss, T. H., 26. 
Bloch, Ivan, 150. 
Boervig, Harriet, 567. 

Foreign language and the home 
(letter), 448. 
Bohemia, 323. 
Refugees, 334. 
See also Czecho-Slovakia. 
Bohemians, 363. 
Bohunk, term (letter), 415: 
Bolt, R. A., 157. 

Health, at Nat'l Conf., 501. 
Bondy, R. E-, Arkansas-Texas cy- 
clone, 278. 
Book reviews. See title of book. 

American, 15. 
Child welfare, 613. 
Community problems, 14. 
Dependence on, 3. 
Economics, 16. 
International relations, 564. 
Latest, list, 218, 250, 282, 315, 
382, 386, 414, 447, 479, 526, 566, 
614, 653, 688, 718. 
Readers of a foreign neighbor- 
hood, 7. 
Social workers', 17. 
Socialized church, 413. 
Spring reading, 13. 
World, reconstruction, etc., 22. 
Boothe, Stella, 161, 191, 248, 685. 
Borah, Senator, 75. 
Borst, H. W. 

Minneapolis judge who does things, 

Org. of social forces, at Nat'l 
Conf., 503. 

Boy Scouts, 712. 
Children's Art Center, 208. 
Disaster relief chart, 279. 
Girl's field day, 712. 
Jews, 559. 
Mayor Peters, 11. 
Social self-survey, 437. 
Will case (Thompson), 540. 
Bourdelle, E. A., 173 
Boxing, 146. 
"Boy, The, in Indusry and Leisure" 

(Hyde), 614. 
Boy Scouts, groups in France, 175. 
Boyd, Judge J. E., 643, 720. 

Decision (letter), 688. 

Chicago census, 208. 
Italian colonies, 49. 
Boys' parade (health), 247. 
Brace, R. N., 415. 

Child placing in Delaware (letter 
and reply), 285. 
Brackett, J. R., Brief for constructive 

charity. 540. 
Brandeis, L. D., 635. 
Brazil. Jewish immigration, 666. 
Breakwaters, 90. 

Breckinridge, S. P., Indust. and 
economic problems of Nat'l Conf., 
Breshkovsky, Catherine, 51, 531. 
Bridgeport, Conn., story telling, 713. 
Bridgewater, Mass., 431. 
Brinton, H. H., From the devil's cal- 
dron, 236. 

Coal struggle, 266. 
Miners' strike, 38, 102. 
Miners' unrest, 10. 
British ex-service men, industrial 

training, 252. 
British Labor Party, women's section, 

conference, 316. 
"Broken Shackles" (Gordon), 123. 
Bronx, is it a city? 230. 
Brooklvn, Jewish Charities, 152, 
Brooks, E. E- death, 319. 

Brophy, John, 310. 
Brown, Dorothy K., 567. 

Maternity bill, 399. 
Brown, Douglas, 688. 
Brown, Irving H., "Sweating chil- 
dren" (letter), 720. 
Brownies' Book, 18. 
Bruno, F. J., Case conference: a 

reply, 151. 
Brussels, medical endowment, 41. 
Bryce, Viscount, 640, 646. 
Bud of Promise, 393. 
Budish, J. M. 

Mass education, 441. 

Methods of mass education, 678. 
Buell, J. B. 

Ass'n of Social Workers. 506. 

Job's the thing, 714. 
Buffalo, 450, 719. 
Building industry. 

Carpenters, Ann Arbor, 666. 

Chicago, Landis award, 665. 

Cleveland award, 524. 
Building materials, 86. 
Bureau of Education, questionnaire 

on sex instruction, 443. 
Burgess, J. S. 

Community organization in the 
Orient, 434. 

New tools in old China, 238. 

Opinion in China, 108. 
Burnham, Dorothy, In an old tavern \ 

Burns, A. T., 721. 
Burr, M. J., 215. 
Burroughs, John, obituary, 37. 
Buse, Alphe, 342. 
Butler, F. C, on Franklin K. Lane, 

Butler, J. H., Conference of English 
labor women, 316. 

Calder, Senator. 

Housing program, 20. 

Housing report, 86. 

Camp sanitation, 557. 

City planning. 133. 

County libraries, 520. 

Education laws, 425. 

Immigrant education, 518. 

School politics, 442. 

Social work defined, 38. 

Tax against accidents, 120. 
Caligari, Dr., 144. 
Calkins, M. C. 

Charity edifieth, 457. 

Institute of Politics, 646. 

Louis. 543. 

Part-time school, 276. 

Perennial: Nevada variety. 215. 
"Cambridge Essays on Adult Educa- 
tion" (Parry), 314. 
Camp sanitation, 557. 
Campbell, John, Ireland and the S' 

vey (letter), 283. 
Camps for prisons, 640. 

Conservation commission and e 
omy, 62. 

Penal report, 295. 

Shop councils, 120. 
Cancer, 296. 
Cannon, C. J.. 667. 
Cape Ann Community League 
Cape Cod, illegitimacy, 305. 
Carlisle, C. L., Oregon health survej 

Carnegie Peace Foundation, 220. 
Carpenters' corporation, 666. 
Carville, La., 685. 
Case conference 

Defense (letter), 251. 
Letter, 415. 

Reply from F. J. Bruno, 151. 
"Case for Capitalism, The" (With 

ers), 446. 
Case worker, Salem, O., 280. 
Cassidy, Bull, 214. 

"Catalog of Literature for the Ad 
visors of Young Wome 1 " an' 
Girls" (Pierce), 651. 



n - 

e x 

Catastrophe and Social Change" 
(Prince), 14. 
Catchpool, K. St. J., 76. 
Catholic social service school, 666. 
Catholic social workers community, 

Censorship, 231. 

Portland, Ore., 396. 
Century Dictionary Co., 415. 
Cestre, Charles, In the French rail- 
road shops, 476. 
Chamber of Commerce 
Educational bureau, 472. 
Illiteracy and (letter), 567. 
Channing, Alice, Savings of women 

shoe workers, 680. 
Chapman, Mrs. Woodallen, 144. 

Brief for constructive charity, 540. 
English names for organizations, 

307, 710. 
Philanthropic doubts and Mrs. Can- 
non, 667. 
_ Public giants to, 489. 
,'henery, VV. I,. 
Alabama coal settlement, 52. 
Clothing war end, 372. 
Forty-eight hours or less, 118. 
Great public servant(J. C. Lathrop), 

Immigrants as miners, 311. 
Personnel relations tested, 236. 
Shell of the Employment Service, 

Wage principles, 201. 
Waste in industry, 545. 
Cheney, C. H., 157. 
Chesterton, G. K., 462. 
Cheyney, A. S., Negro women in in- 
dustry, 119. 

Boy census, 208. 
Building wages reduction,' 665. 
Recreation Training School, 145. 
Rising from its fall, 397. 
School of Social Service Admini- 
(i stration (letter), 220. 
Thompsonism and its tether, 138. 
Work license, 252. 
Chickering, M. C, Return of the Pol- 
ish Grey Samaritans, 554. 
-hild health demonstration, 62. 
yJhild Health Organization, 247. 
Child Hygiene Ass'n, 684. 
Child labor 

Boyd's second decision, 643. 
Enforcement of the law, 157, 710. 
Milwaukee conf., 506. 
Minimum age, etc., 450. 
Sweating children (letter), 720. 
Trend. 313. 
Child-placing, 116. 

Child welfare, 49, 115, 206 305, 607. 
Activities, 710. 
Books, 281, 613. 
Czecho-Slovakia, 352. 
European units, 710. 
Legislative gains, 708. 
"Child Welfare in Tennessee," 651. 
Child Welfare League of America, 


Belgium congress, 221, 450. 
Boston, Art center, 208. 
Colored, literature for, 18. 
Connecticut code, 134.' 
Delaware, 81, 102. 
Delaware (letter), 415. 
Food for, 247. 
Health stories, 161, 191. 
Kansas bills. 135. 
Missouri, 232. 

Nat'l Conf., Division meetings, 505. 
Rural delinquency, 607. 
hildren's Aid Society (New York). 

hildren's Bureau 
Examinations for positions. 721. 
Illegitimacy, in report, 115. 
Maternity bill and, 399. 
Resignation of Miss Lathrop. 637. 
lile, compulsory school attendance, 


Children. 157. 
Educational matters, 107. 
^Educator from, 371. 
~!ood roads movement, 252. 
)pinion, 108. 
iPrinceton University Center and 

Peking Y. M. C. A., 434. 
[Recovery, 393. 
Renaissance Movement, 238. 
Roads and crops, 558. 
JSee also Peking, 
pinese parade in New York citv. 

christian Unity, "Its Principles and 

Possibilities." 413. 
"Chums and Brothers" (Webster). 

Church and Social Service, commis- 
sion on, report, 560. 
Church and state, 489. 

"Church Cooperation and Community 

Life" (Vogt), 717. 
"Church Finance and Social Ethics" 

(McConnell), 413. 

Books on the socialized church, 

Recreation and, 145. 
Chute, C. L., 319. 

Crime wave and probation, 79. 
Nat'l Probation Conf., 510. 
Cincinnati, 450. 

Better cities campaigns, 244. 
Government (social studies), 131. 

Pittsburgh Junior Club, 215. 
Students as citizens (social stu- 
dies), 99. 
Through understanding, 676. 
City-dweller (verse), 632. 
City planning, 221. 
California, 133. 
France, 178. 
Italian town, 157. 
Nat'l Conf., annual convention, 

Pittsburgh, 253. 
Portland. Ore., 157. 
Civics, 86, 143, 240, 404, 516, 593, 

Civil Service, national organization, 

Clark. E. E., Akron plan, 518. 
Clark, E. H., Ireland and the Survey 

(letter), 284. 
Clark, M. V., 640. 
Clark, S. J. D., Census of Chicago 

boys, 208. 

Building award, 524. 
City report — cover and note, 427. 
Civic festival, 582. 
Disaster procedure, 450. 
McGannort case, 556. 
Nursing, 721. 
Survey. 369, 697. 
Welfare Federation, 401. 
Clifton, Washington, D. C, 666. 

Mental, 715. 
Traveling, 605. 
Clopper, E. N., Rural child delin- 
quency, 607. 
Clothing industry 

End of war in New York city, 372. 
New York conflict, 39. 
Newspapers and the struggle, 599. 
Coal industry 

Alabama settlement, 52. 
British — six weeks of struggle, 266. 
Car-pushing in mines, 310. 
"Government of coal," 667. 
Immigrants as miners, 311. 
Shall we buy coal? 430. 
West Virginia conflict, 398. 
Cole, C. M., 111. 

Colegrove, Josephine Hospital statis- 
tics, 412. 
Coleman, M. C, 145. 
Collective bargaining, 641. 
Collective mind, 213. 
College Settlement, 231. 

Athletics and recreation, 146. 
Piece of composition, 261. 
Social work and (conf.), 251. 
Collins, C. W., 710. 
Collins, Willis, 489. 
Colum, Padraic, 425. 
Columbus, O., city plan commission 

Comenius, 352, 357. 
Comerford, J. V.. 215. 
Commencement orators. 429. 
Commission on Chiirch and Social 

Service, report, 560. 

Books on problems, 14. 
Boston girls' field day, 712. 
Notes, 244. 

Organization in the Orient, 434. 
Progress versus drift, 227. 
Rural, 594. 
Team play, 612. 

Unity, coherence and emphasis, 244. 
See also Local community; School 
and community. 
Community center 
Essentials, 243. 
Riverton, Wyo., 144. 
Community chest, 495. 
"Community Civics" (Ames and 

Eldred). 478. 
"Community Health Problem The" 

(Burnham), 89. 
Community invasion (letter), 219. 
Community Org., Amer. Ass'n for, 

Community organization, four types, 

Commnnitv Service Play Institutes. 

712, 713. 
Community trusts, letter on. 219. 
Competition and cooperation (social 

studies). 187. 
Comstork, Amy, Over here (Tulsa 

riots'). 460. 
Concord bridge, 551. 

, Cen- 

Condit, Abbie, Local community, at 

Nat'l Conf., 502. 
Conference for the Limitation of 
Armaments. See Washington 
Conferences, 124, 221, 251, 316, 416, 
448. 719. 
Dates, correction, 157. 
Congress, U. S. 
Babies and. 200. 
Lynching and, 21. 
People's part, 73. 

Children's code, 134. 
Conf. of Social Work, meeting, 221. 

Appeal from Turkish women, 317. 
Survey, 369. 
"Contemporary French Politics" 

(Buell), 154. 
"Control of Sex Infection, The" 

(Clark), 526. 
Convict lease system, Florida's Sub- 
stitute. 45. 
Cook, Ellen, Case conference (letter), 

Cooper, C. C, Neighborhood and set- 
tlement, 5l"i. 

Competition and (social studies), 

Farmers' organizations, 241. 
Housing, 88. 
Industrial, 601. 
Cooperative banks, 683. 
Cooperative societies, workers' 

in. 309. 
Cooperative Wholesale Society 

tral States, 721. 

Exhibition of manufactures, 313. 
Germany, 450. 
Cooperators' congress, Basle, 668. 
Co-partnership exhibition, 313. 
Copenhagen, 275. 

Cornell, C. B., Role of the case work- 
er, 280. 
Cornell Univ.. 528. 
Cotillo, Salvatore, 41. 
Cotton strike, 646. 
Cottrell, Louise, Iowa State Conf. of 

Social Work, 316. 
Country life. 

Illegitimacy, 305. 
Rural communities that live, 594. 
Rural planners, 595. 
Schools and, 57. 
Social work, 438. 
Country school, 585. 
County health officers, 295. 
County jail. See Jails. 
Cox, Governor, 313. 
Crane, Walter, 143. 
Crawford, Ruth, 323. 

Emigration conference at Geneva, 

Pathfinding in Prague, 327. 
Crime wave. 

Probation and, 79. 
Wave of 1935, 307. 
Criminals, 214. 
Crist, R. F.. 521. 
Crocker, Mrs.. 179. 
Crowd psychology, 213. 
Crystal Palace, London, 313. 
Curie, Madame. 296. 
Currency, German, 464, 473. 
Curtis, E. D., 272. 
Curtis, Miss, 175. 

Arkansas and Texas, 278. 
Oconee, Ga., 280. 
Czech cartoons, 354-355. 
"Czecho-Slovak Stones" (Hrhkova), 

Czecho-Slovakia. 641. 
Agriculture, 348, 349. 
Americans of Czecho-Slovak descent, 

Flags in colors (poster), 321. 
Health and trade appeals (posters), 

Junior Red Cross health chart, 345. 
Portraits of ministers, 358-359. 
Principal industries, 347. 
Republic (map), 346. 
Schools, 343. 

Social and economic problems, 346. 
Symbolic plate of national resurrec- 
tion, bv Preissig, 326. 
Village folk, 363-366. 
Sec also Prague. 


Dallas, newsboys, 608. 
Damascbke. Adolf, 169. 
Dana. R. H., 136. 
Dancing. 62. 145, 146. 
Dante after six centuries 
Darrow, C. S., Social 

state legislation (letter). 617. 
Davis. J. E.. Tunior Red Cross hos- 
pital, 709. 
Davis, T. T.. 426. 
Davis, J. W., 429. 
Davi's. M. M., Jr. 

Health work with immigrants, 147. 

Insuring for health, 246. 




Life Extention Institute, 
Physician and layman, 
Dawes, C. C, Report . 
merit's dealing with ex-se 
"Debate between Samuel 
and Henry J. Allen," 2 
Deflated currency, civic 1< 

464, 473. 
Delancey street, 426. 

Child-placing (letter and 

Children. 81, 102. 
Dependent children (letter 
Prison-paradox, 465. 
Delhi, India, health visitors, 
Nat'l Conf., Division meet 
Rural, 607. 
Democracy in Germany, 703 

Agricultural school, 444. 
International People's Higl 
"Denmark — A Cooperative 

wealth" (Howe), 718. 
Denny, O. E-, 685. 
Denver, Colo., 263, 474, 514 
Salary schedule, teachers', 
Desert, democratizing the, .' 
Deserters, extradition, 38. 
"Despoilers, the" (Buttree), 
Detroit, 490. 

Bishop Williams, 229. 
Out of work, 106. 
Recuperation, 197. 
Welfare Federation, 401. 
"Development of Institutio 
under Irrigation" (Thomas 
Devine, E. T. 

How not to do it: Philadeb, 

fare Federation, 203. 
Letters on his article on .. 

Ourselves and the Irish, 167. 
Philanthropic doubts and Mrs 

non, 667. 
President's message, 105. 
Public Welfare Department — an 

praisal, 298. 
Replies to letters of Joseph Lee 
others on his Irish article, .' 
Welfare federation: the Mid-V 

spirit: Louisville, 269. 
Welfare federations: Where 
works: Cleveland and De 
Welfare federations: the na 
agencies: general considerai 
De Wolf, Tensard, 710. 
Dexter, R. C, Negro in social v> 

Dillard, J. H., 558. 
Dillow V. R., Starting from a 

ment, 144. 
Dingman, Miss, 174. 
Dinwiddie, E. W., 472. 
Diphtheria, campaigns against, 248 
Disarmament, 500. 

Carnegie millions needed for i 

ter), 220. 
Discussion at Chicago church c 

gress in May, 416. 
Harding's call for conf. on limi 

tion, 492. 
Public meetings for, 75. 
Public opinion, 198. 
Voice of women, 665. 
World-wide demonstration, 
See also Washington Conf. 

Census card, 450. 
Preparedness for, 277. 
Suitcase, 450. 
District of Columbia. 
Commissioners, 19. 
Compensation bill, 313. 
Minimum wage decision, 
Public welfare laws, 151. 
Dodge, C. H.. 665. 
"Domesday Book," 13. 
Dorsey, H. M., 183. 
Douglas, P. H., Conf. on limitation ol 

armaments (letter), 654. 
Dreier, K. S., Housing conditions in 

Germany, 169. 
Drurv, Louise, Inter-City Conf. on 

Illegitimacy, 508. 
Dunham, Arthur. 

Social Service Exchange Conf., 448. 
Social Service Exchanges, 507. 
Dunlop. D. S., A department of 

peace (letter), 251. 
Dutch immigrants, 519. 

Earlington, Ky., 558. 
East Harlem 685. 
East Side. 

Sculpture, 9. 

Spirit, 16. 


1 n a 

t A 

See Industrial 

^. St. L., 9. 

. research fellowships, 62. 
•s, books on, 16. 
rtics" (Cunnison), 17 
test, 425. 
n, 261. 

"Financial Organization of Society, 
(Moton), 16. 





. 314. 

irnia laws, 425. 
»unity project, 301. 
ction and, 214. 
iers' program, 442. 
grants, 516. 
, 441. 

education methods, 678. 
issue, 213. 

:ers, Amherst-Springfield-Hol- 
:e, 675. 
^rger, J. S., Argument against 

maternity bill (letter), 567. 
u, 236. 

. Tex., 470. 

, Seba, 617. 
itary Economics" (Carver), 

. D., 612. 

mnity invasion (letter), 219. 

. W., Ireland and the Survey 

ter), 284. 


;fying, 197. 

s, 396. 

/ of, 268. 

', Haven, 698, 719. 

, R. V., Hospital Social 

kers, 510. 

ts, Jewish, 666. 

on conf. at Geneva, 643, 702. 
ye Training" (Morris), 315. 
es' magazines, 602. 
ioyes' Magazines" (O'Shea), 


Fein, The' 

>yers magazines 
oyers' press, 212. 
,)loyment, public, France, 682. 
ployment bureau, free, 121. 
ployment manager, 236. 
mployment Methods" (Sheffer- 

man), 686. 
.ployment Service, shell of the fed- 
eral, 78. 

nitials and nicknames for philan- 
thropic organizations, 307. 
bor, 524. 
• also Britain, 
ish language, teachers, 519. 
.avers, 296. 

tertaining the American Army" 
(Evans and Harding), 653. 
idemic Respiratory Disease" (Opic 
qnd others), 652. 
;opalian social workers, 507. 
, Pa., 293, 519. 
;n, labor at Krupps, 141. 
sentials of Social Psychology" 
(Bogardus), 89. 

bild welfare units, 710. 
lothing need (letter), 448. 
lunger map, 701. 
Reconstruction, 552. 
ansville, Ind., 85. 
vening Play Centers for Children" 

(Trevelyan), 281. 
'volution of Sinn 

(Henry), 59. 
-hibits at fairs, 716. 
xtradition for deserters, 38. 
yesight Conservation Council, 150. 

Fairyland in black and white, 18. 
Falconer, M. P., Delinquents and cor 

rection, at Nat'l Conf., 501. 
Amer. Ass'n for Org. Family Work 

Nat'l Conf., Division meetings 
Family welfare, 151, 277, 437 


'amines and roads, 558. 
Farmers, 473. 
Alberta, 625. 

Cooperative organizations, 241. 
Education for, 442. 
Farrand, Livingston, personal, 528. 
Farrand, Max, 528. 
Fatigue of steel workers, 312. 
Federal Employes, Nat''l Federation, 

Feu* - I Trade Commission 

J ices, 182. 
Fed) ations. 

MiTwaukee meetings, 513. 
See also Welfare federations. 
Feiser, J. I,., 697. 
Fellowships of Reconciliation, 719 
Filene, E. A., 179. 
Finance, books on, 16. 

"Finding a Way Out' 

Finley, J. H., 473. 

Finns in Minnesota, 268. 

Fire losses (cartoon), 406. 

"First Year, The, of the League of 
Nations" (Wilson), 217. 

Fisher, F. B., The New India (let- 
ter), 448. 

Fisher, H. D., Recreation in Tennes- 
see, 117. 

Fitch, J. A. 
I, U L Bang! 491. 

U. S. Steel report, 42. 

Fitzgerald, Ga., 713. 

Fletcher, J. G., Skyscrapers (verse), 

Florida, social work, 125. 

Flowers for the living, 440. 

Flushing, L- I., Foxwood School, 272. 

Folk Song Society, 145. 

Folks, Homer, Barbed-wire, 552. 

Food, children's, 247. 

Ford, G. B., Civic progress in devast- 
ated France, 173. 

Ford, Henry, 633. 


In agriculture, 519. 
Uniting of native- and foreign-horn, 
Nat'l Conf., Division meetings, 

Foreign languages, in the home (let- 
ter), 567. 

Foreigners in North Dakota (Rus- 
sians), 548. 

Forty-eight hour week, 118. 

Foster, M. S., Charles McCarthy (let- 
ter), 527. 

Foxwood School, 272. 


Civic progress in devastated region, 

English restoration of devastated 

regions, 62. 
German labor for reconstruction 

(cartoons), 136, 137. 
Houses for workers in field and fac- 
tory, 468-469. 
Public employment, 682. 
Railroad shops. 476. 

France et Monde, 721. 

Frankel, L. K., 472. 

Free speech, church and Bishop Wil- 
liams, 229. 

Freedom, corner-stone, 113. 

Freedom of the press, 491. 

French Garden Cities Ass'n, 468-469. 

Frey, J. T., 54. 

"Frontier of Control, The" (Good- 
rich), 185. 

Fuller, R. G., 117. 

Furhush, E. M., Mental hygiene, at 
Nat'l Conf., 503. 

Games, 712. 
'Games for Play Institutes," 145. 


Women and 


report on 

Garden city movement in France, 

Gary, E. H., 101, 429. 
Geneva, 252. 

Conf. on Traffic 
Children, 685. 

Emigration conf., 643, 702. 
George, W. R., 677. 

Indictment, 183. 

Insanity, 699. 
German Garden City Ass'n (letter), 


Agriculture, 473. 

Conditions, 700. 

Cooperatives, 450. 

Democracy, 703. 

Forces in education, 596. 

Housing, 87, 169, 263. 

Indemnity and labor, 119. 

Recent money issues, 464, 473. 

Reparation plans and law national- 
ization, 293. 

Thanks for Tane Addams, 
Ghent, W. J„ 220. 
Gibbons, Cardinal, 12. 
Gide, Professor, 669. 
Gifts, 263, 610, 611. 
Gill, R. S., 699. 
"Girl, The" (Dewar), 613. 
Girls, recreation for, 145. 
Girls' clubs, London conf. 
Gleason, Arthur. 

On workers' education, 

W. E. B., 42. 
Glen Ridge, N. J., junior municipality 

council, 676- 
Glenn, T. M., Episcopalian social work- 
ers, 507. 
Gloucester, Mass. 242. 
Goddard, H. H., 642. 
Goldberger, Joseph, 629. 
Gompers, Samuel, 474, 514. 
"Good Times for Girls" (Moxcey), 




Gorgas Memorial Institute, 582. 
Govan, James, 640. 

Business and, 475. 

Learning by doing, 677. 
"Government and Politics in France" 

(Sait), 156. 
Government labor officials, conf., 449. 
Governmental Research Conf., 449. 
Granger, G. F., 721. 
Granite-working, 120. 
Grauman Studios (drawing), 153. 
Great Britain. See Britain; England. 
Greenfield, Herbert, 626. 
Grey, Carolyn E-, 72U 
Griffith, Sanford. 

Plowshares at Krupps, 141. 

Zeiss works at Jena, 537. 
"Guide, A, to the Study of Occupa- 
tions" (Allen), 651. 
"Guild Socialism" (Cole), 249. 
Guilds, house building, 407. 
Gulick, S. L., Books on international 

relations, 564. 
Guymon, Okla., 243. 


Haaren, J. H., 276. 

Hadley, President, 429. 

Hagedorn, Hermann, Citizens through 

understanding, 676. 
Haines, A. J., 50, 276. 
Haiti, 150. 

Habilitating, 433. 
Justice for, 580. 
Hall, G. A., 721. 
Hallowell A. I., Aid for travelers, 

Hansome, Marius, Danish agricultural 
school, 444. 
International high school, 275. 
Hapgood, Powers, Car-pushing in coal 

mines, 310. 
Harding, W. G. 

Message to Congress, 105. 
See also Disarmament. 
Hard wick, K. D., 151. 
Harlem health center, 685. 
Harris, L. I., 445. 

Harris Trust and Savings Bank, 219. 
Harrison, S. M. 

Public Employment Service, conf., 

Social work in Tennessee — confer- 
ence, 316. 
Hart, H. H. 

On giving money, 610. 
Peonage and the public, 43. 
Hart, Helen, State programs of im- 
migrant education, 516. 
Hart, J. K. 

America and China, 107. 
Dante after six centuries, 670. 
From Concord bridge to Newport, 

Lusk reports, 264. 
Next war, 234. 

Social science in the schools, 591. 
Harvard Univ., public health school, 

Hatton-Chatel, 178. 
Hawaii, racial problems, 371. 
Haynes, G. E-, Negro laborer and the 

immigrant, 209. 
Headlines, 556. 

Health, 83, 147, 245, 409, 603. 
Books, 525. 
Children, 161, 191. 
Demonstration town chosen, 643. 
Medical examinations, 246. 
Nat'l Conf., Division meetings, 501. 
Notes, 85, 150, 685. 
Steel workers' diseases, 682. 
Health agencies, step toward coordin- 
ation, 73. 
Health center at Harlem, 685. 
Health officers, county, Illinois, 295. 
Health train, 247. 
Hebert System, 176. 
Heckscher Foundation, 308. 
Helsingor, 275. 
Henderson, Sir David, 721. 
Henry Street Settlement. 
Gift of Mrs. Schiff, 263. 
"Paul" at the "Rest" (ill.), 621. 
Herding, F. J., 407. 
Herdman, H. IT., Accident-preventing 

education. 274. 
Herndon, A. H., 319. 
"Hero of the Longhouse, The" 

(Laing), 16. 
Hess, Fjeril, 337, 343. 
Hewins, K. P. 

Hazards in illegitimacy: adoptions 

and mortality, 206. 
Illegitimacy in rural community, 

Study of illegitimacy, 115. 
Hibben, President, 429. 
Hibbing, Minn., 240. 
Hibbs, H. H., Jr., Regional social hy- 
giene conf., 125. 
"High Company" (Lee), 60. 

High Road, 68S. 
High schools. 

International, 275. 
Sex education, 443. 
Hillis, N. D., 489. 

"History and Problems, The, of Or- 
ganized Labor" (Carlton), 217. 
"History of British Socialism, A" 

(Beer), 249. 
"History of Social Development, The" 

(Muller-Lyer), 89. 
Hobart, Ethel, On the Vermilion 

Range, 268. 
Hodges, Frank, 103. 
Hodgins, F. B., Illiteracy and the 

scrap-heap, 214. 
Holden, Raymond, "Socialized medi- 
cine," 84. 
Holt, Hamilton, 665. 
Holyoke, Mass., 675. 
Hombleux, 179. 

Home, the, Tagore quoted on, 439. 
Honolulu ,531. 
Hoover, H. C, 39, 427. 

Russian relief and agencies, 645. 

Unemployment conference, 697. 

Hospital Social Workers, Amer. Ass' 

of, 510. 1- 

Hospitals, 409, 411. 

Spokane, Junior Red Cross, 709. 
Statistics, 412. 
Wisconsin, 150. 
Hours of work, 491. 
Steel industry, 310. 
Women, 121, 252. 

Austria, 405. 

Building costs and wastes — Phil; 

delphia, 404. 
Calder program, 20. 
Calder report, 86. 
Cooperative, 88. 
Czechoslovakia, 350. 
Employers' housing, 88. 
France, workers in field and factory 

Germany, 87, 169, 263. 
Guild-built houses, 407. 
Joliet, 406. 
Management and repairs — England, 

Pittsburgh, 230. 
Preliminaries — report of 

of Commerce, 408. 
Professional women, 88. 
Savings institutions and 

Study outline publication, 
"Housing Famine, The — How to Km! 

It" (Murphy and others), 14. 
Houston, D. F., 528. 
"How France Is Governed" (Poin- 

care), 156. 
"How It All Fits Together" (Alston), 

Howard, Sidney, 54. 
Howe, H. H., Ireland and the Sur- 
vey (letter), 285. 
Howell, C. 'V., 244. 

Hrbkova, S. B., Americans of Czecho- 
slovak descent, 361. 
"Human Engineering" (Wera), 446. 

England and, 252. 
Teachers, 252. 
Hurlbutt, M. E., 342. 344, 559. 
Husband, W. W., 261. 
Hutchins, F. A., 527. 
Hutton, W. L., Ireland and the Sur- 
vey (letter), 283. 

I. C. A. A., 307. 

Idealism, essay in applied (Czechc 

Slovakia), 357. 
Ililder, John, 472. 

Chamber of Commerce and illite. 
acy (letter), 567. 
Illegitimacy. " 

Children's Bureau report, 115. 

Hazards in, 206. 

Inter-City Conf., 508. 

Rural community, 305. 

County health officers, 295. 

Immigrants as miners, 311. 

Social legislation (letter), 617. 
Illiteracy, 588. 

Chamber of Commerce and (letter' 

Entailed, 55. 

Scrap-heap and, 214. 
Immigrant (periodical), 519. 
"Immigrant Health and the Commu 

ity" (Davis), 525. 

As miners, 311. 

Education, state programs, 516. 

Girls turning each ineligible, 62. 

Health work with, 147. 

Mexican, 470. 

Negroes and, as laborers, 209. 

Welfare work among arrivals, 560. 






Consequences in Europe of new U. 

S. policy, 559. 
Lee, Joseph, on (letter), 124. 
Problem in arithmetic, 133. 
Reliction bill, 261. 
See also Population. 
"Immigration and the Future" (Kel- 

lor), 651. 
Independence Day and Dependence 

Day (cartoons), 473. 
India, New (letter), 448. 
Indiana, social legislation, 396. 
Industrial Aid liureau, 698. 
Inclust. espionage, labor papers quoted, 

Indust. hygiene, motion pictures on, 

Industrial pensions, 705. 
Indust. problems, Nat'l Conf., Divi- 
sion meetings, 505. 
Indust. self-control, 210. 
1 Industry, 52, 118, 209, 309, 522, 599, 

I Hooks, 249, 446. 

Cooperation in, 601. 
I Currents, 120, 313, 683. 

May Day in, 183. 
Ra'jOld man problem, 672. 
jAWaste in, 371, 545. 
^fancy and Congress, 200. 
JJatfaut mortality. 

WNew Zealand, 148. 
"5 Statistics, 684. 
"Iisanity in Georgia, 699. 

Witute of Politics, 640, 646. 
"institution Recipes" (Smedley), 282. 

Siiring for health, 246. 
•rcliurcn World Movement and the 
steel strike, 562. 
itr-City Conf. on Illegitimacy, 508. 
tercollegiate Liberal League, 74. 
Internat'l city clitb, 101. 
'nternat'l good will, 492. 
iternat'l High School, 275. 

ernat'l humanitarianism, 299. 
nternat'l Institute of Agriculture, 

233, 262. 
nternat'l Labor Conf., 252. 
nternat'l labor law, 600. 
ternat'I Labor Office, 643. 
(ternat'I Labor Organization, 643. 

nat'l Red Cross, 370. 
''ternat'I relations, books on, 564. 
nternational Relation of Labor" 
(Miller), 217. 
nternationalism, Salzburg summer 
J school, 75. 

iterance (Kerlin case), 642. 
"Invalid Europe" (Seligsberg), 26. 
l "Invisible Censor, The" (Hackett), 
/ 60. 

I Iowa. 

Conf. of Social Work, 316. 
Social legislation, 396. 

American opinion of the Irish, 167. 
"Ourselves and the Irish" — letter on 

the article, 283. 
Relief, 21, 639. 

Survey and (letters and replies), 
"Ireland an Enemy of the Allies?" 

(Escouflaire), 59. 
Irene Kaufmann Settlement, 440. 
"Irish Labor Movement, The" (Ryan), 

Irwin, Will, 234. 

Boy colonies, 49. 
City planning tour, 157. 
Inside view, 233. 
Labor party, 105. 
War cripples, 721. 

jjla, Massachusetts, 101. 
^nes, Gorton. 

!aby annuities, 705. 
\ "Problem of the old man, 672. 

Infant mortality, 51. 
Peace exhibition in Tokyo an- 
nounced, 579. 
Social legislation, 75. 
Unionism, 157. 
Japanese Women's Peace Society, 721. 
Jena, Zeiss works, 537. 
"Jesus in the Experience of Men" 

(Glover), 414. 
Jewish Charities, Rrooklyn, 152. 
"Jewish Children" (Aleichem), 123. 
Jewish Social Servico, Nat'l Conf., 511. 

As farmers, 519. 
Boston, 559. 
Emigrants, 666. 
Europe, resettlement, 721. 
Medical journal, 450. 
Zionism and, 633. 
"Jews of Asia, The:" "Jews of 
Africa. The" (Mendelssohn), 156. 
Joan of Arc, 173. 
job's the thing, 714. 

Johnson, Bascom, 685. 

Johnson, E. M., Scrub women, 53. 

Johnson, F, R., Detroit out of work, 

Johnson bill, 557. 
Johnston, Esther, Readers of a foreign 

neighborhood, 7. 
Joint purchasing, 715. 
Joliet, housing, 406. 
limes. Thos. Jesse, 698. 
Junior Red Cross hospital, 709. 
"junior Wage Earners" (Reed), 282. 
Juvenile court and Minneapolis judge, 



Kahn, D. C, Spirit of Jewish Social 

Service, 511. 
Kaiserism, 703. 
Kalet. Anna, Mexican child welfare, 

Kallen, H. M., New Zionism, 633. 

Better cities campaign, 244. 

Child welfare bills, 135. 
Kelley, Florence. 

Congress and the babies, 200. 

Women's Congress at Vienna, 627. 
Kellogg, P. U., Replies to letters on 

Ireland and the Survey, 283. 
Kelsey, Albert, 427. 
Kelso, R. W., 497. — . 

Challenge, 151. 

Portrait, 498. 

Public institution and agencies, at 
Nat'l Conf., 502. 

Social self-survey of Boston, 437. 
Kenyon, B. L., The city-dweller 

(verse), 632. 
Kenyon, Senator, 19. 
Kenyon bill, 298. 
Kenyon-Nolan bill, 78. 
Kerlin, R. T., 642. 
Kijov (verse), 353. 
Kindergarten legislation, 58. 
King, Clarence, 62. 
King, E. S., 181. 
King, Toseph, 473. 
King, VV. I., 556. 

Pellagra and poverty, 629. 
Kingsley, S. C, For Philadelphia. 191. 
Kirkpatrick, E. A., Ireland and the 

Survey (letter), 285. 
Kitts, M. B., 293. 

Knight, F. H., Solving behavior prob- 
lems, 116, 306. 
Korff, S. A., 640, 646. 
Koritchoner, Ida, Forces . in German 

education, 596. 
Kropotkin Museum, 721. 
Krupps, 141. 
Kweigyir, 579. 


Books, 446. 

England, 524. 

German indemnity and, 119. 

Health and sanitation, 85. 

International law, 600. 

Italian General Federation, 105. 

Laws, enforcement, 523. 

Legislation, 252. 

Legislation in Czecho-SIovakia, 351. 

Liquidation, 201. 

Plowshares at Krupps, 141. 

Press on industrial espionage, 54. 

Railroad, 102, 642. 

Triumph of (ill.), 453. 

University, in Belgium, 561. 
Labor, Dept. of. 

Under fire, 426. 

See also Women's Bureau. 
"Labor and Industry," 185. 
Labor Bureau, 523. 
"Labor Maintenance" (Bloomfield), 

"Labor Problem, The. and the Social 
Catholic Movement in France" 

(Moon), 686. 
Labor unions. See Unionism. 
Ladies' garment industry, 210. 
Lakewood, 221. 
Lamont T. W., 429. 

On China, 393. 

Austria, 450. 

Austria, settlement, 405. 

Nationalization by Germany, 293. 

Pittsburgh, 137. 

Rural planners, 593. 
Landis. judge K. M., building award, 

Lane, F. K.. appreciation, 287. 
Lane, W. D., Conflict in West Vir- 
ginia, 398. 
Language, foreign, and the home (let- 
ter), 448. 
Lansing's (Robert) book, 26. 
Lasker, Bruno, Prague's window to 

the west, 337. 
Laski, II. J. 

More unrest among British miners, 


Six weeks of struggle, 266. 
Lathrop, J. C, resignation, 637. 
Laundries, public, 232. 
Law, non-enforcement, 460. 
Lawrence, G. YV., Conf. on reduction 

of armaments in Chicago, 416. 
Leach, G. E., 428. 
I.e 111, mil, Father, 269. 
Lecturing as a profession, 461. 
Lee, J. M., 157. 
Lee, Joseph. 

Immigration question (letter.), 12 1. 
Ireland and the Survey (letter), 

California, education, 425. 

Indiana and Iowa, 396. 

New York, 104. 

People's part, in Congress, 73. 

Repressive, 67. 

Social survey and state legislation 

(letter), 617. 
Trade associations and, 475. 
Lehigh Valley Child-Helping Conf., 

Leper hospital, 685. 
Lesher, C. E- Shall we buy coal ? 

430. — 
Levin, L. H., 319. 

Lewis, J. L., Shall we buy coal? 430. 
Lewis, O. F. 

Delaware prison — a paradox, 465. 
Raiford, Fla., Prison Farm, 45. 
Lewis, W. M., 472. 
Libby, F. L, Clothe the naked (let- 
ter), 448. 
Liberator, 294. 
Liberty and truth, 490. 
Librarians, conf., 513. 

California, 520. 
Czecho-SIovakia, 352. 
New York city, public. 7. 
"Life: A Study of the Means of Re- 
storing Vital Energy and Pro- 
longing Life" (Voronoff), 652. 
"Life and Labor in the Nineteenth 

Century" (Fay), 249. 
Life Extension Institute, 246, 247, 

"Life in a Medieval City" (Benson), 

Lilien, E. M., 395. 
Lindeman, E. C., 144. 
Lindsay S. McC, Cardinal Gibbons, 

Lindsay, Vacbel, The Springfield of 

the far future (verse), 563. 
Lindsey, B. B., pays fine, 229. 
Lipsky, Louis, 136. 
Literacy, New York, test, 135. 
Little Wanderers, N. E. Home for, 

116, 207, 306. 
Lobbying, 19. 

Local community, Nat'l Conf., Divi- 
sion meeting, 502. 
Logan, J. P., 558. 
Logie, Jessie, 102. 
London, public laundries, 232. 
London, Meyer, 393. 
"Looking Forward" (Higham), 122. 
Loomis, F. D., Community trusts (let- 
ter), 219. 
Loucheur, M., 178. 

Louderback, J. C, Nat'l Ass'n of Vis- 
iting Teachers, 508. 
Louis, 543. 
Louisville, 145. 

Joint purchasing, 715. 

Library, 531. 

Motor car signs, 252. 

Welfare Federation, 269. 

Welfare League questionnaire on 

giving, 611. 
Welfare League, report, 153. 
Lowell, A. L., 429. 
Lubin, David, 262. 
Lundberg. E. O. 

Legislative gains for child protec- 
tion, 708. 
Write-ups of the Nat'l Conf. ("let- 
ter), 567. 
Lundin, Fred, 138. , 
Lusk, C. R., attention called to a 

letter, 441. 
Lusk reports, 264. 
Luther, Martin. 113. 
Lynching and Congress, 21. 
Lynde, E. D., University as social 

worker, 273. 
Lynn, Mass., savings of women shoe 
workers, 680. 


Macbeth Gallery. 9. 

McCandless, J. H., Preparedness for 
disasters. 277. 

McCarthy, Charles. 

Letters about his work in Wis- 
consin, 527. 
Obituarv, 44. 

McCarthey. Robert, 415. 

M "'ting, N. L-, From hired man to 
. :mier, 625. 

McDonald, J. G., International good- 

McDowell, Mary, 327. 

. uinon. Judge W. H., 556. 
McHugh, R. J., Ireland and the Sur- 
vey (letter), 283. 
Mark, Judge J. W., 135, 635. 
McKeever, W. A., 244. 
MacKenzie, F. \V., Charles McCarthy 

(letter), 527. 
McLean, F. II., 612. 
Maddux, E. W., Demosthenes, not 

Cicero! 243. 
Magdalen Society, Philadelphia, 457. 
Magnusson, Leifur, 88. 
Main Street, what it reads, 597. 
Maine, rural teaching, 114. 
"Making of Tomorrow, The" (Kilt 

bins), 447. 
Malherbe, E. G., New measurements 

in private schools, 272. 
Manley, L. K., Junior citizens, 215. 
Manniche, Peter, 275. 
"Manpower" (Andrews), 687. 
Mansfield, Ohio, 643. 
"Manufacturing Industries in Amer- 
ica" (Keir), 250. 
Marcus, Toseph, 666. 
."Marie Claire's Workshop" (Audoux), 

Marion, Ind., 713. 
Marriage, Oregon law, 41. 
Marshall, T. R., 151, 152. 
Mary Gay Theater, 161, 191,. 248. 
Masaryk, Alice, 323, 327. 

Message from, 333. 
Masaryk, T. G., 328, 357. 

Portrait by Svabinsky, 356. 
Mass education, 441, 678. 

Illegitimacy report, 206. 

Immigrant education, 516. 

Tails, 101. 

Mothercraft, 709. 

Responsibility of unions, 313. 

Scrub women, 53. 

Trusts and trustees, 540. 
Maternity and Congress, 200. 
Maternity bill, 399. 

Letter, 567. 

Passage, 581. 
May, F. S., Workers' education at 

Amherst, 675. 
May-Day, 143. 

In industry, 183. 

Minutes, 145. 
Mayor, qualifications for a, 41. 
"Meaning, The, of National Guilds' 

(Reckitt and Bechhofer), 249. 
"Meaning of Socialism, The" (Glas- 

ier), 446. 
Medical examinations, 246. 

China, new college in Peking, 702. 

Socialized, 84. 
Memel-land, 553. 
"Memoir and Letters of Henry Scott 

Holland" (Paget), 413. 
"Men wanted," 611. 
Mental clinic, 715. 

"Mental Disorders" (Thompson), 89. 
Mental hygiene, Nat'l Conf., Division 

meetings, 503. 
"Mental Hygiene" (Martin), 89. 
Merchants' Ass'n of New York on the 

open shop, 77. 
Merriweather, Dr., 152. 
Metal trades, idleness, 683. 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 472. 
Mexicans, 519. 

Immigrants, 470. 

Child welfare, 49. 

Representative from, 120. 
Michigan,' State Welfare Departmen*. 

Michigan, Univ. of, 721. 
Mid-West, 269. 
Middle class audiences, 461. 
Middletown, O., 713. 
Migrant, problems of, 702. 
Milk in St. Louis, 76, 149. 
Miller, H. A., Essay in applied ideal- 
ism, 357. 
Miller, P. G., School progress in 

Porto Rico. 216. 
Milwaukee, Nat'l Conf. of Social 

Work, reports, 472, 497. 

British, 10, 38, 102. 

Immigrants as, 311. 
"Miners' Program," 667. 

Car-pushing in coal mines, 310. 

Safety, 558. 
Minimum wages in District of Colum- 
bia. 425. 
Mining town, culture, 240. 

East Lake District, 716. 

Judge of juvenile court, 308. 

Political campaign, 428. 










Civic development in iron range 

towns, 268. 
Compensation, 313. 
"Missionary Outlook, The, in the 

Light of the War," 650. 
Missions, African education report, 

Mississippi Valley Conf. on Tubercu- 
losis, 719. 

Children's Code, 232. 
Medical schools, 85. 
Physical education, 150. 
Social work, 716. 
Mitchel, Mayor, lessons from his de- 
feat, 252. 
"Modern Foreman, The" (Grim- 

shaw), 718. 

German, 464, 473. 
Giving away, 610, 611. 
"Monuments of English Municipal 

Life" (Cunningham), 15. 
Moore, H. H., 445. 
Moravians, 364, 365. 
Morris, William, 477. 
Morrison, C. B., Denver salary 

schedule. 111. 
Moscow theater, 276. 
Moses, E. B. 

Open Shop Encyclopedia, 211. 
Photo-engravers in the courts, 296. 
Moses, G. H., 200. 
Mothercraft, 709. 
Motion pictures. 
Censorship, 231. 
High Road (to health), 685. 
Immigrants and, 396. 
Negroes, helping, 417. 
Notes 144. 
Sketch, 543. 
.Moyer, W. H., 559. 
,' Municipal government. 
Chicago, 397. 
See also Cities. 
"Municipal Landing Fields and Air- 
ports" (Wheat), 15. 
Music week, 146. 

"My Years of Exile" (Bernstein), 


National American Council, 417. 
Nat'l Ass'n of Manufacturers, 211, 

Nat'l Ass'n of Teacher's Aid Socie- 
ties, 509. 
Nat'l Ass'n of Visiting Teachers 508. 
Nat'l Catholic Service School, 666. 
Nat'l Conf. of Jewish Social Service, 

Nat'l Conf. of Social Work. 
Annual meeting, Milwaukee, reports, 

472, 497. 
Division meetings, 501. 
Kindred conventions, 506. 
Org. for 1922; 497. 
Transportation, 252. 
Write-ups appreciated (letter), 567. 
Nat'l Council of Limitation of Arma- 
ment, 665. 
"National Defense" (Johnsen), 123. 
Nat'l Federation of Federal Employes, 

Nat'l Federation of Settlements, 511. 
Nat'l Indust. Conf. Board, 118. 
National parks, 143. 
Nat'l Probation Ass'n, conf., 510. 
National Security League 580. 
Nat'l Social Unit, 37. 
Nat'l Tuberculosis Ass'n, 512. 
Nat'l Women's Trade Union League, 

"Nationalization of the Mines" 

(Hodges), 17. 
Native-born. See Foreign-born. 
Naturalization, 557. 
Naval supremacy (letter), 654. 
Near East Relief, 263. 
"Near Side of the Mexican Ouestion, 

The" (Stowell), 15. 
"Needs of Europe, The — Its Economic 
Reconstruction" (Fight the Fa- 
mine Council), 24. 
"Negro Migration" (Woofter), 717. 

Book for children, 18. 
Fiction for, 531. 
Oeorgia's indictment, 183. 
Health conditions, 150. 
Immigrants and, as laborers, 209. 
In social work, 439. 
Motion pictures on helping, 417. 
Peonage, 43, 61. 
Tulsa riot, 369, 460. 
Women in industry, 119. 
"Nervous Housewife, The" (Myer- 

son), 526. 
Nevada, school report, 215. 
New Bedford, Mass., infant mortality, 

New England Home for Little Wan- 
derers, 116, 207, 306. 

New Jersey Chamber of Commerce on 

the open shop, 133. 
New York (city). 

Births. 229. 

Charity Org. Soc. and the Bronx, 

Children's Aid Society, 285. 

Clothing war end, 372. 

Delancey street 426. 

Disasters, meeting, 279. 

Industrial Aid Bureau, 698. 

Intemat'l club, 101. 

Joint Board of Sanitary Control in 
the Ladies Garment Industry, 210. 

Joint port, 62. 

Ninth Ward Club, 252. 

Opening of school year, 665. 

Part-time school, 276. 

Public libraries, 7. 

Schoolhouse conditions, 425. 

Unemployment, 522. 
New York (state). 

Health train, 247. 

Immigrant education, 516. 

Legislation, 104. 

Literacy test, 135. 

Prison system, 559. 
New York Call, 294, 491. 
New York Society for the Prevention 

of Cruelty to Children, 308. 
New Zealand, infant mortality, 148. 
Newcastle County (Del.) Workhouse, 

Newlon, J. H., 111. 
Newman, B. J., Building costs and 

wastes, 404. 
Newport, 551. 
Newsboys in Dallas, 608. 

Clothing struggle as a test, 599. 

Postmaster general and 491. 
"Next War, The (Irwin), 234. 
"Nie wieder Krieg," 649. 
Night work law, 121. 
"Noise of the World, The" (Spadoni), 

Non-resistance, women's union for, 

North Carolina. 

Child labor law and Judge Boyd, 

Cotton strike, 646. 

"Socialized medicine," 84. 
North Dakota. 

Bank, 103. 

Free employment bureau, 121. 

Russian immigrants, 548. 

Drive for nurses, 150. 

Which way are we going? 409. 

Who shall nurse the sick? 411. 

"Who shall nurse the sick?" (let- 
ter). 688. 
Nutrition, 149. 


Oconee, Ga., 280. 

Administrative code, 262. 

Bureau of Juvenile Research, 642. 

Unemployment, 683. 

Better cities campaign, 244. 

Social survey, 243. 
Old Fashioned Party, 713. 
Old men, problem of, 672, 705. 
"Olden Blue Laws, Ye" (Myers), 

"On the Art of Reading" (Quiller- 

Couch). 185. 
One Hundred Per Cent Idea, 147. 
Open shop. 

Packing industry, 700. 

Reports on, 77. 

Terminology, 133. 
"Open Shop Encyclopedia for De- 
baters," 211. 
Open shop guild, 699. 
Orange, N. L, welfare federation, 


Health survey, 245. 

Marriage law, 41. 
Organization, 499. 
Organization of social forces, Nat'l 

Conf., Division meetings, 503. 
Orient, community organization, 434. 
Orr, E. B., In the southwest, 279. 
Orr, Miss, 175. 

Otto. Adolf, Appeal from German 

Garden City Ass'n (letter), 124. 

"Our Heritage from the Old World" 

(Greenwood), 379. 
"Our Social Heritage" (Wallas), 477. 
Ourselves and the Irish, 167. 

Letters of criticism and replies, 
Over there (Tulsa riots), 460. 
Oyster, J. F., 19. 

Packing industry. 
Arbitration, 19. 

Open shop, 700. 

Health note, 85. 

Jewish Medical Ass'n, 450. 

Zionism, 135, 395, 633. 
Palestine Development Council, 636. 
Palo Alto, Cal., community center, 

Panama, Gorgas memorial, 582. 
Paper doll show, 161, 191. 
Paradise, V. I., Overtime (verse), 

Paris, subways, 252. 
Parish Visitors of Mary Immaculate, 

Parker, Mrs. V. II., 557, 654. 
Parks, national, 143. 
Parsons, H. C. 

Mayor Peters of Boston, 11. 
"Party of the Third Part, the" 

(Allen), 446. 
Passano, E. B., 699. 
"Passifisine, El" (Souchon), 123. 
Paterson, R. G., Mississippi Valley 

Conf. on Tuberculosis, 719. 
Patrick, G. T. W., Psychology of 

recreation, 711. 
Patterson, C. L-, 491, 562. 
Paul (ill.), 621. 

Peace, Department of, 137, 251 (let- 
"Peace Negotiations, The" (Lansing), 

Peace-time uses of soldiers, 641. 

New medical college, 702. 

Strike of teachers, 107. 

Y. M. C. A., 434. 
Peking, University of, 371. 

In cotton belt, 556. 

Poverty and, 629. 
Penniman, J. H., 107. 

Community team play, 612. 

Prohibition, 198. 

Public welfare bill, 202. 

Recreation in coal fields, 713. 

Sanitary code, 120. 

State aid to sectarian objects, 489. 
Pennsylvania, Univ. of, 107. 

Baby annuities, 705. 

Old age, in industry, 672. 
Peonage, 43, 183. 

In the United States (social stud- 
ies), 61. 
"People of Mexico, The" (Thomp- 
son), 154. 
People's Legislative Service, 19, 73. 
People's Reconstruction League, 73. 
Peoria, 461. 

School program, 474. 
Pergler, Charles, 323. 
Perkins, Francis, 157. 
Perry, C. A., 244. 

"Personality Culture by College Fac- 
ulties" (Berg), 61. 
Personals, 319, 528. 
"Personnel Relations in Industry" 

(Simons), 687. 
Personnel relations tested, 236. 
Personnel Research Federation, 120. 
Persons, W. F.. 181. 
Peters, Andrew, 11. 
Pettit, Walter W. 

Nat'l social agencies, 124. 

Russia as a sphere of relief, 583. 

Russian relief problems, 645. 

Forum, civic, 417. 

Kingsley and the Welfare Federa- 
tion. 191. 

Magdalen Society, 457. 

Welfare federation, 203. 

White-Williams Foundation, 458. 
Philanthropic doubts, 667. 
Phillips, Dorothy, Traveling clinics, 

"Philosophy of Social Progress, A" 

(Urwick), 478. 
Photo-engravers, 296. 
Physicians and laymen, 83. 
Pierce, D. H., A village school, 112. 
Pitman, the (verse), 345. 

Gazette-Times and social reform, 

Graded tax law, 137. 

Housing, 230. 

Junior Civic Club, 215. 

Ministers and Employers' Ass'n, 

Morals Court, 710. 

Voters' League on qualifications for 
a mayor, 41. 
Pittsburgh, Univ. of, 301. 
Piatt, P. S., 338. 

Community notes, 712. 

See also Recreation. 
Playgrounds, pamphlet on, 146. 
Plummer, Warden, 465. 


] ' 

Pneumonic plague, 252. 

Masters, E. L., 13. 
Modern Czech, 345, 353. 
See also Verse. 

Constitution, 199. 

School for child welfare service, 
Polish Grey Samaritans, 554. 
Politics, Institute of, 640, 646. 
Polk Miss Daisy, 179. 
Population drifts (social studies), 

Portland, Ore., 263, 274. 
City planning, 157. 
Pro and con, 396. 
Porto Rico. 

Independence. 704. 
School progress, 216. 
"Position, The, of the Laborer 

System of Nationalism" (Fur-j 
niss), 250. . 
Post Office Dept. 
New policy, 294. 
Welfare *rork. 472 
Pound, Roscoe, quoted on liberty a 

truth, 490 
Poverty and pellagra, 629. 

Children at play, 340. 
Headquarters of the American s 

veyors, 329. 
Machine shops and workmen i 

Old market, 336. 
Pathfinding in, 327. 
Public health, 338. 
Recreation, 339. 
Social care, 344. 
Women at work, 341, 342. 
See also Czecho-Slovakia. 
Prague number of the Survey, 
Comments on, 528. 
Prague, Univ. of, 332, 353. 
Pratt, A. B., 458. 

"Charity edifieth" (letter), 567. 
Preissig, Vojtech, 323, 326. 
Press day (verse), 471. 
Preston, A. K., "Scrap" (letter), 4 
Prezzolini, Giuseppe. 
Italian boy colonies, 49. 
Labor in Italy, 105. 
"Price of Milk, The" (King), 281.' 
Prices, Federal Trade Commissia 

report, 182. 
"Principles, The, of Ante-Natal art 
Post-Natal Child Psychology ' 
(Feldman), 61. 
"Principles of Educational Sociology" 

(Clow), 650. 
Printing industry. 

Baltimore plan, 699. 
Printing industry, adjustments, 197. 
Prison Journal, 252. 
Prisoners, Americanizing, 519. 

Canada report, 295. 
Delaware, 465. 
Federal, waste, 252. 
New York, 559. 
Old camps for, 640. 
Raiford, Fla., 45. 
Virginia report, 295. 
Private schools, new measurements in, 

Prize-fighting, 146. 

Crime wave and, 79. 
Nat'l conf., 510. 
"Problem, The, of Americanization/ 

(Roberts), 651. 
"Problem of Upper Silesia, 

borne), 565. 
Prohibition in Pennsylvania, 
"Project Curriculum, A" (Well 

"Proper Feeding of Infants, Th 
(Galland), 281. | 

Property, taxing unused, 263. 
Proportional representation, Sacra- 
mento, 252. 
Prussia, social welfare, 157. 
"Psychology, The, of Nursing" (Hig- 

gins), 525. 
"Psychology, The, of Social Recon- 
struction" (Patrick), 60. 
"Psychopathology" (Kempf), 90. 
Public agencies and institutions, Nat'l 

Conf., Division meetings, 502. 
Public buildings, 427. 
Public Employment Services, conf. at 

Buffalo, 719. 
Public health school at Harvard Univ., \| 

Public Health Service, 134. 
"Keeping Fit," 450. 
Questionnaire on sex instruction, 
Public Welfare Dept., appraisal, 298. 
Pueblo, Red Cross and the flood, 394. , 
Pullman Co., 474. 

Punke, E. G., Soldiers' adjusted com- 
pensation (letter), 91. 

i, The" (<J 
lia, 198. 



e x 


Purchasing, joint, 715. 

Purely, Lawson, on the Bronx, 230. 

Pushcart Bazaar, 231. 


Race relations. 

Hawaii, 371. 

Progress, 558. 

Tulsa riot, 369, 460. 
"Radiant Motherhood'' (Stopes), 314. 
Radicalism and radicals, 264. 
Radium, 296. 
Raiford, Fla., 45. 
Railroad Labor Board. 102. 

Pullman Co. and, 474. 

Labor, 642. 

Problem, 40. 

Strike possibility, 697. 

Wage reduction, 370. 
Rail, Udo, A song transmuted (verse), 

Ralph, G. G., Child Welfare League, 

Ramsdell, L. A., Social worker and 

sociologist (letter), 415. 
Rand, Helen. 

Leadership in community work, 244. 

Rural communities that live, 594. 
Rankin, W. S., 84. 
"Rapatriement, La" (D'Alix), 156. 
Readers, foreign neighborhood, 7. 
J "Real Democracy in Operation" (Bon- 

Ljour), 22. 
Reconstructing India" (Visvesva- 
I raya), 23. 
Ireation 143. 
Community activities, 712. 
"sychology, 711. 
'ennessee, 117. 

Cross, 494. 
oston disaster "relief, 279. 
yclone relief, 278. 
Disaster relief, 277, 450. 
Handbook of social resources, 472. 
In the southwest, 279. 
Junior, health chant for Czecho- 
slovakia, 345. 
New York disaster relief, 279. 
San Antonio relief, 697. 
Spokane, Junior hospital, 709. 
d Cross, International, 370. 
led Terror and Green" (Dawson), 
edirection, The, of High School In- 
struction" (Lull and Wilson) 
jder, R. R.. 561. 

dy, M. K., What Main Street 
/ reads, 597. 
ieily, E. Mont, 704. 
/'Religion, A, for 

(Dole), 414. 
Relink, Karl, 360. 
Repressive legislation (social studies), 

Reque, A. C, The librarians, 513. 
Responsibility, voluntary organization, 

"Responsibility, The, of 
Workers for Dependents' 
tree and Stuart), 217. 
"Revolution and Democracy" (Howe), 

'Revolutionary Radicalism" 

reports), 264. 
Rheims, 173. 
City plan, 177. 
ibbon weaving, 641. 
ich, M. E-, Amer. Ass'n foi 

Family Social Work, 508. 
ichmond, M. E., 450. 
Richmond Conf. on Social Hygiene, 

Richmond School of Social Work, 716. 
Ridgeway, M.' T., Child-Helping in 
Lehigh Valley, 416. 

) Riley, T. J., Meeting disasters in 
New York, 279. 
"Rising above the Ruins of France" 

(Smith and Hill), 24. 
Riverton, Wyo., 144. 

China, 252. 
Crops and, 558. 
Robbins, J. E., In support of Dr. 

Parker Getter), 654. 
Robertson, J. D., 688. 

Who shall nurse the sick? 411. 
Robins, Mrs. Raymond, 683. 
Roche. Charles, 174. 
Rochester. N. Y., building methods, 
ockefeller, J. D., Jr., 601. 
(Rockefeller Foundation, 41. 
IRosen, Ben, 559. 
IRubinow, I. N., 8S. 
Rudolph, C. H., 19. 

ural life. See Country life, 
'ural Planning Ass'n, 595. 
ural Problems in the 
States" (Boyle), 14. 

the New Day' 

' (Rown- 




Russell, Elbert, 137. 

As a sphere of relief, 583. 

Child welfare, 50. 

Famine area (with map), 701. 

Hunger, 562. 

Relief problems, 645. 
Russian-Carpathian "Internats," 531. 
Russian children, repatriation, 261. 
Russians in North Dakota, 548. 
Ryan, E. W., 552. 

Ryan, T. A. Ireland and the Survey 
(letter), 284. 

Sacco-Vanzetti case, 431, 584. 

Sacramento, Cal., 252. 

Safety in mines, 558. 

St. Catharine's Hospital, Brooklyn, 

St. Louis. 

Block interiors, plan, 407. 

Milk, 76. 149. 
St. Paul, Minn., Community Chest, 

Salem, O., 150. 

Role of the case worker, 280. 
Salvatore, 207. 
Salzburg, 75. 
San Antonio, relief, 697. 
San Diego, 461, 713. 
San Francisco, dancing, 145. 
San Remo, Treaty of, 635. 
"Sanctity and Social Service" (Ross), 

Sanderson, Dwight, Four types of or- 
ganization, 240. 

Labor camps, 557. 

Schools, 445. 
Saposs, D. J., Out of the beaten path 

— A. F. of L. convention, 514. 
Saturday Evening Post, 461. 

Shoe workers, women, 680. 

Wage-earners', exhausted, 683. 
Savings Banks and builders, 408. 
Sayre, J. N., Fellowship of Reconcil- 
iation, conf., 719. 
Scattergood A. G., on Germany, 699. 
Schiff, Mrs. J. H., 263. 
Schiff parkway, 426. 
Schoenherr, Oscar, Oranges, N. J., 

welfare federation, 153. 
School and community, 55, 111, 213, 

272. 441, 520, .596, 675. 
"School Architecture" (Donovan and 

others), 652. 
"School Lunch, The" (Smedley), 282. 
School of Childhood, 301. 

California, politics, 442. 

Community project, 301. 

Country life and, 57. 

Country school — then and now, 585. 

Model schoolroom, 685. 

National Chamber of Commerce 
and, 472. 

New York (city), conditions, 425. 

New York (city) opening of year, 

Part-time, 276. 

Peoria, 474. 

Private. 272. 

Sanitation standards, 445. 

Social order, instruction as to, 445. 

Social science in, 591. 

Too much "intelleck," 441. 

Vacation school (letter), 654. 

Wisconsin, agricultural, 56. 
"Scoutmastership" (Baden-Powell), 

"Scrap" (letter), 415. 
Scrub women, 53. 
Sculptors, 519. 
Sculpture, East Side, 9'. 
Sea Breeze, 579. 

Sears, A. L., A vacation school (let- 
ter), 654. 
Seattle, school clinics, 85. 
Sedition, 428. 

Self-government, for truants, 608. 
Serbia, social conditions, 561. 

Conferences, 76. 

Nat'l Federation, conf., 511. 

Pushcart Bazaar, 231. 
Sewickley, Pa., 146. 
"Sewing without Mother's Help" 

(Judson), 218. 
Sex, education, in high schools, 443. 
"Sex Education" (Gallichan), 314. 
"Sex Factor, The, in Human Life" 

(Galloway), 314 
Sheppard-Towner bill, 200, 399, 581. 
Sherman, C. B. 

Democratizing the desert, 593. 

Their own middlemen, 241. 
Shientag, B. L-, Labor law enforce- 
ment. 523. 
Shoe industry, savings of women 
workers. 680. 

Shop councils in Canada, 120. 
Shop democracy in Zeiss works, 537. 
Sightseeing car, 146. 
Silesia, 236. 

Steel mills, 335. 
Silk ribbon weaving, 641. 
Simmons College conference, 251. 
Sinclair, Upton, 157. 

Weekly Review and (letter). 220. 
Skinner, C. R. 

Sacco-Vanzetti case, 431, 584.. 
Skinner, Miss, 180. 

"Slaughter, The, of the Jews in the 
Ukraine in 1919" (Hcifitz), 378. 
Sleep-bringer, 581. 
Slovakians, 366. 
Smith. Annie, 339. 
Smith, Edwin S., Name for social 

workers (letter), 654. 
Smith, Prof. John F., 146. 
Smith, Marshall D. 

Foreign language in the home (let- 
ter), 567. 
Schools and the age, 445. 
Smith, Meredith, Community project, 

Smith, Dr. Stephen, 150. 
Smith College Relief Unit, 175. 
Social agencies, Nat'l conf., April 14, 

"Social and Industrial Conditions in 

the Germany of Today," 24. 
"Social Conditions in an American 

City" (Harrison), 374. 
Social games, pamphlets on, 145. 
Social hygiene. 
Geneva conf., 685. 
Richmond Conf., 125. 
Social Hygiene Board, 557. 
"Social Legislation in Illinois" (Eld- 
ridge), 477. 
Social order and schools, 445. 
Social research, fellowships, 62. 
Social science in the schools, 591. 
Social service. 

Catholic school, 666. 
Trends, 716. 
Social Service Exchange conf., 448. 
Social Service Exchanges, Amer. 

Ass'n of, 507. 
Social studies, 3, 61, 67, 99, 131, 187, 
195, 227. 
Aim and year's work of the column, 
Social theory and practice, books on, 

Social Unit. 

Claims paid, 73. 
National, 37. 
Social welfare and the President, 105. 
Social work. 

California defines, 38. 
Colleges and (conf.), 251. 
Florida. 125. 

Handbook of agencies, 472. 
Negro in, 439. 
Rural, 438. 
Social workers. 
Books for, 17. 
Community of. 580. 
Episcopalian, 507. 
Meeting the crime wave, 307. 
Name for (letter), 654. 
Organizing, 181. 
Salaries, 716. 

Sociologists and (letter), 415. 
Social Workers. Amer. Ass'n of, 506, 

Social Workers Exchange, 181. 
"Social Workers' Guide to the Serial 
Publications," etc. (Rushmore), 
Socialist Party, annual convention, 

Socialists, German cartoon of hunger 

and cholera in Russia, 645. 
"Socialized medicine," 84. 
"Sociological Determination of Ob- 
jectives in Education" (Snedden), 
"Sociology: Its Development and Ap- 
plications" (Dealey), 184. 
Soil study, 595. 

"Soins medicaux, chirurgicaux et 
pharmaceutiques gratuits" (Flu- 
tet), 90. 
Adjusted compensation (letter), 91. 
Disabled, 134. 

Disabled, care and training, 252. 
Disabled, report, 74. 
Peace-time uses, 641. 
Solenberger, E. D., Community team 

play, 612. 
South Africa, race relations, 558. 
South Braintree. Mass., 431. 
Southern illiteracy, 55. 
Southwest, desert projects, 593. 
Spicer, W. B., 639. 
Splash Week (cartoon), 684. 
Spokane, Wash., Junior Red Cross 
hospital, 709. 

Springfield, Mass., 675. 

Community Chest News, 716. 
"Stairway, The" (Chown), 123. 
"Standardization — Efficiency — He- 
redity; Schools for the Deaf" 
(Tohnson), 122. 
Star dust, 152. 
"State, The, and Sexual Morality, 

Steel industry. 

Diseases of workers, 682. 
Fatigue and the worker, 311. 
Patterson pamphlet, 562. 
Report of C. L. Patterson, 491. 
Work day, 101. 
Stepanek, Bedrich. 
Portrait, 359. 

Social and economic problems of 
Czechoslovakia, 346. 
Sterling, Senator, 136. 
Sterling bill, 428, 531. 
Stewart, I. M., Which way are we 

going in nursing? 409. 
"Story The, of the Woman's Party" 

(Irwin), 184. 
Story telling, 713. 
Street, Elwood. 
Federations, 513. 
Personal, 528. 
Why do we give? 611. 
Street railways and women con- 
ductors, 121. 
Stretti-Zamponi, cartoons, 354-355. 

- Alabama coal settlement, 52. 
British miners, 38, 102. 
Cotton, North Carolina, 646. 
Peking teachers, 107. 
Students as citizens (social studies), 

"Study, A, of Women Delinquents in 
New York City" (Fernald and 
others), 154. 
Sturges, V. L-, Mexican immigri ts, 

Sullenger. T. E., 243. 
Sum, Anton, 323. 
Summer schools, 598. 
Superiority complex, 16. 
Surgery, radium versus, 296. 
Survey, the. 

Dinner of April 27, 163. 

Ireland and (letters and replies), 

Lusk reports and, 265. 

Boston, 437. 

Cleveland, 369, 697. 

Social survey and state legisb' 

(letter), 617. 
Spread, 369. 
Svabinsky, Max, 356, 360. 
Sweating children (letter), 720. 
Switzerland, anti-tuberculosis bill, 85. 
"Syndicalisme, Le, et la C. G. T." 
(Jouhaux), 446. 

"Taboo and Genetics" (Knight and 

others), 478. 
Tacoma, story telling, 713. 
Tagore, Rabindranath, on the home, 

Taussig Frances, The family, at Nat'l 

Conf., 504. 

Pittsburgh, 137. 

Unused property, 263. 
Taylor, A. H., Connecticut Conf. of 

Social Work, report, 221. 
Taylor, Graham, Chicago rising from 

its fall, 396. 
Taylor, G. R., 181. 

Denver salaries, 111. 

Salaries, 589. 

Nevada, shortage, etc., 215. 

Rural, Maine, 114. 
"Teeth and Health" (Ryan), 525. 

Recreation, 117. 

Social Work, Conference, 316. 
Tesin, 335. 

"Text-Book, A, of Simple Nursing 
Procedure for High Schools" 
(Pope), 526. 
Textile standards, 417. 
Third Internat'l Labor Conf., 252. 
Third tool, the, 668. 
Thomas, A. O., Rural teaching, 114. 
Thomasville, Ga.. 712. 
Thompson, F. V., 521. 
Thompson, Thomas, 540. 
Thompson, W. H., 138, 397." 
Thoughtfulness, 259. 
Thrift, 408. 
Tigert, J. J., 489. 
Tilton, Elizabeth Carnegie millions 

(letter), 220. 
Tittoni, Tommaso, 640, 646. 
Tod, R. E., 262. 


I nd 

e x 



Tousley, C. M., Crime wave of 1935, 

Trade associations and legislation, 

"Trade Tests" (Chapman), 447. 
Trade Union women, 120. 
Trade unions. See Unionism. 
"Training for Department Store Ser- 
vice" (Eaves), 651. 
"Training for Librarianship" (Frie- 

del), 123. 
"Training Industrial Workers" (Kcl- 

ley), 686. 
Travelers, aid for, 509. 
Traveling clinics, 605. 
Truancy, self-government for, 608. 
Trusts and trustees' duty, 540. 
Truth and liberty, 490. 
Tsai Yuau-Bei, 371. 

Mississippi Valley Conf., 719. 
Nat'l Ass'n annual meeting, 512. 
Switzerland, 85. 
Traveling clinics, 605. 
"Tuberculosis of Children" (Ulrich), 

Tulsa, Okla. 

_ Race riot, 369, 460. 
Turkish women. 
Appeal from, 317. 
Appeal to (letter), 616. 
Twelve-hour day 101, 163, 312, 491. 
Tyson, H. G., on prohibition in Penn- 
sylvania, 198. 

"Uncle Moses" (Asch), 16. 
Unemployment, 602. 

Conference called, 639. 

Conference notice, 697. 

Investigation resolution, 393. 

Metal trades, 683. 

New York, 522. 

Ohio, 683. 
"Unifying the World" (Clark), 566. 
Union label, 19. 
Union of Social Service, 710. 

Japan, 157. 

Responsibility, 313. 
United Mine Workers, 157, 667, 721. 
U. S. Steel Corporation, 42, 101.' 

Patterson pamphlet and, 562. 
U. S. Veterans' Bureau, 698, 719. 
Universities as social workers, 273. 
"University Debaters' Annual 1919- 

1920," 60. 
Upper Silesia, 236. 

See also Silesia. 
Upson, / L- D., State reorganization, 

"Upward Path, The" (Pritchard and 

Ovington), 16. 
Utah, textile standards, 417. 
Utica, N. Y., Associated Charities, 

Vacation school (letter), 654. 
Van Ingen, Philip, City babies, 684. 

Van Lear, Thomas, 428. 
Yanzetti, Bartolomeo, 431, 584. 
Yazck, 348, 349. 
Vermilion Range, 268. 

City-dweller (Kenyon), 632. 

Kijov (Bezruc), 353. 

Love and might (R. N.), 432. 

Overtime (Paradise), 563. 

Pitman, the (Bezruc), 345. 

Press day <B. L.), 471. 

Skyscrapers (Fletcher), 403. 

Song transmuted, a (Rail), 555. 

Springfield, the, of the far future 
(Lindsay), 563. 
Yiallate, Achille, 640, 646. 
Vice crusade, F,rie, Pa., 293. 
Vienna, 233. 

"Back to the land," 450. 

Child welfare, 710. 

Women's Congress, 627. 
Village school in W. Virginia, 112. 

Penal report, 295. 

State Conf. of Charities and Cor- 
rections, 416. 
Virginia Military Institute, 642. 
Visiting Nursing Service, 263. 
Visiting Teachers, Nat'l Ass'n of, 

"Vitamines — Essential Food Factors" 

(Harrow), 59. 
Vitrimont, 179. 
Vladivostok, 252. 
"Vocational Education" (Robinson), 

Voluntary • organization responsible, 



Principles, 201. 
Railroads, reduction, 370. 
"Wages and Empire" (Lyons), 447. 
Waite, E. F., 308. 
Walker, I. M., Culture in a mining 

town, 240. 
Wallace, H. C, quoted on farmers' 

education, 442. 
Walters, J. J., 62. 

"Wanted — A Congregation" (Doug- 
las), 414. 

German feeling against, 647. 
Next war, 234. 
War Department, who's who in, 580. 
Warbasse A. D., Workers' status in 

cooperatives, 309. 
Washington, D. C. 

Economic groups and legislation, 

Reorganization, 134. 
Washington Conf. 

American representatives and qual- 
ification 641. 
Naval supremacy (letter), 654. 
Waste in industry, 371, 545. 
"Water Resources" (Newell), 14. 
Watts, A. J., 50. 

Waukegan, 111., 77, 120. 

"Wealth, Its Production and Distri- 
bution" (Kirkaldy), 17. 

Weber, J. J., A little island of for- 
eignness, 548. 

Webster, A. E., Self-government for 
truants, 608. 

Weekly Review, 220. 

Week's work, 118. 

"Wege zur Menschenerziehung" 
(Scheu-Riesz), 315. 

Wehle, L. B. 

Charles McCarthy, 44. 

Charles McCarthy (letter), 527. 

"Welfare, The, of the School Child" 
(Cates), 613. 

Welfare federations. 

Cleveland and Detroit, 401. 

How not to do it: Philadelphia, 

Louisville: the Mid-West spirit, 

National agencies: general consid- 
erations, 493. 

Weller C. F., 145. 

Welling, Richard, 677. 

Welsh, M. S., "Who shall nurse the 
sick?" (letter), 688. 

West Virginia. 

Coal field conflict, 398. 
Village school, 112. 

"When Labor Rules" (Thomas), 122. 

"When Turkey Was Turkey" (Poyn- 
ter), 650. 

Whipping post, 465. 

White, E. W., 558. 

White-Williams Foundation, 458, 567, 

Whitney, J. S., 148. 

Whitten. R. H., 221. 

Wickersham, G. W., Breakwaters, 90. 

Widdemer, Kenneth, Harlem's new 
health center, 685. 

Wilcox, Ansley, "When Y's men dis- 
agree (letter), 92. 

Wilhelm, Donald, On the Capitol's 
doormat, 475. 

"William Morris and the Early Days 
of the Socialist Movement" 
(Glasier), 477. 

Williams, C. D., challenge, 229. 

Williams. C. L-, 213. 

Williams, George, 457. 

Williams, H. V., Tuberculosis and 
public health, 512. 

Williamstown, Mass., 640, 646. 

Wilmington, Del., 465. 

Wilson, Katherine, An educational 
evangel, 213. 

Wilson (Woodrow) Foundation, 665. 

Winchester, Va., 462. 

Winslow, Emma A., 149. 

Winslow, S. E., 200. 


Employment offices, 683. 
Hospital bills, 150. 
Legislative Reference Library, 527. 
Part-time agricultural schools, 56. 

Wisconsin, Univ. of, 273. 

Wisconsin idea, 44. 

Wold, Emma, 580. 

Wolman, Leo, Prices and the middle- 
man, 182. 
Woman's Christian Temperance 

Union, 519. 

British Labor Party, Women's Sec- 
tion, conference, 316. 
Lynn, Mass., shoe workers, savings 

for old age, 680. 
Negro women in industry, 119. 
Night work, 121. 
Professional, and homes, 88. 
Work day, 121. 
Women's Bureau, 74, 121. 

Industrial hygiene film, 210. 
Women's Educational and Industrial 

Union of Boston, 62. 
Womens Internat'l League for Peace 

and Freedom, 75, 627. 
Women's Peace Union of the Western 

Hemisphere, 721. 
Wood, F. C, Radium versus surgery, 

Wood, Leonard, 107. 
Woodbury, R. M., 148. 
Woods, R. A., A world bureau, 299. 
Woolley, H. T.. Children, at Nat'l 

Conf., 505. 
Work week, 118. 
Workers' education, 602, 675. 
Workers' Educational Bureau, 42. 
"Workers' International, The" (Post- 
gate), 249. 
Workmen's compensation. 

District of Columbia, 313. / 

Minnesota, 313. 
World, books on reconstruction, 

"World Survey" (Interchurch 

Movement). 23. 
Worms, Diet of, 113. 
Wyle, Armand, 319. 

Yarros, V. S., Thompsonism and 

tether, 138. 
Y. M. C. A., 493. 

Federation (letter), 92. 

Prague and, 332, 353. 
Y. W. C. A. 

France, 174. 

Prague survey, 323. 
"Younger Girl, The, in Business j 
Industry" (Gogin), 218. 

Zeiss works at Jena, 537. 
Zilboorg, Gregory, The business 

lecturing, 461. 
Zimand, Savel, 77. 

New, 633. 

Prospects, 395. 

Split, 135. 

Lakewood, 221. 


^ 'A 


APRIL 2, 1921 



A foster used in a recent maternity exhibit of the Commissariat for the Protection of Health in 
Moscow. The lettering reads: "Why do you drink my milk? Does not your mother feed you?" 

Cardinal Gibbo 
Samuel McCune Lindsay 

f I ^ ^ V r * lA* Vft J ' East Side Scul P tures 

Mayor Peters of Boston 
Herbert C. Parsons t 



Abastenia St. L. Eberle 

iders of a Foreign Neighborhood 
Esther Johnston 

tion ■ 

The ? 



Cents a Copy 

$5.00 a Year 



ERS— Miss Ida M. Cannon, pres.; Social Service Department .Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Miss Ruth V. 
Emerson sec'y; National Headquarters, American Red Cross. Wash- 
fnfton DC. Organization to promote development of social work 
in hospitals and dispensaries. Annual meeting with National Con- 
ference of Social Work. 

Andrews sec^y 131 E. 23rd St., New York. Ker public employment 
oKtee^lndustrikl safety and health; workmen's compensation, health 
lnsu»nce; one day's rest in seven; efficient law enforcement. 

TAL! TY-Gertrode- B. Kn» P , sec'y.; 1211 Cathedral St Balti- 
more Urges prenatal, obstetrical and infant care; birth registration; 
maternal nursing; infant welfare consultations; care of children of 
pre-school age and school age. 

AMERICAN CITY BUREAU— An agency for organizing and strength- 
ening Chambers of Commerce, City Clubs and ^[C'™*"* com- 
mercial organizations; and for training of men in the profession of 
community leadership. Address our nearest office- 
Tribune Building, New York. 
123 W. Madison- Street, Chicago. 
716 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 

field pres C J. Galpin, ex. sec, E. C. Dindeman. Greensboro, N. C.. 
tiem secretary. Annua! conference with annual reports. Emphasizes 
the human aspects of country life. Membership, $3. 
Coo" sec'y "Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich Or- 
ganized for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions 
fnd community. Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cath- 
edral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY. Founded 1828, labors for an inter- 
national peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of Peace 
$2 00 a year. Arthur Deerin Call, Secretary and Editor, 612-bli 
Colorado Building, Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency Maintains 
aU-the?year- r ound information bureau on aU Questions of dehnquency 
and crime. Advice and counsel of specialists throughout the country 
Available free of charge through central office. Annual Proceedings 
miblished. Next congress, Jacksonville, Fla November. 1921. Mem- 
bership, including proceedings, $». C. B. Adams, pres.; O. F. Lewis, 
gen. sec'y., 136 E ; . 15th St., N. Y. C. 

J Osborne exec? sec'y.; 35 W. 45th St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and preven- 
tion. Publications free on request. Annual membership dues, $5. 

Ut New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression of 
Ut ostitution the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion or 
ound-^ex education. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon 
■eaue^t Annual membership dues, $2. Membership includes quarterly 
.magazine and monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 

tion Against the Saloon. Rev. P. A. Baker, D.D. General Superin- 
tendent; Rev. Howard H Russell, D.D., Associate Gen. Superintend.; 
Mr Ernest H. Cherriington, General Manager Department of Pubiisn- 
insr Interests and General Secretary World League Against Alcohol- 
ism- and Rev. E> J. Moore, Ph.D., Assistant General Superintendent. 
National Headquarters. Westerville, Ohio. Mr. Wayne B. Wheeler, 
Esquire, Attorney, 30-33 Bliss Building, Washington, D. C. 

New York Dr. D. Emmett Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, Di- 
rector To arouse public interest in the health of school children; to 
encourage the systematic teaching of health in the schools; to develop 
new methods of interesting children in the forming of health habits; 
to publish and distribute pamphlets for teachers and public health 
workers and health literature for children; to advise in organization 
of local child health programme. 

to secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to im- 
prove standards and methods in the different fields of work with 
children and to make available in any part of the field the assured 
results of successful effort. The League will be glad to consult 
with any agency, with a view to assisting it in organizing or re- 
organizing its ehildlren's work. C. C. Carstens, Director, 130 E. 
22nd St., New York. 

York Organized in February, 1919, to help people of all communities 
pmploy their leisure time to their best advantage for recreation and 
good citizenship. While Community Service (Incorporated) helps in 
organizing the work, in planning the programme and raising the 
funds, and will, if desired, serve in an advisory capacity, the com- 
munity itself, through the community committee representative of 
community interests, determines policies and assumes complete con- 
trol of the local work. Joseph Lee, pres.; H. S. Braucher, sec'y. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY — Battle Creek, Mich. Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y.; Prof. O. C. Glasec, exec, 
sec'y. A public service for knowledge about human inheritances, 
hereditary inventory and eugenic possibilities. Literature free. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenix, vice- 
pres. ; F. H. Rogers, treas. ; W. H. Scoville, sec'y. ; Hampton, Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a Government 
school. Free illustrated literature. 

ICA— Conetitu ted by 30 Frotestant denominations. Rev. Chas. S. 
Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l sec'ys.; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 
Commision on the Church and Social Service — Rev. Worth M. 
Tippy, exec, sec'y.; Rev. F. Etnest Johnson, research sec'y.; 
Agnes H. Campbell, research ass't.; Inez M. Cavert, librarian. 


Headquarters, 146 Henry St., New York; Etta Lasker Rosensohn, 
chm. Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, guides. Interna- 
tional system of safeguarding. Conducts National Americanization 

Culbert Faries, dir., 101 E. 23rd St., New York. Maintains free in- 
dustrial training classes and employment bureau; make artificial 
limbs and appliances; publishes literature on work for the handi- 
capped; gives advice on suitable means for rehabilitation of disabled 
persons and cooperates with other social agencies in plans to put the 
disabled man "back on the payroll." 

secretary, 79 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Object — to promote an 
intelligent interest in Socialism among college men and women. An- 
nual membership, $3, $5, and $25; includes monthly, "The Socialist 
Review." Special rates for students. 

ORED PEOPLE — Moorfield Storey, pres.; James Weldon Johnson, 
sec'y., 70 Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored Americans the 
common rights of American citizenship. Furnishes information re- 
garding race problems, lynchings. etc. Membership 90,860, with 350 
branches. Membership, $1 upward. 


Rush Taggart, pres. ; Mrs. Robert L. Dickinson, treas. ; Virgil V. 
Johnson, sec'y.; 25 West 43rd St., New York. Composed of non-com- 
meircial social agencies which protect and assist travelers, especially 
women, and girls. Non-sectanian. 

ASSOCIATION — 600 Lexington Ave., New York. To advance phy- 
sical, social, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young wo- 
men. Student, city, town and country centers; physical and social 
education; camps; rest-rooms, room registries, boarding houses, 
lunchrooms and cafeterias; educational classes; employment; Bible 
study; secretarial training school; foreign and overseas work. 

Body of the Catholic Organizations of the country. 

National Executive Offices, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., 
Washington, D. C. 

General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. 

Department of Education — Acting Director, Right Rev. Mgr. Edv, 

A. Pace. 

Department of Laws and Legislation — 

Department of Social Action — Directors, John A. Ryan and John 
A. Lapp. 

Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin McGrath; 
Ass't. Director, Michael Williams. 

National Council of Catholic Men — President, Richmond Dean; 
Exec. Sec'y., Michael J. Slattery. 

National Council of Catholic Women — President, Mrs. Michael Ga- 
vin; Exec. Sec'y., Miss Agnes G. Regan. 

National Training School for Women, Washington, D. C. — Dean, 
Miss Maud R. Cavanagh. 
Bureau of Immigration — National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. 

105 E. 22nd St., New York; 36 State branches. Industrial and agri- 
cultural investigations; legislation; studies of administration; educa- 
tion; delinquency; health; recreation; children's codes. Publishes 
quarterly, "The American Child." Photographs, slides and exhibits. 

Powlison, gen. sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and pub- 
lishes exhibit material which visualizes the principles and condition* 
affecting the health, well being and education of children. Cooper- 
ates with educators, public health agencies, and all child welfare 
groups in community, city or state-wide service through exhibits, 
child welfare campaigns, etc. 


Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir.; Associate 
Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and Dr. V. V. Ander- 
son; Clifford W. Beers, sec'y.; 50 Union Square, New York City. 
Pamphlets on mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble- 
mindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war neuroses 
and re-education, psychiatric social service, backward children, sur- 
veys, state societies. "Mental Hygiene;" quarterly, $2 a year. i i 

pres., New York; W. H. Parker, gen. sec'y.. 23 East 9th St., Cincir 
nati. Ohio. General organization to discuss principles of humanitaris 
effort and increase efficiency of agencies. Publishes proceeding 
annual meetings, monthly bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Infoirmatioi 
bureau. Membership, $3. 48th annual meeting, Milwaukee, June 22- 
29, 1921. Main Divisions and chairmen: 

Children— J. Prentice Murphy. Philadelphia. 

Delinquents and Correction— Mrs. Martha P. Falconer, Philadelphia 1 

Health— Dr. Richard Bolt, Baltimore. 

Public Agencies and Institutions — R. F. Beasley, Raleigh. 

The Family — Frances Taussig, New York. 

Industrial and Economic Conditions — Sophonisba P. Brecklnrlde- 
Chicago. _ , ..—._. 

The Local Community— Howard S. Braucher, New York. 

Mental Hygiene — Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, New York. 

Organization of Social Forces— Otto W. Davis, Minneapolis. 

Uniting of Native and Foreign-Born in America— Graee Al 
Chicago. -' v 




NESS — Edward M. Van Cleve, managing director; George D. Eaton, 
field sec'y.; Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y..; 130 E. 22nd St., New 
York. Objects: To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lec- 
tures, publish literature of movement — samples free, quantities at 
cost. Includes New York State Committee. 

sec'y; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forma of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state and nation, for meeting the 
fundamental problems disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF GIRLS' CLUBS— Jean Hamilton, gen. sec'y., 
ISO E. 69th St., New York. Girls' clubs; recreation and educational 
work in non-sectarian, self-governing groups aiming toward complete 
self-support. Monthly publication, "The Club Worker," $1.5» a year. 

NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE— Publishes monthly the maga- 
zine "National Municipal Review" containing articles and reports 
on politics, administration and city planning. The League is a clear- 
ing house for information on short ballot, city, country and state 
governments. Hon. Charles E. Hughes, pres.; Mr. H. W. Dodds, 
sec'y.; 261 (A) Broadway, New York. Dues, $5.00 a year. 

Ella PhilliDs Orandall, R. N. exec, sec'y.; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of public health nursing; to 
develop standards of technique; to maintain a central bureau of in- 
formation. Official organ, the "Public Health Nurse," subscription 
Included In membership. Dues, $3.00 and upward. Subscription $3.00 
per year. 

King mgr , 130 E 22nd St., New York. A cooperative guild of social 
workers organized to supply social organizations with trained per- 
sonnel (no fees) and to work constructively through members for 
professional standards. 

Charles J. Hatfield, M.D., Managing Director. Information about 
organization, education, institutions, nursing problems and other 
phases of tuberculosis work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crusade, publishers "Journal of the Outdoor Life," "American Re- 
view of Tuberculosis" and "Monthly Bulletin." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE— For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec secy.: 
127 E 23rd St , New York. Establishes committees of white and colored 
people to work out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

A Gordon, president. Headquarters, 1730 Chicago avenue. Evanston, 
Illinois. To secure effective enforcement of the Eighteenth Amend- 
ment, to advance the welfare of the American people through the 
departments of Child Welfare, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance 
Instruction, a.nd other allied fields of endeavor. Official publication, 
The Union Signal, published weekly at Headquarters. 

Robins pres.: 64 W. Randolph St. (Room 1102), Chicago. 111. Stands 
for self-government in the work shon through organization and also 
for the enactment of protective legislation. Information given. Of- 
ficial organ, "Life and Labor." 


— H S Braucher, sec'y.: 1 Madison Ave., New York City. Play- 
gfrouna. neighborhood and community center activities and admini- 
stration. Special attention given to municipal recreation problems. 

sentation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y., 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
Membership, $1, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

For the study of the causes of race degeneracy amd means of race 
improvement. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Confer- 
ence the Eugenics Registrv. and lecture courses and various allied 
activities. J. H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Improvement of Living 
Conditions— John M. Glenn, dir.: 130 E. 22nd St., New York Depart- 
ments: Charity Organization, Child-Helping. Education. Statistics, 
Recreation, Remedial Loans. Surveys and Exhibits. Industrial Stu- 
dies. Librarv, Southern Highland Division. The publications of the 
Russell Sage Foundation offer to the public in practical and inex- 
pensive form some of the most important results of its work. Cata- 
logue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An Institution for the training of Negro 
Youth; an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the 
South; furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and 
<m the Tuskegee idea and methods. Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren 
Logan, treas.; A. I. Holsey, acting sec'y., Tuskegee, Ala. 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.— A non-commercial cooperative organ- 
ization without shares or stockholders incorporated under the mem- 
bership law of the State of New York. Robert W. deForest, pres.; 
John M. Glenn. Henry R. Seager, V. Everit Macy, vice-presidents; 
Arthur P. Kellogg sec'y-treas. Publishers of The Survey, weekly. 
The Survey's work is conducted under the following editorial staff: 

Editor, Paul U. Kellogg 

Civics, Foreign Service, Bruno Lasker 

Social Forces. Edward T. Devine 

Induptry, William L. Chenery 

Health, Michael M. Davis, Jr. 

School and Community, Joseph K. Hart 

Family Welfare, Child Welfare, Paul L, Benjamin 

Managing Editor, S. Adele Shaw 
Cooperating Subscription (membership) $10. Regular subscrip- 
tion $5 yearly. 112 East 19 Street, New York City. 


Conducted by 


Students in the social sciences and workers in all fields of 
social effort are continuously dependent upon books. What 
such dependence means, or may come to mean, is worthy of 
special consideration, since the possession of a book is not an 
unmixed or absolute good. 

IThe Book as Authoritative. 
♦ A certain university professor used to say: "Many people be- 
lieve everything they find in the daily papers; more believe every- 
thing they read in a weekly or monthly magazine; and there are 
very few people who can resist the array of materials they find in 
a book. There is something about a book that makes you want to 
believe everything in it." Is it safe, or desirable, to accept a book 
as an authority? 

2 How Shall Books be Used ? 
♦ a. As conservors of the wisdom of the past. Of wisdom 
only? What of the folly of the past? And its superstitions? What 
of the "knowledge which ain't so," about which Josh Billings warned 
the world? Can the reading of books be depended upon to make 
us wise? 

b. As stimulators of new experiences. All new experiences are 
of some environment. Books offer all sorts of extensions to our 
commonplace environments. Consider the uses, in these ways, of 
books of travel, adventure, nature description, history, anthropology 
and a hundred other sorts. Are all such extensions of our environ- 
ments desirable and advantageous? 

c. As stupefiers of the mind. There are rumors of high school 
and college students who have said, "I'm not interested in such 
books; I had to read them once in school." What are the evil con- 
notations of the "text-book," which make it such a deadly weapon? 
What makes a book interesting? Or dull? Or stupid? The sub- 
ject matter? What is "human interest?" Can a novel be dull! 
Can a scientific book be interesting? 

d. As windows looking out upon the world. How do books come 
into existence? The Mohammedans believe that the Koran was 
written in Heaven and delivered to Mohammed by the Angel 
Gabriel. But such books are few. Most books are written out of 
the rich experiences of the author. Each book thus becomes a means 
of seeing the world the author sees, looking at it through his* eyes. 
What does this mean for the authority of the book? For its inter- 
est or dullness? For its use as a means of education? 

e. As means of escape from personal isolation. The chief need 
of all students and social workers is escape from their original 
isolation in their own ignorances and limited ranges of experience 
and environment. The student and worker must escape from the 
present, into the perspectives of the past and the hopes of the 
future. How do books help in this? They must escape out of their 
local community life and interests, however big they may be, into 
a sense of the world-community, with its problems) and interests. 
Is this possible?, Is there any danger in it? Is there any other 
way of reaching the freedoms of the intellectual life save through 
the uses of books? ., 

3 The Dangers of Bookishness. 
♦ What is the meaning of "academic?" Can one become 
academic outside of schools and colleges? Can "bookishness" de- 
velop in isolation? Is it likely to develop in the rush of the world's 
work? Is it a prevalent disease? Is the community suffering from 
it? Do many people in your community read too much? Is any- 
thing being done in your community to promote the intelligent uses 
of books? Good books? To discourage the use of undesirable 
books? To discourage the bad uses of good books? 
See this issue of the Survey, p. 7. 

The Survey, Vol. XLVI, No. 1. Published weekly by the Survey Associates, Inc., 112 E. 19 St., New York. Price $5.00 yearly. Entered as second-class 
■latter, March 25, 1909, at the post-office, New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3. 1879. Acceptance for mailing at a special rate of postage provided 

for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on Tune 26, 1918. 




Next Summer 


A Stimulating Professional Atmosphere 
Amid Attractive Surroundings 







NORTHAMPTON, MASS., Write for Bulletin 




in layout and plans should give expression to the latest 
medical and social practice. 

Advice on plans and operating problems made avail- 
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HENRY C. WRIGHT, Director 
289 Fourth Avenue, New York City 

A Social Study 

By B. Seebohm Rowntree 

The well known manufacturer and economist 

Bruno Lasker 

now Associate Editor, The Survey 
Thb Survey has a small stock of this book which, first published 
in 1911, is still the only complete analysis of the problem of un- 
employment based on a city-wide survey. 

This book establishes a constructive . program of prevention and 
relief on the basis of a study of both the economic causes of unem- 
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Boston 14, Mass. 




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Social Work in Hospitals 

Civic Research 

Psychiatric Social Work 
Community Work 
Social Investigation 
Public Health Nursing 

Educational and Vocational Guidance 

Send for" catalogue 

Frank D. Watson, Director 
1302 Pine St., Philadelphia 



Devoted to the interests of social workers »nd all engaged in 

Civic betterment. 

Special lecturers, American and foreign. 

Party sails June 7, 1921. 

Address DR. JOHN N O L E N, 

Suite 4, <S Franklin Street Boston, Mass. 

*5R€ saiwesr 

tion with YALE UNIVERSITY. Open to qualified graduate 
nurses, 4 months theory, 4 months field practice. Opens Septem- 
ber 30, 1921. Tuition $50.00. For details apply to 

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Boarding Schools for boy3 
vicinity, inquire of Ameri- 
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MAJEL K. BROOKS, 1928 University Ave., New York City 

For information concerning 
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We assist in preparing special articles, papers, speeches, de- 
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Bureau, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



Editor of "The Critic and Guide," Honorary Member of The British Society 

for the Study of Sex Psychology. Member of the International Association 

for Sexual Research. 


Two most important and valuable courses on sex hygiene and vital relations 

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{All lectures commence at 8.30 p. m.) 

April 6 (Wednesday) — General Introduction. The Power of the Sex Instinct. 
Sublimation and its limits. Experiments in Rejuvenation and life pro- 
longation. Gland Transplantation; the masculinization of females and 
the feminization of males. New promising treatment of homosexuals. 
The Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Sex Organs. Puberty and 
the Awakening of the Sex Instinct. Masturbation; the modern view 
of the subject. Prevention and Treatment. Questions and Answers. 

April 13 (Wednesday) — The most prevalent sexual disorder among civilized 
men. Sexual Impotence. Sexual Neurasthenia. Sterility and its 
causes. Sterility and Marriage. Difference in the Intensity of the 
Sex Instinct. Questions and Answers. 

April 21 (Thursday) — The Venereal Diseases: Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chan- 
croids. Their successful Prevention. Points in their treatment of 
importance to laymen. Sex Power and Athletics. Duration of the 
Sex Instinct in men. Questions and Answers. 
■ April 27 (Wednesday)— The Prostate — its great importance. The Disorders 
and Disease of the Prostate. Varicocelle, Stricture, Phimosis, Para- 
phimosis. Minor male ailments. Homosexuality. What should be 
our proper attitude? Questions and Answers. 

May 4 (Wednesday) — Sex and Psychoanalysis. The Truths and Absurdities 
in Freudism. The Sexual Enlightenment of the Boy. Questions and 

"WOMAN. Her Sex and Love Life." FOR WOMEN ONLr 

(All lectures commence at 8.30 p. m.) 

April 7 (Thursday) — General Introduction. The Anatomy and Physiology 
of the Female Sex Organs. The Sex Instinct in women — how it 
differs from the sex instinct in men. Masturbation in Girls and 
Women. Questions and Answers. 
April 14 (Thursday) — Puberty. Menstruation: normal and abnormal. Con- 
ception, Gestation and Lactation. Birth Control. Questions and 
April 23 (Saturday) — The Menopause and its disorders. Some False Ideas 
and Superstitions regarding Woman's Sex Life. Abortion in its 
medical and moral aspects. Questions and Answers. 
April 29 (Friday) — The prevention of minor ills and ailments affecting 

woman's youth and attractiveness. Questions and Answers. 
May 5 (Friday) — Sex and Psychoanalysis. What is true and what is false 
in the Freudian ideas regarding sex, etc. The sexual enlightenment 
of the child. Questions and Answers. 
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Inasmuch as the seating capacity of Rumford Ham, is lim- 
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Telephone Vanderbilt 8260 

Vol. XLVI, No. 1 


April 2, 1921 


Readers of a Foreign Neighborhood - Esther Johnston 7 

More Unrest Among British Miners - Harold J. Laski 10 

Mayor Peters of Boston ... Herbert C. Parsons 11 

Cardinal Gibbons ... Samuel McCune Lindsay 12 





Associate Editors 




S. ADELE SHAW, Managing Editor 
Published weekly and Copyright 1921 by Survey Associates, Inc., 112 East 
19 Street, New York. Robert W. de Forest, president; Arthur P. Kellogg, 

Price: this issue, 25 cents a copy; $5 a year; foreign postage, $1.25; Can- 
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ized on June 26, 1918. 


Jane Addams Chicago 

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Richard C. Cabot Boston 

Frances G. Curtis Boston 

T. Lionberger Davis St. Louis 

"Edward T. Devine New York 

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Lee K. Frankel New York 

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C. M. Goethe Sacramento 

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Loula D. Lasker New York 

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Joseph Lee Boston 

Samuel McCune Lindsay. . .New York 

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The following extracts are taken from "The Underpaid White Collar Class," a new 
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(From Chapter VIII.) 
"The employer who requires his employees to come early in the morning and compels 
them to work late at night, two, three or four times a week, is simply driving men and 
women to premature invalidism or death. 

"The so-called religious men who further this injustice, whether Catholic, Lutheran or 
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Thomases who may question the logic of this situation." 

(From Chapter X.) 

"A good many concerns, notably exporters and importers, due either to frequent excess- 
ive work or in their endeavor to squeeze all the blood out of the employee, compel them 
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After these ambitious young men are compelled to work late at night so many days during 
the entire year and their mental energy is impaired, ISN'T IT CRIMINAL on the part of 
the parsimonious employers to give these faithful and indefatigable workers only a dollar 
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the time the pitiless, merciless and hypocritical employers entirely, the very ones who make 
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(From Chapter XIII.) 

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K E V l ,' S -° tr ? atise went to press, the author was repeatedly warned by his friends that "employers would get after him." 

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Readers of a Foreign Neighborhood 

By Esther Johnston 



BOOKS like Huneker's New Cosmopolis, Adam's Our 
Square, and Olmsted's Father Bernard's Parish have 
joined with O. Henry in revealing to the New Yorker 
the existence of innumerable tight little neighborhoods 
established complacently, though never altogether securely, a 
little apart from the city's main current. Just as Washington 
Square differs from Washington Heights, the Bronx from the 
1 ittery, the Ghetto from Riverside Drive, Mulberry Bend 
.om Jackson Square, so differ the forty-three branches of the 
New York Public Library that dot the city for a length of 
forty miles, ending on Staten Island. Each one is tinged with 
the influence of some predominant race, religion, color, indus- 
try, or state of affluence of the neighborhood which it serves. 
In no other American city are there such radical differences 
in communities and in libraries. 

There are those seething branches in the Bronx where the 
second generation of East Siders go. They are the busiest 
branches in the city now, for the trend of population is 
Bronxward, and many people take the reading habit with 
them as they move uptown. The Webster branch, on the up- 
per East Side, with a public largely Bohemian, is a distinctive 
place, colored as it is by Czecho-Slovak temperament, and 
has always shown its sympathy with the aspirations and ac- 
complishments of a freedom-loving race. It has had delight- 
ful exhibitions of pictures, handicraft and books, and has an 
entire floor for the Bohemian literature. The 58 street 
branch in the music center of the city has a special circu- 
lating music collection with a 
"musical librarian" in charge to 
help the borrower. Musicians 
come from all over Manhattan 
and the other boroughs to use it. 
The Cathedral branch has, of 
course, an ecclesiastical touch. 
Jackson Square and Hudson 
Park are known as the Green- 
wich Village libraries, although 
their activities extend beyond the 
long-haired, spectacled inhabi- 
tants of the quarter to the Ital- 
ians who live on the outskirts and 
play in the parks. The 135 street 
branch becomes more and more 
representative of the colored race 
of that neighborhood. Tompkins 
Square, once used mainly by Ger- 
mans and Austrians, Poles and 
Hungarians, who frequented also 

Courtesy of the Educational Alliance Art School 


the gay continental cafes of Second avenue, has now a Rus- 
sian Jewish public as well and is said to be in the center of 
the "radical" district. Ottendorfer was, as its name implies, 
German. Rivington Street has Jews and Italians, Chatham 
Square has a polyglot following of Italians, Chinese, Greeks, 
Syrians, and Russian Jews. Hamilton Fish Park and Seward 
Park are frequented almost entirely by Jews of Russian, Pol- 
ish, Galician or Oriental origin. 

The last named branch is on East Broadway, the Fifth 
avenue of the East Side, which gives an air of briskness, well- 
being and prosperity not borne out by nearby Hester and Suf- 
folk — most miserable of streets notwithstanding their good 
English names. East Broadway shelters, behind doorways of 
faded dignity and colonial design, the doctors and dentists who 
have reached the pinnacle of success for our neighborhood. It 
has, too, the offices of Jewish and Socialist newspapers, trades 
unions, locals of all kinds, and the noisy cafes which are the 
literary coffee-houses of the quarter. It is a misleading street 
with its air of prosperity, 'and a block or two either way show 
scenes almost entirely foreign and quite squalid. Hester street, 
Orchard and Grand, with the sidewalks nearly blocked with 
pushcarts, are thronged with foreigners, and there is Henry 
street which starts out to be Jewish and ends by being Italian, 
with one undecided block which harbors an Italian barber- 
shop, Russian tailor, kosher meat market, Irish undertaker, 
Greek cafe and Chinese laundry. One passes there from the 
noise and somberness of the Ghetto into the gay squalor of 

little Italy, from the sorry fowls 
of a kosher meat market to the 
brilliant greens and reds of the 
salad peppers on an Italian push- 

The population of the district 
in which our branch is placed is 
about 300,000, and has the range 
of Jews of every country — the 
keen, intelligent Russians, the 
Oriental Jews, whose ignorance, 
squalor and treatment of women 
reflect all that is worst in Orien- 
tal life. There are synagogues, 
both orthodox and reformed, de- 
bating clubs, settlements, schools 
and lecture halls. There are 
bearded patriarchs and scheitled 
old ladies, street urchins and 
jostling, impertinent youths. 
The branch is colored by the 

By Elias M. Grossman 




neighborhood characteristics, so that we diverge from the usual 
library methods to meet our conditions, just as a library in an 
industrial town would be modified by the special needs of its 
community. Our readers are nearly all Jewish, so that we 
have no conflict of races, as frequently exists in a mixed neigh- 
borhood. Even the routine of our work must be somewhat 
altered by the religion and race of our readers. There is no 
race more tenacious of religious custom than the Jewish, none 
that has religious observances so at variance with the exigen- 
cies of American life. The greatest tragedies of the Ghetto 
are those caused by the readjustment of the young members 
of the family to American ideas, the retention by the older 
ones of their old religious severity. Jews who retain their 
orthodoxy have a struggle, for their religion forbids their 
doing many of the things almost essential to business success. 

It seems of the greatest importance that the library should 
in every way show respect for the opinions, customs and re- 
ligion of these older people whom American life treats cruelly. 
It is especially important in the work with children that this 
regard be shown. Therefore, since on Saturday writing is 
forbidden by Jewish law, there is no signing o£ applications on 
that day in the children's room. In the adult department, those 
may sign who wish to do so. It is the same way with the 
handling of money. The older men are allowed to wear their 
hats in the building, according to Jewish custom, although the 
boys who are taught American customs in the schools are re- 
minded to remove their caps. Holidays, especially the fast 
days of the Jewish calendar, find the library crowded until 
sundown when the readers all leave for the first meal of the 
day. Saturday, too, is an extremely busy time, as the day 
when our readers do not work. 

Religious custom accounts in great part for the kind of 
readers who came to us. It is predominantly a man's branch, 
and women of over thirty-five — or married women — are not 
numerous. One reason is, of course, the large families. The 
greater reason is the superior education of the men. For the 
interest of older women whose contact with the American 
world is slight, the foreign assistant conducts a club in Yid- 
dish. Current events are discussed, and the women take part 
in debates on citizenship, food regulations, hygiene, Presiden- 
tial candidates, cooperative buying, and more sprightly sub- 
jects. Saturday afternoon, after the midday meal of the 
Sabbath, when the babies can be left at home with the older 
children, the mothers come out for their club. 

While we have some of the fine type of patriarchal Jewish 
men, we regret that we have not many more. It would be 
desirable to have an alcove in our reference room for the use 
of old gentlemen in skull caps who could study there the 
Talmudic lore which they now delve into in the dark base- 
ments of synagogues and old houses. There is a dignity, a self- 
respect and courtesy about these old men in contrast to the 
self-assertion of many of their sons who have adopted so-called 
American ways. M. E. Ravage, in his American in the Mak- 
ing, has given a clear picture of the humiliation of the older 
generation in the United States, the change from a position of 
scholarly dignity in the old world to managing a pushcart or 
selling chocolates in the confusing life of the new. It is grati- 
fying to see these men come to the library where, with their 
Hebrew books, in a place of dignity and orderliness, they can 
escape for a few hours from the sordidness and noise of their 
daily life. 

We see many different types in our library: the intelli- 
gentsia, the eager, restless, insatiable students who live in the 
humblest way, in order to complete their studies at college; 
writers of Yiddish books, many of them interested in the de- 
velopment of a new Yiddish literature, even to the establish- 
ment of a college for the purpose. We have girl operators "by 
white goods," milliners and bookkeepers, and members of 
unions of all sorts. We have socialists with whom politics take 
the place of religion. 

How is the book supply to be adapted to such a neighbor- 

hood; how can it exert the greatest influence? The branch 
librarian is given freedom in the selection of books, with the 
restriction which hinders librarians elsewhere — lack of funds. 
Our collection must be rich in some classes, and we are 
obliged to thin it out in others, throwing the emphasis where 
it is most needed. We must have a good supply of books on 
all Jewish subjects — history, religious customs, folk-lore, 
famous leaders, and Zionism. Philosophy must offer a richer 
choice than in most American libraries. Sociology is important, 
for there is great interest in socialism, trades unions, govern- 
ment and suffrage. The use of literature, particularly poetry 
and drama, is tremendous, history and biography are more 
used than in the average library, travel less so. 

Our restriction in purchasing must come in fiction, and 
yet we have an enormous demand for that, and our shelves at 
the end of the evening are a sorry sight. However, we can 
put the emphasis where every librarian wants to place it, but 
is not always permitted to by a clamorous public — upon fic- 
tion of value. We have not nearly the insistent demand for 
fleeting fiction that exists in uptown branches. We have con- 
stantly more requests for George Eliot than for George Barr 
McCutcheon, for Jean-Christophe in English or in Russian 
than for Chambers, for Dickens than for Owen Johnson. 
Wilde's Picture of Dorian Grey, of which we have fifteen 
copies, is seldom in ; neither are Turgenieff and Dreiser, Tol- 
stoi or O. Henry. 

There is a class that has roused great debate in the past 
few years — that of books in foreign languages. Many people 
during the war discovered to their horror that we had foreign 
books, thereby discouraging, as they said, the reading of Eng- 
lish. There seems no doubt that the people who come to the 
library drawn by the foreign book collection are the ones who 
are soon reading English books. Many people are too old and 
have not the ability to learn English. Immigrants are coming 
who are too shattered by the events of the past to master a 
language readily. It is for them that we feel so deeply the 
need of a foreign collection, and for those who wish always to 
recall through books their native land and language. Our 
Russian and Yiddish collections are very large, the latter suf- 
fering in the past few years because of the impossibility of re- 
placing many of the worn-out books. Many of the classics are 
being translated into Yiddish, as are books on hygiene, Ameri- 
can history and government, and biography. It is surely well 
to have immigrants informed of America through Yiddish or 
Russian books, even before they are able to read English. 

Recently an old man took out a history of the Jews in Yid- 
dish and an easy English book of the kind that we have for 
beginners. When he was asked if he was studying English, 
he replied, proudly, "No, it's for the old woman. She goes 
to night school now and reaches the second reader." The 
young are teaching the old, the parents are puzzling over the 
simple books the children take home. It is to such an eager- 
ness for learning that the public libraries in foreign neighbor- 
hoods are supplying books and sympathetic help as an indica- 
tion of America's belief in the immigrant. A letter recently 
received from an old reader shows the immigrant's response r 

When I came to this country, English was entirely foreign to 
me. Life was very, very hard during the first few months of 
my residence in New York, and I cabled my father to send me 
transportation back to Russia. A couple of weeks later a suffi- 
cient amount was received. In the meantime I became a very 
frequent visitor of your library. Not being able to read Eng- 
lish, I borrowed books in Russian, Yiddish and other languages. 
I would sit in the library for hours, not always reading, but 
watching the steady stream of boys and girls coming and going 
with books under their arms. They were at one time or another 
in a similar position, I would think to myself. They seem to 
have overcome the inevitable obstacles, they have mastered the 
English language .... Why should I surrender before having 
made a real effort? These thoughts would come to my mind 
every time I would enter the library. And I might confess that 
it was right in the library that I decided to return the monev 
my father had sent me for transportation back and make this 
country my permanent home. I am not sorry for my decision-. 










More Unrest Among British Miners 

By Harold J, Laski 

LESS than four months have passed since the last coal 
strike; yet we already seem upon the verge of new 
and far vaster difficulties in the mining industry. 
The problem has been precipitated by the an- 
nounced decision of the government to bring its control of 
coal to an end on March 31, instead of waiting until the statu- 
tory period of August 31. It is not easy for an outsider to 
determine the exact reasons which lie behind this decision. In 
part, undoubtedly, it is a desire to effect some economy in the 
cost of national administration and thereby to provide some 
answer to the critics (a growing number) who accuse the 
government of wastefulness. But, undoubtedly, there are 
obscurer, though more profound causes. The mine owners 
have got tired of regulation ; they are the men who control 
government policy; and not a few of them believe that a re- 
turn to pre-war conditions is possible if they are given a free 
hand. Here, as elsewhere, this government is peculiarly 
responsive to the demands of capital. It is, moreover, clear 
that there are lean days ahead for the coal industry; and the 
government may well be desirous of escaping the burden of 
policy-making it would then be called upon to undertake. 

How serious a result de-control would have it is not easy 
to over-emphasize. In wages, it would bring to a close the 
Sankey increases of 1919; the increases under the national 
agreement effected in November, 1920. In organization, it 
would mean an end of the new system by which wages 
have been regulated upon a national instead of a district 
basis; it would bring to an end also the pooling of profits 
whereby the poorer mines have been able to keep going by 
sharing in the profits of the richer mines like those in South 
Wales. And all this, it must be remembered, at a peculiarly 
difficult time. The bottom has fallen out of the coal trade, 
more particularly upon its export side ; the cost of production 
has so largely increased that other industries, like the steel 
trade, in which the price of fuel is a vital factor, are almost 
at a standstill. With the decline in demand consequent upon 
an increase in price which, in South Wales, is as much as ten 
shillings per ton, there is vast unemployment among mines ; in 
South Wales it is estimated that eighty thousand men are un- 
employed. The owners have calculated that the present un- 
employment and the depletion of union funds which the No- 
vember strike effected, make this a peculiarly fortunate time 
for the revision of all agreements. Their negotiations with 
the men for a new wage basis have not been successful, so 
far; the men's insistence on a national basis for wages proving 
a complete stumbling-block. Accordingly, they have decided, 
when de-control becomes an accomplished fact, to terminate 
all existing wage agreements and to work upon a day-to-day 
contract. That, obviously, is the prelude to a national lock- 
out; and if that becomes operative, it may well be the prelude 
to irreparable disaster. 

The miners are passionately opposed to de-control. They 
point out, with justice, that they have not been consulted in 
this decision. They urge that it is a deliberate attempt to de- 
prive them of their war gains ; and they are undoubtedly pre- 
pared to fight it to the last. For it involves the abrogation of 
two things which they regard as fundamental: National 
wage agreements and the treating of the whole British coal 
field as a unit in relation to ultimate questions of policy. 
They demand national agreements on wages because they do 
not desire the miner working in a rich district to profit at the 
expense of the miner working in a poorer district. All minima 
must be national minima ; and any colliery manager desiring 
to discuss wages will have to confront the miners' federation 
as a whole. Nor is their attitude upon unification of control 
less intelligible. If each mine goes back to the old system, it 

is clear that a number of mines now workable, through the 
pooling of profits, would cease to be worked ; that would lead 
to unemployment which, in its turn, would greatly decrease 
the funds of the federation. They have been rendered the 
more suspicious on this head by the recent policy of the own- 
ers upon discharges. It will be remembered that the agree- 
ment arrived at in the strike of 1920 settled a datum line, 
production above which led to a proportionate increase of 
wages; while the export trade was good (December and Jan- 
uary) that datum line was overpassed and the men got even 
larger wage increases than they had fought for during the 
strike. Since then, the large number of dismissals has made 
the achievement of the datum line impossible; and the miners 
find themselves in the same, if not a worse position, than that 
in which they were before the strike. 

The difficulty of the owners must not be minimized. At 
the present cost of production, they cannot find a market for 
coal. The export trade is at vanishing point; Austria cannot 
buy coal, Russia is not allowed to buy, and France is either 
getting free coal from Germany or purchasing it at a lower 
price from America. The domestic trade has naturally dimin- 
ished with the general slump in trade; and there is, at any 
rate for the next three months, no prospect of revival. The 
wages are the largest item in the cost of production ; and the 
owners not unnaturally contend that until the rate comes 
down they are unlikely to find a market for their product. 
They see wages always in terms of price, where the miners 
see wages not less insistently in terms of prices. Between 
these views there is an irreconcilable disharmony. Moreover, 
in the absence of government control, the owner is, equally 
naturally, anxious to return to the old system of district regu- 
lation for the simple reason that the miners are far less power- 
ful in districts than they are as a single union. Here, as else- 
where, to divide is to govern. And they have a telling argu- 
ment for their general view of wage reduction in the fact 
that Mr. Hodges' only proposal for meeting the present slump 
has been the suggestion of a government subsidy to the coal 
trade. That is, in any case, financially impossible at our 
present state of expenditure; and, beyond that, there is no 
case for subsidizing coal any more than any other industry. 
The Lancashire cotton trade, which is in a far worse position, 
would bitterly and with some reason resent that assistance. 

The fact of the matter is that the coal trade has reached the 
parting of the ways. The owners are determined to return 
to the halcyon days of 1914, and the men are similarly de- 
termined to go forward to some scheme of nationalization. If 
the men are ultimately successful — there is no prospect of their 
success while the present government remains in office — we 
may be able to introduce some measure of stabilization into 
the coal industry; if the owners are successful, the history of 
English coal mining will be a series of strikes until the dis- 
location of a vital service compels the surrender of the owners. 
For we have frankly to face the fact that the miners will no 
longer work under a system of production for private profit. 
Any one who desires to know the causes of their attitude has 
only to read the evidence tendered to the Sankey Commission. 
They may be unwise or selfish or blind or what you will, but 
this psychological atmosphere is the root fact of the whole 
problem. No English statesman has confronted it seriously. 
Mr. Lloyd George never thinks in terms of principles; hej 
waits until a crisis develops and then makes emotional ap-l 
peals in the name of national welfare. Mr. Asquith has atl 
tacked nationalization on the ground that it means bureau-" 
cracy; whereas if he had read Mr. Justice Sankey's report he 
would have seen that its main importance lies in its avoidance 
of bureaucracy. No one who goes among the miners of South 



Wales, of Scotland, or of Durham, can doubt that they will 
continue to work without heart for their toil until their aspi- 
ration toward self-government is realized. It is not unlikely 
that the first statesman to capture the imagination of the elect- 
orate will be the man who, by recognizing this feeling, trans- 
lates it into institutional terms. 

Meanwhile it must be admitted that the owners are in a 
strong strategic position. The existing stocks of coal are 
normal for the time of year; and, granted the present depres- 
sion, that means they have stocks on hand to satisfy all foresee- 
able requirements. They could afford a lockout ; partly be- 
cause the strain on the miners' funds would make the struggle 
of dubious value to the latter, partly because the depression 
is such that a lockout would not mean serious loss to them- 
selves. If they can maneuver the miners into a strike, that 
will, of course, only strengthen their position. 

They are assured of the support of the business community. 
The only idea in the business man's mind at present is the vital 
need to reduce wages ; he says, to be sure, that it will decrease 
the cost of living, but he wants the reduction first. The own- 
ers are assured, too, of the support of the government; for, 

having forfeited the confidence of labor, it is unlikely that the 
government will risk the loss of confidence from capital. It 
is unnecessary, I suppose, to add, that with the conspicuous 
and honorable exception of the Manchester Guardian, the 
press is solidly on the owners' side. 

One other possibility ought to be mentioned. It is possible 
that pressure will compel the government to continue control 
until the expiration of the statutory period. In that event 
the impending struggle will be postponed until the autumn. 
But it will be postponed only, unless some totally unexpected 
trade revival makes the owners temporarily willing to con- 
clude a national wage agreement. If the present depression 
continues, a serious struggle is certain ; and it can only be re- 
iterated that the main issues that struggle will involve are the 
issues which the Sankey Commission was summoned to de- 
termine. The real source of the difficulties the coal industry 
will have to face in the next year is, the war apart, the dis- 
honest evasion by the government of its pledge to stand by the 
findings that Mr. Justice Sankey reported. We shall pay 
long and heavily for that evasion. 

London, March I. 

Mayor Peters of Boston 

By Herbert C. Parsons 


IF the element of surprise was essential to the effect of 
Boston's mayor's venture into the real life of the way- 
farer who finds a last-resort housing over night in the 
city's lodge, it was amply supplied. That sort of per- 
formance, the "incog" sharing of the lot of the down-and- 
out, is completely inconsistent with the ordinary conduct of 
Andrew, occasionally varied to "Andy," Peters. Astonish- 
ment that he had resorted to it increased in ratio to intimacy 
of acquaintance and reached its apex among those of the closest 
circle of personal associates, the top quality of Boston society. 
For Mayor Peters is not spectacular. His half-tone por- 
trait gathers dust in the newspaper grave-yard. The camera 
range-finder rarely captures him. He achieves the rotogra- 
vure section only in such mild setting as a snowy hillside where 
he shares the toboggan with his rather numerous offspring. 
The cartoonist avoids him, either because he is a difficult, not 
striking, subject or because he is strictly normal in conduct 
and almost painfully uniform in pose. He even lacks that 
picturcsqueness of reserve that has made a recent governor the 
delight of the special writer and helped to make him vice-pres- 
ident. He is disconcertingly natural, without, however, any 
implication of commonplace. 

He is in politics, has for years been in politics, so that he is 
known only for his political service, without being a politician 
in the professional sense. Nor is his a case of the professional 
or business man transplanted for a season and for specific 
service to public office. There were years in Congress and 
no dispute over the quality of his service, and no wild acclaim 
over his achievements. It was a service of unflagging faith- 
fulness to his district and sound judgment on national prob- 
lems, with no reckless departure from the program of the 
Democratic Party. 

Mr. Peters is a chance mayor. His election came about 
through a violent division in the Democratic forces at a time 
when the administration that had fulfilled the one ideal of 
being sensational was under fire from a heavily recruited line 
of unrecognized and discontented, and from the vigorously 
rallied camp of G. G.'s — a perfectly good Boston colloquial- 
ism for its good government association. Good government 
won because of the rift, winning not only in name but in fact, 
as the event has proved. Its candidate's pledges were plain 

promises to do what in reason and under admitted limitations 
could be done to run the business of the city in business fashion. 
Nobody discusses whether or not the promises have been kept, 
for the reasons that it was an accepted fact that they would be 
kept and that there is nowhere a thought of the mayor stand- 
ing for reelection. There is no Peters machine. 

Mayor Peters has steadily asked the counsel of social work- 
ers, but has never passed them the key to the City Hall. He 
has as often mystified them by failure to follow their advice 
as gratified them by the vigor of his adoption of their propos- 
als. The signal achievement of his administration has been 
a social service of the most outright sort — the reorganization 
of the city's institutions. Separate administrative boards for 
the almshouse, the care of children, and the penal institutions' 
department have been eliminated, against all the difficulties of 
dealing with vested official rights, and the complete control 
placed in a single commissioner, unrestrained by even advisory 
boards and clothed with power to name his assistants, subject 
alone in this particular to the mayor's approval. His selection 
of the man for institutions commissioner was independent and 
meritorious. Then came one of the drops from the high level, 
which had vexed his earnest supporters in a strong advance 
step, by absurdly curbing him in choice of his chief subordi- 
nates. With the same resoluteness he has abolished the in- 
dustrial school for juvenile offenders, a superfluous but sup- 
posedly well entrenched variant of the county training school 
which is a lingering affliction in the Massachusetts outfit. Any 
bright morning in the present last year of his term, the public 
may read that he has quietly but completely put out of busi- 
ness the county house of correction and passed its decimated 
population to the custody of the state, in fine example to the 
other counties whose officials are just now in violent array of 
opposition to the state's assumption of complete penal control. 

These reforms, substantial and well worked out,' obviously 
offering glorious opportunities for acclaim and boast, the 
mayor has brought about or is on the way to accomplish with 
consummate calm. They almost elude press notice, and the 
least aggrieved official over the lack of commotion is the mayor 
himself. Nearer to the ordinary degree of publicity has been 
his policy of retrenchment in expenditure. Perhaps out of 
its stronger appeal to pride, possibly out of cool calculation 
that public opinion must be drummed and fifed into array in 



his support, his financial acts of prudence and restraint have 
been fully displayed. Uncountable inconsistencies there have 
been in salary denials and salary grants, but the familiar sus- 
picion of favoritism has been short-rationed. He will leave a 
record of prudence just a little short of consummate economy. 
The nation knows of the Boston police strike. It vaulted 
Mr. Coolidge into eminence. Club lounges still support dis- 
cussion as to whether credit for right and resolute action was 
quite justly apportioned. Mr. Peters gained no popular pro- 
jection. But, as truly, he suffered no discredit. Boston is 
policed by the commonwealth and the city government is not 
a partner even to the extent of a murmuring advisor. The 
situation which the city, as a community, confronted was one 
which, as a government, it was powerless to control. The 
mayor undertook to avail himself of a power to command the 
police in an extreme situation but was on doubtful ground. 

Mr. Peters made his own move with timeliness, and consist- 
ently with the apportionment of power which the peculiar po- 
lice arrangement provides. With the same exactness, as to 
time and propriety, he withdrew from the field when the state, 
with no excessive promptness, came into the breach. He missed 
fame by no fault of his conduct and by a fate that has the 
outer aspect, in deliberate review, of a game of chance. 

Mayor Peters went to the Wayfarer's Lodge to share its 
rest and its fare and to take his turn at the woodpile in a 
search for that prize which is farthest removed from high offi- 
cial grasp, first-hand information. He accepted, it is only to be 
believed, rather than sought, the unavoidable publicity that 
the descent from high official station to the lot and the cot of 
the humble imposes. Boston has no apprehension that the 
episode is the starting point of a habit. 

Cardinal Gibbons 

By Samuel McCune Lindsay 

THE career of James Cardinal Gibbons is beyond 
doubt one of the half dozen outstanding human 
products of the first century and a half of our na- 
tional life. It cannot be accounted for or explained 
any more easily than that of Lincoln, with whose career 
though a whole generation longer, it has much in common, 
in the quality and character of its public service and the heri- 
tage of Americanism it bequeathes to the future. 

Of Cardinal Gibbons' service to his church and as a liberal 
force in that church during a critical period in its growth 
and adjustment to American life others can speak who are 
more competent than I to judge. No one, however, interest- 
ed in the religious and moral forces of our times, be he ever 
so far removed from adherence to the doctrines of the Roman 
Catholic Church, can fail to appreciate how great and far- 
reaching was Cardinal Gibbons' emphasis on the fundamental 
concepts of the religious life which unite men in a common 
loyalty to God and in a brotherhood of man rather than on 
the unessentials of creeds and dogmas concerning which dis- 
sensions must needs divide equally honest and sincere men. 

It was impossible to look into the Cardinal's clear, pene- 
trating eyes, always kindly and rarely without a merry 
twinkle that bespoke a ready sense of humor, or to feel the 
sympathetic touch of his hand, or hear the soft musical tones 
of his voice always attuned perfectly to the occasion whether 
in the simply furnished room of his study at his residence in 
Baltimore talking with a friend or two, or in a brilliant 
drawing room surrounded by social leaders, or in the halls of 
Congress where he was a frequent visitor, or from the plat- 
form or the pulpit before audiences large or small, without 
feeling instantly the magnetism of a great personality. His 
transparent simplicity of thought combined with singular 
lucidity in expression, his radiant faith in God and the suprem- 
acy of right, and the breadth of his wonderful humanitarian- 
ism seemed to transmute moral and social values into realities 
before one as he discussed any cause to which he gave his 
attention and devoted his energies. 

America will never forget and can scarcely yet fully ap- 
praise the value of Cardinal Gibbons' clear understanding of 
the labor problem, his defence of organized labor, his ag- 
gressive repulsion of the attack within his church, thirty-five 
years ago, on the Knights of Labor, and his undoubted influ- 
ence upon the social doctrines of the famous encyclical on labor 
of Pope Leo XIII, issued just shortly after his own installa- 
tion as a cardinal in 1887. 

To quote a review of Cardinal Gibbons' life by the Rev. 
John C. Reville, S. J., in the current issue of America, Cardi- 
nal Gibbons' report on the Knights of Labor then in danger of 

facing ecclesiastical censure and condemnation at Rome was 

. . . the ablest document he ever wrote perhaps. Good men 
called the American Cardinal a socialist. But Manning in 
England looked upon the document as one worthy of a true 
friend of the poor. . . . The cause of the laborer and the 
workingman never had such splendid champions as Leo XIII 
and the prelate whom he had but a short while before lifted 
to the honors of the purple. In the person of James Cardinal 
Gibbons labor had an eloquent and able ambassador in the 
Holy City. 

I must not fail to mention particularly his great interest 
and sympathy for the cause of the working children because 
he was one of the first national figures to lend a helping hand, 
pen, and voice from the day he joined the little group that 
organized the National Child Labor Committee in 1904. 
The courage of his convictions was often tested and never 
found wanting as he was appealed to in support of the prin- 
ciples of the National Child Labor Committee at times when 
powerful influences in his church as well as economic and po- 
litical considerations did not always make their advocacy pop- 
ular. It never seemed to occur to Cardinal Gibbons to put any 
other consideration above right, or church above country, or | 
sectionalism above nationalism, or nationalism above human- 
ity. In the understanding of labor and capital, in the pro- 
motion of good-will, and their mutual understanding, he was 
almost without a peer — a sincere friend and promoter of in- 
dustrial peace, whose manifold labors as an industrial arbi- 
trator for more than a generation are not as widely known 
as they deserve to be. In the field of international arbitra- 
tion and in the cause of peace among nations he was no less 
sagacious and untiring in his efforts to serve humanity. 

It is, however, as an American who understood the spirit 
of America and the genius of our institutions that Cardinal 
Gibbons served best his day and generation, his church and 
his country. He lived under twenty-two presidents of the 
United States, many of whom he knew intimately and ad- 
vised with freely, and under five popes, four of whom he 
knew intimately and whom he helped to an understanding 
and interpretation of the liberalism and freedom of Americ 
to which he was loyal to the end. 

Born in the city of Baltimore, receiving part of his edj 
cation for the priesthood there, returning there as its arcl 
bishop and occupant of the oldest see in the United States ij| 
1873 at the early age of thirty-nine, which brought within hi 
diocese the capital of the nation, he has been Baltimore's fin 
citizen, her choicest gift to the nation. The nation mourns h 
loss, but will revere his memory and needs more than ever t) 
cultivate the lessons which his clear social vision, his uninj 
peachable patriotism and profound Americanism hare taught us 




Grouped as follows: 
I. Some Community Problems „ III. The Rolling Dollar 

II. Americans All IV. Helps to Social Workers 

V. E Pur Si Muove 


However myopically contemporary criticism may reckon with 
Edgar Lee Masters — as one of the four foremost living poets of 
this country, as master story-teller and artist in characterization, 
as temperate philosopher — he is sure of some life in later genera- 
tions for his criticism of his own time and land. 

Masters' is the curative scalpel of Dreiser, Anderson and, lately, 
Sinclair Lewis. He is one of the "undeluded men" who, as Waldo 
Frank asserts in his commentary on American culture, "went over 
the fabric of Puritan America and found it rotting, and found it 
full of lies." The burden of the Spoon River Anthology which in 
1914-15 first drew attention to his poetry, is "the burial of life and 
love beneath the crass deposits of the American world." It is also 
the burden of the four volumes of poetry that Masters has produced 
since that date, though because poems on other themes appear in 
these books the message is not so obvious. It is once more the 
concern of his second large literary effort, Domesday Book. 1 

But Masters is net sunk in unillumined despair, as the phrase 
might suggest. He scrapes at the crass deposits because underneath 
lies "the soul of America, the pure dream of our founders." He 
is never an idealist at loose ends. He knows what he wants of 
his country, and he has dedicated his art to fighting for it. 

Curious, with this past record for saying something and that 
always the same thing, is the manner in which Domesday Book has 
been received. Everything about it seems to have been considered 
except the author's intention. It has been compared, inevitably, to 
The Ring and the Book because, likewise a lengthy poem, a similar 
device has been employed to break it up into readable portions. 
It has been called reminiscent of that strange book, based upon 
a Bergsonian conception of life, Mort de Quelqu'un, with which it 
again has nothing in common but device of treatment. It has been 
criticized for containing few passages of real poetry; for saying 
little that is startlingly new; for being concerned wholly with 
undisciplined and willful people. These are literary criticisms. 
Domesday Book should not be criticized as a pure work of art. 
It succinctly states its purpose. It is more concerned with message 
than poetry, with what it says than how it says it; its philosophy 
is not meant to be original ; its characters are willful because they 
are symbolical rather than representative. Domesday Book is not 
literature primarily. Primarily it is social diagnosis. 

"I have made a book," says Masters in his first lines, "called 
Domesday Book, a census spiritual taken of our America, or in 
part taken, not wholly taken it may be. . . . This book ... is a 
house book too (he has in mind the Domesday Book of William 
the Conqueror) of riches, poverty and weakness, strength of this 
our country." 

The artist has the advantage of the social philosopher. "Art," 
Browning wrote, "may tell a truth obliquely, do the thing shall 
breed the thought ... so write a book shall mean beyond the facts, 
suffice the eye and save the soul beside." This advantage Masters 
has taken. He has offered his criticism of America in the form of 
that most dearly loved of all forms of story-making, the mystery 
plot. There is enough story to suffice the eye and captivate the at- 
tention of those who have no interest in saving their souls while 
reading for entertainment. 

A young woman, Elenor Murray, who had been in France as a 
nurse during the war, is found dead on the shore of a river in 
Illinois. The coroner's inquest brings out her story. The testimony 
of her family and of the friends of different periods in her short 
but full life gradually reveals her past, the complexity of her 
nature, the cause of her death. As they testify they stand themselves 
revealed. Taken merely as creatures of the creative fancy, Elenor 
Murray and the many other characters in the book who appear on 
the scene for only their few pages are, for the most part, plausible 
human beings who live. 

1 Domesday Book, 
the Survkt, $4.75. 

Macmillan Co. 396 pp. Price, $4.50; by mail of 

So much for the eye. What lies beyond the facts? Masters h»s 
taken Elenor Murray as his symbol of America. With her com- 
plexities she is many things to many people. To the idealist wh» 
loves her only to the moment of his disillusionment she is this 

A restlessness, a hunger, and a zeal ; 

A hope for goodness, and a tenderness; 

A love, a sorrow, and a venturing will ; 

A dreamer fooled but dreaming still, a vision 

That followed lures that fled her, generous, loving, 

But also avid and insatiable ; 

An egoism chained and starved too long 

That breaks away and runs; a cruelty, 

A willfulness, a dealer in false weights, 

And measures of herself, her duty, others, 

A lust, a slick hypocrisy and a faith 

Faithless and hollow. 

But Masters, the patriot, has the patience of understanding. He 
lets Elenor Murray say in full self-recognition: 

Behold me as America, taught but half, 

Wayward and thoughtless, fighting for a chance ; 

Denied its ordered youth, thrown into life 

But half prepared, so seeking to emerge 

Out of a tangled blood, and out of the earth 

A creature of the earth that strives to win 

A soul, a voice. 

This symbolical representation of America in the character and 
life of Elenor Murray is not the sole tool the story affords for 
Masters' criticism. In realistic fashion the mystery of the girl's 
death and the gradual revelation of her life bring comments from 
those who did not know her but who, looking on dispassionately, 
have a personal interpretation to offer. Some of the best passages 
in the book are these letters, editorials and discussions of characters 
outside the story. The coroner's jury, too, offers a fine opportunity. 
One suspects that they are actual friends of the author. The coroner 
is certainly Masters himself. What sort of America does Masters 

I have a vision . . . 

Of a new republic, brighter than the sun, 

A new race, loftier faith, this land of ours 

Made over as to people, boys and girls, 

Conserved like forests, water power or mines; 

Watched, tested, put to best use, keen economies 

Practiced in spirits, waste of human life, 

Hope, aspiration, talent, virtues, powers, 

Avoided by a science, science of life, 

Of spirit, what you will. Enough of war, 

And billions for the flag — all well enough ! 

Some billions now to make democracy 

Democracy in truth with us, and life 

Not helter-skelter, hitting as it may, 

And missing much. 

And what is the national spirit to bring it about? 

. . . the soul maternal, out of which 

All goodness, beauty, and benevolence, 

All aspiration, sacrifice, all death 

For truth and liberty blesses life of us. 

This soul maternal, passion to create 

New life and guide it into happiness, 

Is Mother Mary of all tenderness, 

All charity, all vision, rises up 

From its obscurity and primal force 

Of romance, passion and the child to re- 1 .::;:, 

Democracies, republics; never flags 

To make them brighter, freer, so to spread 

Its ecstasy to all, and take in turn 

Redoubled ecstasy. 

Florence Fleisher. 






A Triangular Debate between John J. Murphy, Edith Elmer 

Wood and Frederick L. Ackerman. E. P. Dutton & Co. 246 pp. 

Price, $2.50; by mail of the Survey, $2.60. 

This latest contribution to the housing question is to be recom- 
mended both for its form and substance. After a brief statement of 
the general thesis of the debate and of the competence of the three 
authors, eight topics are discussed, each debater speaking three 
times to each topic, and each topic logically leading on to the next. 
Mr. Murphy, former tenement house commissioner of New York city, 
is the conservative in this group, though, apart from his somewhat 
excessive individualism, he is far from being reactionary and, in- 
deed, states many of the problems with fearless denunciation of 
existing methods of home supply. Mr. Ackerman is the radical but, 
in spite of an often somewhat theoretical interest in what he con- 
siders permanently sound solutions, always realistic in his argu- 
ments and projects. Mrs. Wood occupies a middle ground and 
seems influenced, in the main, by the results of practical experience. 
Thus Mr. Murphy, in his conclusion, agrees with his opponents in 
stating that the "fundamental cause of housing famine rests upon 
an industrial condition which does not enable a great mass of work- 
ers to earn enough to provide their families with sanitary, safe and 
agreeable homes" but insists that, temporary alleviations apart, we 
must, in the future as in the past, look to self-reliance of the indi- 
vidual as the only possible solution. Mr. Ackerman believes a solu- 
tion impossible until society has dealt successfully with the accumula- 
tion of wealth in the hands of comparatively few individuals and 
placed all industry on a basis of service instead of profits. Mrs. 
Wood believes that the housing of the lower paid wage-earners must 
and will eventually be removed from the domain of business enter- 
prise and taken over by the state as a public utility. It is impossible 
to summarize, in brief space, the pros and cons of this good-tem- 
pered, yet pointed and illuminating debate. It covers practically all 
the more important recent proposals to relieve the housing shortage, 
gives some of the main facts of American and foreign experience 
and goes far to explain the historic causation of the trouble in which 
we now find ourselves; is in short, a wholesome and instructive per- 
formance from which all three participants emerge with consider- 
able credit though none of them carries off the championship. 

B. L. 

By Frederick Haynes Newell. Yale University Press. 310 pp. 
Illustrated. Price, $6.00; by mail of the Survey, $6.30. 


By George Thomas. Macmillan Co. Rural Science Series. 293 

pp. Price, $2.75; by mail of the Survey, $2.90. 

Professor Newell, former director of the Reclamation Service, is 
perhaps the greatest living authority on the economic use and con- 
servation of water resources. In the lectures that constitute the sub- 
stance of the present volume, he gives a rounded picture of the 
problems involved. Those who have heard him lecture know that 
Professor Newell at times handles his topic with fine literary crafts- 
manship and is entertaining even in the discussion of purely tech- 
nical phases of his own pioneer work in this field. The present book 
begins with the most elementary phases of the subject. After having 
considered its behavior under, on the surface of, and above ground 
— its devastating or beneficial behavior, as the case may be — we 
are introduced to water as a social problem and a great taskmaster 
for our engineers, economists and statesmen. What has already 
been done in the United States to bridle this element so that it may 
serve human needs, in itself makes a wonderful story. But more 
work lies ahead, work requiring the utmost watchfulness lest re- 
sources that should be a blessing for all times are exhausted or 
deviated to the immediate benefit of a small section of the com- 
munity; work in which, for the immediate future, the purely legis- 
lative and protective activity of Congress will have to play the 
principal part. Of this the author says: 

There is no evading the great question of water conservation. 
Each year it is presented more strongly to our attention. The 
hundred million and more people who live in the United States 

already have need for a larger and better regulated water sup- 
ply and for protection from floods. At the present rate of in- 
crease, other millions will soon be more urgently demanding 
larger opportunities for life and comfort. New complications 
are arising, and the sooner the problems are attacked, the easier 
will be the solution. 

Professor Thomas, of the University of Utah, deals with one spe- 
cific factor in the problem, and follows this more especially through 
the development it has undergone in his own state. He claims for 
the Mormon pioneers that they were the first to introduce irrigation 
on a large scale in America. Others have told of the growth of 
correct technical ideas as succeeding generations learned better to 
understand the nature of their task. But Professor Thomas, for the 
first time, tells the story of the economic organization that grew 
from early efforts into one of the most developed examples in the 
United States of cooperative community enterprise. It is to students 
of that subject, as well as to those directly concerned in irrigation 
questions, that this book offers a history of considerable interest, 
showing the connection between water control and the land system, 
the gradual upbuilding of new forms of association for common ends, 
the history of legal decisions and of legislation; finally the assump- 
tion of protective rights by the federal government and the crystal- 
lization of a national program on the reclamation of arid lands. 
Within its limits, this volume is an admirable contribution to our 
knowledge on a subject of ever increasing importance. 

B. L. 

By James E. Boyle. A. C. McClurg & Co. National Social 
Science Series. 142 pp. Price, $i.oo; by mail of the Survey, 

The addition of a volume on rural social problems to this ex- 
cellent series will be widely welcomed, the more so since Pro- 
fessor Boyle, of Cornell University, has performed the task ad- 
mirably within the limits set. This is especially true of the chapters 
dealing with the rural institutions in which, drawing on many 
interesting personal experiences, he sets forth programs and criti- 
cisms that are both sound and stimulating. Not so happy is his 
exposition of the more fundamental economic problems which to 
many will seem not only over-condensed but ultra-conservative. 
We cannot agree, for instance, that a seasonal exchange of labor 
between farm and city is "the final solution" of the agricultural 
labor problem. Nor do we think that the author is quite fair in 
ascribing the "farmers' movements" of recent years to self-seeking 
outsiders whose one aim is that of creating suspicion, misunder- 
standing and ill-will between the farmer and his banker. Un- 
prejudiced bankers often admit that something is fundamentally 
wrong in the present relationship between the farmers and a bank- 
ing system too largely controlled by non-farming interests. The 
wholesale exoneration of the middleman from the charge of pro- 
fiteering also is too light and off-hand to carry conviction. Here 
again, the popular charge may often be wrong if based on moral 
principles; but can there be any doubt that the system of distribu- 
tion largely fails in the very functions which, as the author pro- 
claims, justify its existence? • B. L. 


By Samuel Henry Prince. Longmans, Green & Co. 151 pp. 

Paper: Price, $1.50; by mail of the Survey, $1.55. Cloth: Price, 

$2.25; by mail of the Survey, $2.40. 

Do disasters help the places they visit and lay waste? Are San 
Francisco, Galveston, Dayton and Halifax better cities now than 
they would have been had catastrophe passed them by? Are there 
elements — psychologic, economic, social — in fires, floods, tornadoes, 
pestilences and earthquakes which quicken the pace of social pro- 
gress? If so, can we state the nature and manner of operation of 
these elements in terms of principles? And would a knowledge of 
these principles, if any there be, practically help a social worker in 
his efforts to make the last state of a disaster-stricken communi 
better than the first? 

If you are interested in such questions as these, you will be 
terested in Dr. Prince's book. It is neither a disaster relief manual 
nor a history of disasters. It is a study of Halifax before and after 
the explosion, made by a sociologist who had a hand in the relief 
work and who was on the scene long after the need for the im- 
migrant emergency relief workers had ceased. 

Much human interest and imagination and, in appropriate places, 


lity |I 

9k - . 



a certain dramatic quality are written into the book. The fearsome 
lingo of the sociologist has been used with commendable restraint. 
"The usual condition of the body politic is immobility, conservatism 
and determined resistance to change." (Social workers will forgive 
Dr. Prince this bromidic assertion for the sake of the challenge of 
what follows.) "But when there comes the shattering of the matrix 
of custom by catastrophe, then mores are broken up and scattered 
right and left. Fluidity is accomplished by a stroke. There comes 
a sudden chance for permanent social change." 

Catastrophe always means social change. Social change does not 
necessarily mean progress. But it may and often does mean this, as 
every social worker knows. It did for Halifax, and that — the main 
part of the book's theme — will be of particular interest to Haligon- 
ians and to the men and women from the States who lent a hand at 
Halifax during the dark winter of 'i7-'i8. Halifax exceeded all 
previous disasters in its toll of life. Nevertheless the city's popula- 
tion has since steadily increased and at a more rapid rate than be- 
fore the catastrophe. It was 50,000 the year of the explosion; 50,650 
a year later; 65,000 in 1920; 85,000 according to the present esti- 
mate. The fact that the eligible voters who cast ballots increased 
from 36 per cent in 1918 to 48 per cent in 1920 suggests that the 
disaster had an effect the reverse of rendering the populace apathetic 
to civic interests and political duties. 

City planning in America is said to date from the great Chicago 
fire. Certainly, Halifax owes much to the disaster for her city plan 
and her housing improvements. "The old sombre, frame-con- 
structed buildings of the pre-disaster days are being replaced with 
attractive hydrostone." And there is a plan for zoning the city, 
widening the streets and for the provision of parks and playgrounds 
and shade trees. 

The matter of health organization in Halifax affords perhaps 
the most significant contrast with the pre-disaster days. Prior 
to the catastrophe the public health organization was not a mat- 
ter for civic pride. . . . Today Halifax has the finest public 
health program and most complete public health organization in 
the Dominion. The fact that this is so is in very close relation 
to the catastrophe inasmuch as an unexpended balance of relief 
moneys has been redirected, by request, for health purposes in 

A recreation commission has been formed. ... A playground 
expert was called in. . . . Already marked progress has re- 
sulted. . ". . About fifteen acres in the heart of the devastated 
area has been reserved for a park and playground. The city 
has built and turned over to the commission a temporary bath 
house, and has set aside the sum of $10,000 for a permanent 
structure. The commission's plans contain recommendations for 
minimum play-space for every school child, a central public re- 
creation area, an open air hillside stadium, as well as a com- 
munity center with auditorium, community theater, natatorium, 
gymnasium and public baths. 

The disaster is believed to have given an impetus to local social 
movements. The social workers of the different creeds and classes 
are said to have discovered each other and to be getting together. 
(That is always epochal!) 

Thus the city of Halifax has been galvanized into life through 
the testing experience of a great catastrophe. She has under- 
gone a civic transformation such as could hardly otherwise have 
happened in fifty years. She has caught the spirit of the social 

It should be understood, though, that this book is not merely a 
chronicle of what happened to Halifax; its chief value, in the view 
of the author, lies "in its bearing upon predicable social movements 
in great emergencies." J. B. Deacon. 

Edited and compiled by George Seay Wheat. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 98 pp. Illustrated. Price, $1.75; by mail of the Survey, 
Written in part by the chief of the Army Air Service, the director 

I- of Naval Aviation tnd several officers in charge of landing field 
operations, this book for the first time presents as a whole and 
I cone etely the most important aspects of flying as a project of peace - 
I time transportation in the United States. The safety both of fliers 
f and of the public, the protection of mail and property against loss 
and delays, the need for avoiding an avalanche of complicated law- 
suits demand a speedy definition of aerial traffic rules applicable for 
the whole country, a mapping out of aerial routes of travel and the 
construction and equipment of an adequate number of aviation 

"ports." Questions of material equipment and of routes of travel 
— in accordance with commercial needs and prevailing atmospheric 
conditions — rather than questions of law make up the greater part 
of the book. It is important that this matter be studied by guardians 
of the public interest as well as airmen and those connected with 
commercial interests; and it is for this reason that, at a time when 
so many cities contemplate the provision of landing fields and when 
aerial traffic rules are under discussion, the publication of this book, 
bringing the whole subject close to the layman's understanding, is 
especially to be welcomed. B. L. 

By W. Cunningham. Macmillan Co. 54 pp. Paper. 
$ .40; by mail of the Survey, $ .45. 



By Edwin Benson. Macmillan Co. 84 pp. Illustrated. Price, 

$2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.10. 

Both studies are based on the contention that further and deeper 
use of archeological methods would vastly contribute to the existing 
historical knowledge of medieval life which is too largely drawn 
from literature. The late Professor Cunningham, in an essay which 
he had evidently intended to elaborate into a more important work, 
somewhat sketchily encompasses the whole of medieval town life, 
often merely suggesting subjects for further inquiry or hastily jot- 
ting down casual comparisons of examples that happen to have come 
to his ken. Mr. Benson, on the other hand, gives a rounded picture 
of the medieval city of York which he has studied intimately for 
many years. The second of the two books, therefore, is by far the 
more, readable, though the first gives evidence of a broader scholar- 
ship. Both authors gain their inspiration from buildings; but Mr. 
Benson has succeeded in peopling his narrow lanes (or "gates"), 
his abbey, market, guildhalls, with a crowd whose motives and 
actions we can understand. Their civic, parliamentary and national' 
life, their business, religion, education, entertainment, and the class 
division among them are vividly portrayed. The Story of the English 
Towns, a series of books to which this volume belongs, will help 
the American student of social institutions to gain an insight into 
the municipal life of the Middle Ages which is necessary for the 
comprehension of American civic origins. B. L. 


By Jay S. Stowell. George H. Doran Co. 123 pp. Price, $1.50; 
by mail of the Survey, $1.60. 

The title of this valuable little volume Joes not fully bring out 
the fact that it is concerned wholly with the Mexicans in the United 
States. There are many of these — nobody knows how many, since 
our census blanks do not segregate them. They are of two classes'. 
Some are descendants of the native inhabitants of those regions 
which we took over from Mexico as the outcome of the war of 
1847 (pretty extensive regions they were, too, New Mexico, Arizona, 
California, though not so densely populated seventy-four years ago 
as now) ; the others are immigrants from Mexico, many of them 
recent arrivals, mostly laborers, some political exiles. It is strange 
that it should be true, but it seems to be, that no study of this large 
segment of our foreign population has ever before been undertaken. 
Mr. Stowell investigated the subject for the Interchurch World 
Movement. He writes with an intelligent sympathy that commends 
his subject and conveys a mass of most valuable information. His 
book blazes a road that ought to be widened out and become well 
traveled. G. B. Winton. 


By Edgar H. Webster. Richard G. Badger. 247 pp. Price, 

$1.75 ; by mail of the Survey, $1.90. 

As principal of the normal department of Atlanta University, 
Mr. Webster knows the young aspiring Negro perhaps as well 
as any white man. But his knowledge also extends to the home 
life of students and alumni and what he says of the southern 
Negro is authoritative. The book is composed of a miscellany 
of short newspaper articles, sermons, statistics, book reviews, 
letters and other items, some of them addressed to colored and 





THE native-born, who are carrying the burden of na- 
tional unification, must rid themselves of two kinds of 
obsession before they will be spiritually fit to undertake 
the task of securing the whole-souled loyalty and coopera- 
tion of the foreign-born. 

These delusions are, first, that native Americans con- 
stitute a superior race when compared with the foreign- 
born, and, second, that our institutions and aspirations are 
peculiar and distinctive to our own people and country. It 
is recognized that Americans only exhibit usual nationalistic 
conceits in these assumptions of superiority. 

The love of liberty which we ordinarily assume to be 
distinctive of Americans, is but a fundamental desire 
wherever the human species is found. The differences in 
the degree of liberty prevailing in various nationalities is 
due chiefly to the difficulties which they have respectively 
encountered in their efforts to secure freedom. We have 
been more fortunate, perhaps, than others in that institu- 
tions and conditions which elsewhere have thwarted liberty 
have never existed here. 

From Schooling the Immigrant, by Frank V. Thompson. Harper 
and Bros. 

some to white readers. Through all of them runs a thread of 
sympathetic understanding for the difficulties and struggles of a 
race that is trying to raise itself by its bootstraps with very little 
assistance from its white neighbors. The author is convinced that 
only a much greater personal acquaintance of southern whites 
with the fine colored men and women can bridge the present 
gulf of mutual suspicion and retain for the South the best elements 
of the Negro race. His contributions, written at different periods 
of the war when he was in close touch with the Atlanta men at 
officers' training camps, and, later, as commissioned officers, start 
more hopefully for the effect of that great experience on race 
relations than they end. So far, the war has not made for greater 
democracy in the South ; on the contrary, it seems to have diverted 
to the North much enthusiasm and energy that was needed to 
spread the great civilizing mission of the university. B. L. 


By Robert Russa Moton. Doubleday Page & Co. 296 pp. Price, 

$2.50; by mail of the Survey, $2.70. 

The raison d'etre of a biography is obvious. To some one per- 
son at least its subject has been inspiring, immensely important or 
merely admirable. An autobiography is different. One must be 
sure that one's life, however marvellous to oneself — and to which 
of us is it not — is able to' furnish precept and example to those 
of another day and generation, no matter how remote or differently 
circumstanced they may be. 

This is the lack in Major Moton's book which makes one close 
it with a sense of dissatisfaction such as one experiences from 
eating viands without salt. It is an account too placid to inspire 
dogged determination like Booker T. Washington's Up From Slavery 
or to stir with rhapsody and fervor to emulation like Dr. Dubois' 
Shadow of the Years in his Darkwater. It is the story of a man 
who has lived soberly and industriously, but too securely; obedient 
to circumstances, torn with no great desires and urged forward 
by no high resolutions. It is doubtful if he has ever tasted the 
fierceness of rebellion against fate or can envisage it in others. Cer- 
tainly the story of the Indian boy at Hampton leaves this impression. 
It is pleasant to know that Major Moton rose from poverty and 
ignorance to a position of dignity and comparative comfort, but 
either his account of his personal efforts to attain this position is 
too modest, or one is forced to believe in luck. Jessie Fauset. 


By Sholom Asch. E. P. Dutton & Co. 238 pp. Price, $2.50; 

by mail of the Survey, $2.65. 

For more than a generation men of energy and ambition have 
come to America from the little villages of Galicia and Poland 
to make their fortunes. Most of them failed. Some succeeded. 
How they achieved "success," by virtue of what meanness, cruelty, 
deception, is here set forth in a moving and convincing manner. 
Uncle Moses, the sweater, the "cockroach" boss, is a type once 

common. Through the pages of this book, written by a Yiddish 
writer of the East Side, move all the warring factions that today 
stir the foreign colonies in America. The conflict between the old 
civilization and the new, the struggle between orthodoxy and agnos- 
ticism, the war between capital and labor — are interwoven with 
a story of love, ambition and failure ; and the net result is inevitable 
— profound tragedy. Sholom Asch is an artist in character drawing. 
Mannes, the politician who sees nothing wrong in gang politics; 
Charlie, the Socialist; Sam, the faithful satrap who becomes the 
betrayer for fear of losing his place of power; Masha, the timid, 
preyed upon by that greatest tyrant in Jewish life — the family; 
finally Uncle Moses, the monumental failure — all are painted with 
painstaking care, with the realism of truth. W. M. Josopait. 


A Reader for Colored Children, compiled by Myron T. Pritch- 

ard and Mary White Ovington. Harcourt, Brace and Howe. 

2 55 PP- Illustrated. Price, $1.35; by mail of the Survey, $1.50. 

This first and only collection of prose and verse by Negro writers 
for children will be widely welcomed as filling a deplorable void, 
the more so since the selection has been guided by wide sympathies 
and excellent taste. Many of the contributions, reprinted from a 
great variety of publications, have no color element in them at all 
and would be just as suitable in a reader for white children. Others 
teach a commendable race pride without encouraging race prejudice. 

B. L. 


((AND what will you give to America, Charlie?" asked 


"What shall I give? I'll give that which every Jewish 
child from Russia gives. Oh, we owe so much to America, 
and we must give her so much! America gave us every- 
thing — made us different from our parents. We owe 
America a great debt for the freedom she has given us. 
And we'll give her the same as we gave Russia — wq are 
in duty bound to give her our revolutionary spirit, our 
eternal protest, our ambitious dissatisfaction. We owe it 
to America to be different from our parents." 

From Uncle Moses, by Sholom Asch. E. P. Dutton & Co. 


By Mary E. Laing. World Book Co. 329 pp. Illustrated. 

Price, $1.60; by mail of the Survey, $1.75. 

The Hero of the Longhouse, by Mary E. Laing, is a welcome addi- 
tion to stories of Indian life and Indian lore. It is from the pen 
of one possessing understanding, sympathy, and unusually keen per- 
ception of the people, their habitat and the time of which she 
writes. Moreover, the story is based upon well authenticated facts, 
and gives a clear view of the Indian's social organization, hit 
philosophy, mythology, religious rites and ceremonies. The author 
spent much time visiting the country of the Longhouse people. She 
writes clearly of the ways and thoughts of the Iroquois, and pre- 
sents them as human beings, with the same lofty ideals that are to 
be found in any civilization. 

The Indian has been grossly maligned in the average school his- 
tory, and The Hero of the Longhouse ought to be placed in the 
hands of the rising generation that they may learn that nobility of 
character is not a trait monopolized by the white-skinned. The 
book is inspiring and any one reading it will gain pleasure and 
profit The illustrations by David C. Lithgow are in keeping with 
the text. Matthew K. Sniffen. 


By Harold G. Moulton. University of Chicago Press. 789 pp. 
Price, $4.00; by mail of the Survey, $4.25. 
For anyone who desires a conservatively stated, comprehensive i 
picture of our financial system as a whole, Professor Moulton has- 
performed a service not hitherto rendered by any other American] 
writer of equal standing. In the midst of wide-spread unemploy- 




ment and of political complications at home and abroad that are 
largely traceable to maladjustments of the machinery of credit, we 
are especially in need of a secure footing in established facts and 
proven theories. The present volume surveys the different types 
of financial institutions separately and in their joint effects, in 
relation to their own immediate purposes and to larger social- 
economic ends. Incidentally it includes an authoritative review of 
the federal reserve system and its influence on industry and de- 
flation since the Armistice. Bibliographies and questions for dis- 
cussion enhance its value for educational uses. B. L. 

By A. W. Kirkaldy. E. P. Dutton & Co. 147 pp. Price, $2.25; 
by mail of the Survey, $2.35. 

By Thomas Nixon Carver. Ginn & Co. 400 pp. Price, $1.72; 
by mail of the Survey, $1.82. 


By James Cunnison. E. P. Dutton & Co. 168 pp. Price, $2.00; 

by mail of the Survey, $2.10. 

These books bear witness to the growth of the conviction that 
the science of economics is one of the basic ingredients of a "prac- 
tical" education, or of an education for citizenship. Professor 
Carver's book is a high school text, while the two English books 
cover the elementary ground with more general application. 

The mode of approach most suitable for an elementary discus- 
sion is still a question for fruitful argument. Professor Kirkaldy 
.gives preference to the direct and orthodox method, defining terms, 
glimpsing historical backgrounds, and treating the subject under the 
headings of Land, Labor and Capital. Professor Carver, on the 
other hand, devotes practically all of the first half of his book 
to the development of a background for his later more abstract 
discussion. In his preliminary material he sketches the prosperous 
nation, its sources and methods of wealth production, and its valued 
citizen, the wise homo economicus. While these methods undoubted- 
ly aim at a humanized and ethical economics, as they develop they 
leave the book open to the objections that the material is over- 
simplified, or pre-digested ; that constant stress upon the virtues 
of economy creates a sort of homiletic atmosphere; and that the 
experimental nature of the material is not sufficiently emphasized. 

Economics, the third volume, maintains the experimental atti- 
tude. It regards the existing economic structure as fluid, and 
sketches its salient characteristics and its changing direction. It 
compasses a wide territory through a verbal skill that is amazing 
in its ability to explain principles and situations in the briefest 
yet most readable of statements. A. E. Morey. 


By Leonard Alston. E. P. Dutton & Co. 158 pp. Price, $1.50; 

by mail of the Survey, $1.60. 

An exposition of elementary economics in the anecdotal, colloquial 
and chatty style which Mr. Alston has attempted can only be ex- 
plained on the ground that the author himself considers his subject 
essentially uninteresting. An enthusiast needs no sugar coating 
to present his wares in a popular and appealing manner. So far 
from having reduced his subject, as he claims, to words and "ideas 
of one syllable," the author has, in fact, enveloped it in incon- 
sequential verbiage. So far from succeeding in giving a really 
clear idea of the main economic facts, his patter is more apt to 
discourage the student. As a matter of fact, economics is not "the 
dismal science," as he calls it, but one of strong appeal to young 
people; and fortunately there are text-books which satisfy their 
desire for information in such a way as to stimulate rather than 
choke serious concern and study. B. L. 


By Frank Hodges. Thomas Seltzer, Inc. 170 pp. Price, $1.75 ; 

by mail of the Survey, $1.85. 

This book by Mr. Hodges is the authority on what the mine 
workers in Englard desire to obtain and what is meant by the 
expression "the nationalization of the mines." For Mr. Hodges is 
the secretary of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain. In the 
main, it is an expression of why the men have grown restive under 
the system of private ownership of coal until now they desire con- 
trol over the industry which provides them with the opportunity 
of earning a living. 

In reading it one will find that some of the steps of logic in 

arguing the cause of the miners seem to be omitted. And there 
are some assumptions made which may not work out as expected. 
For instance, it is admitted that in the nationalization of the mines 
there will be a need of those men who possess technical and ad- 
ministrative ability, and it is proposed that the same men who 
now hold official positions shall be continued in those capacities, 
the assumption being that they will work as willingly (and even 
more willingly) when they a»e employed by the community as a 
whole than when they are responsible to private employers. It is 
an assumption which may not work out in practice. For it is a ques- 
tion whether men trained in one school can easily shift themselves to 
be responsive under diametrically opposite conditions. Moreover, 
it is an assumption made without quoting expressions from that 
unorganized and expressionless class — the men in between. It can- 
not help but give a funny feeling under the ribs to those who 
now hold official positions, as if they were the pure, unadulterated 
servants whom neither side had to regard seriously. 

The book, however, is one which should be read by all those who 
desire to know what nationalization of the mines means in the 
British sense and what is the exact plan. For in England nationali- 
zation is not a hazy scheme, but a definite, concrete plan. 

Hugh Archbald. 


Edited by Elsie M. Rushmore. Introduction by F. W. Jenkins. 
Russell Sage Foundation. 174 pp. Price, $3.50; by mail of the 
Survey, $3.65. 

By the publication of this comprehensive reference book, the 
library of the Russell Sage Foundation has not only conferred a boon 
upon students who can consult it on the spot but also upon social 
workers everywhere who are in need of sources of information 
on the fields of work in which they are interested. Some four 
thousand institutions and organizations which regularly issue re- 
ports and bulletins are listed, first alphabetically and then in subject 
groups. No one would expect such a compilation to be complete, 
since too detailed a sub-division of subjects is impracticable; its 
use assumes some knowledge of sociological classification. More- 
over, the Russell Sage library, though the most complete repository 
of this kind of material, has naturally grown along the lines of 
chief interests of the foundation's own departments. This is es- 
pecially true of the foreign references included. Some of the most 
important serial contributions to various subjects are contained 
in the publications of organizations whose work covers a wider 
field ; and as these are seemingly listed only once, the student 
who relies exclusively on the subject index is apt to miss valuable 
sources. It would be difficult, however, to suggest any way of 
overcoming that drawback without greatly adding to the bulk of 
the guide. As this is the outcome of a cooperative effort in which 
experts in the different fields have participated, its actual contents 
are authoritative; and its appreciation, both by students and by 
practical social workers, is assured. B. L. 


By J. Elliot Ross, C. S. P. Devin-Adair Co. 130 pp. Price, 

$1.50; by mail of the Survey, $1.55. 

Father Ross has to his credit two admirable little books on 
specific social questions: Consumers and Wage-earners, and The 
Right to Work. In the book before us he combats two prevalent 
misconceptions of the nature of saintliness: that mystics are social 
drones, making no return to society; and, on the other hand, that 
a contemplative life in itself embodies the perfection of Christian 
ethics. The retirement of the saint, he shows, in most cases has 
been not the antithesis of social activity but a "preparati»n for a 
fuller, completer, intenser labor afterwards." His mysticism differs 
from that of the fatalist Buddhist in that passivity is not its goal, 
but a stage to a fuller development of social compassion and love. 
"To go up alone into the mountain and come back an ambassador 
to the world, has ever been the method of humanity's best friends." 

At a time of unrest and hectic activity, unsupported by faith, or, 
sometimes, even by a consistent view of personal and social re- 
sponsibilities, such as the present, the earnest and eloquent appeal 
(Continued on page 22) 




TT/'ITH every doll a specimen of the Nordic 
'' type, every picture book and magazine illus- 
tration of child life representative of the white race, 
it is difficult for colored children to grow up by way 
of that imaginative world which Andersen and 
Stevenson and Maeterlinck and all the story tellers 
and artists since the days of Gutenberg have made 
the common country of childhood. 

Not only this, but with a literature to which 
Negroes at best are amusing pickaninnies or faithful 
servitors, it is difficult for the colored child to gain 
the sense of human dignity without which the efforts 
made in recent years to increase and improve his 
educational opportunities must be largely wasted. 

For adult Negroes there are excellent newspapers 

and periodicals, but, so far, very little fiction and 

imaginative literature has been written from a 

Negro standpoint. The Brownies' Book is intended 

to help foster a proper racial self-respect. 

^£ ^yiF 

S$I\IW Ifi 


*^f fflk 

•&2L f^!s 



—jHu^i' y.^S 


f\ Mffi b K°r 

P«flfc b ^Wr/ 


' 'BBBwj.vJk'' 


: -/JWi 


The illustrations here 
reproduced are from 
various recent issues 
of the Brownies' Book, 
a monthly publication 
of W. E. DuBois and 
A. G. Dill, of which 
Jessie R. Tauset, an- 
other member of tht 
Crisis staff, is literary 
editor and •which is a 
first and remarkably 
successful attempt to 
translate the child's 
paradise from white 
into Hack. 




r ■, t T — wJAn. -*" — 



Vol. XLVI 


No 1 


SPEAKING of "typographical eras," a review of the 
recent book by Tawney called The Acquisitive Society 
lately appeared in The New Majority (Farmer-Labor 
Party organ) under the title "The Exquisite Society." 


FOLLOWING a conference participated in by Secretaries 
Davis, Hoover and Wallace, arbitration has been restored 
in the packing industry. [See the Survey for March 26.] 
The terms of settlement by which the stock yards strike was 
avoided involved mutual concessions. The wages of the pack- 
ing house workers were cut eight cents per hour for the hourly 
workers and 12^ per cent for all piece workers. This wage 
cut is not subject to future arbitration. The basic eight-hour 
day on the other hand, was restored, and United States Judge 
Samuel A. Alschuler was reinstated as arbitrator in the indus- 
try. Judge Alschuler is to continue to serve until September 
15 when the agreement initiated by the President's Medita- 
tion Committee in December, 191 7, will finally expire. Dur- 
ing this interval, it is announced, the packers will develop their 
employe representation plans while the union representatives 
have indicated that they would carry on a campaign of organ- 
ization. The settlement was the first important effort of the 
new Secretary of Labor, and while it may be, as characterized 
by one of the union representatives, "a truce" rather than a 
"treaty of peace," it is counted as a definite achievement for 
the Harding Administration. 

Governor Kilby of Alabama, who was accepted by the coal 
miners and coal operators of that state to arbitrate their dif- 
ferences, has brought an award upholding the position of the 
operators, the terms of which will be reviewed in the Indus- 
try Department of the Survey next week. 


ON the floor of the Senate, a few weeks ago, Senator 
Kenyon charged that one institution alone in Wash- 
ington was doing a private lobbying business of $250,000 
a year in fees. This is but one of a network of such or- 
ganized lobbies. Special interest legislation is slipped through 
by lobbyists who have no restriction placed upon them by the 
federal government. They need not say who they are, whom 
they represent, nor what fee they are receiving. 

This lobby business is growing. The "general practice of 
law" in Washington is coming to be synonymous with "gen- 
eral lobbying," to quote Mr. Kenyon. Men go out of Con- 
gress, out of government office only to turn up in Wash- 
ington associated with lobbies working for lumber, coal, oil, 
and other interests. They "meet you in the halls, they meet 
you on your way home, they sit next to you on the street car 
and try to talk to you about bills. . . . You can pick up the 
papers every day and read of dinners and dances and balls 
given by the Lord knows whom — a favorite form of lobbying 
in the city of Washington." 

But there are proper kinds of lobbies, Senator Kenyon points 
out. Nobody wants Congress to be shut off on the Hill and 
have people unable to get to it. 

The basis for a proper kind of lobby must be facts. Bad 
legislation is to a great extent due to a lack of information on 
the part of members of Congress and the public, and to jokers 


hidden away in bills or to obscure passages often attributable 
to clumsy drafting. Furthermore pressing duties when Con- 
gress is in session often make it impossible for members to 
inform themselves adequately as to all measures before them. 

Such a "fact" service is the announced aim of a group of 
men and women representing labor organizations, progressive 
farm organizations and leaders of liberal opinion. The 
People's Legislative Service, as it is called, is headed by 
Robert M. La Follette, senator from Wisconsin, and includes 
on its executive committee George Huddleston, congressman 
from Alabama; William H. Johnston, president of the Inter- 
national Association of Machinists; W. G. Lee, of the Rail- 
road Trainmen ; W. S. Stone, of the Engineers ; George P. 
Hampton, of the Farmers' National Council. The director is 
Basil M. Manly, former director of research and investigation 
of the United States Commission on Industrial Relations and 
joint chairman of the National War Labor Board. Back of 
the executive committee will be a national council of men 
and women of liberal sympathies!. A staff of five or more 
research men is now being organized and the bureau expects 
to be operating soon after the opening of the special session of 

The service will carry on a bureau of research and in- 
formation which will furnish information to members of the 
House and Senate and to representatives of affiliated organiza- 
tions that they may present their cases more efficiently, and it 
will inform the public regarding pending legislation. The 
personnel of the undertaking indicates a combination of re- 
search technique with a militant spirit for which one would 
have to go back to the insurgent group in the last Republican 
administration for analogy. 


APPOINTMENT of the commissioners for the District 
of Columbia is of more than local interest. Not only 
do the people of the United States pay 40 per cent of 
the taxes of the District but in addition the reputation of the 
national capital is at stake in the administration of its affairs. 
The police department, the jails, workhouses, hospitals, and 
other public institutions, the playgrounds, public library, 
health office, board of charities, board of children's guardians, 
minimum wage board, the administration of the child labor 
law and eight-hour law for women, are but a few of the 
human affairs over which the commissioners have control. 

President Harding has announced his choice: Cuno H. 
Rudolph and Capt. James F. Oyster. The third or engineer 
commissioner, who hus been for the present at least continued, 
is a War Department appointment. Col. Charles W. Kutz 
has filled this office for seven years during which he has 
proved himself a thoroughly honest public servant. 

Mr. Rudolph has before served in the capacity of commis- 
sioner for the District. It was under his administration that 
the playgrounds were established. Under his administration 
too the suffrage parade took place at the time of President 
Wilson's inaugural when the whole country was aroused by 
the spectacle brought about because of the lack of police pro- 
tection provided for the marchers. The superintendent of 
police at the time was Richard Sylvester during whose term of 
office the city was wide open. The commissioners of that 
day followed the line of least resistance. 

Then followed the appointment of Oliver P. Newman and 





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Louis Brownlow as district commissioners and with these ap- 
pointments the citizens' demand for a new chief of police. 
Raymond W. Pullman was named and though he met with 
tremendous opposition in his efforts to enforce the law, not 
even the newspaper campaign directed against him was able to 
destroy him. His death in office, however, brought the ap- 
pointment of Harry L. Gessford, the present incumbent, also 
an efficient administrator. 

Mr. Rudolph's associate, Captain Oyster, has made a for- 
tune in the provision business, his specialty being butter and 
eggs ; that of his brother, milk. Captain Oyster has, previously 
served as school commissioner for the District. 

The employers' association and local merchants generally 
in the District have given their hearty indorsement to the 
appointments. They have had a "newspaper" administration; 
now they want to enjoy a "business" administration. Just why 
Mabel Boardman, one of the retiring commissioners, should 
not have been continued seems not clear. Food dealers in the 
District, it is charged, had been short-weighting. It was be- 
lieved Miss Boardman, backed by Kutz, would insist upon 
enforcement of the law in this respect. In any case the ap- 
pointments seem to have been dictated locally. A Republican, 
Miss Boardman; was appointed by Mr. Wilson late last sum- 
mer. During the few months she has served she is credited 
with having succeeded in creating among the local people a 
pride and conscientiousness about the city that did not exist 
before; and throughout the country in public speeches and 
through other means she has stimulated the people to think 
of the District as a part of the whole United States, and the 
administration of its affairs as more than a local responsibility. 
Under a criticism from wage-earners for failure to secure a 
larger appropriation for administration of the minimum wage 
law, and for expressed views contrary to a full indorsement 
of labor's demands in regard to limitations of child labor, 
nevertheless Miss Boardman was widely recognized as an in- 
telligent and constructive commissioner and one who could 
bring things about. She had Republican influence and back- 
ing. She was ready to continue to serve the country in that 

The new commissioners have taken office ; the ninety bureaus 
have been re-allotted among them; the country awaits. 


THE long expected report on housing conditions in the 
United States, with special reference to the large cities, 
was issued this week by the Senate Committee on Re- 
construction and Production of which Senator Calder of New 
York is the chairman. The principal affirmative recommenda- 
tions of this important document — which will be further re- 
viewed in the Survey — are the following: 

1. A bill to establish in the Department of Commerce a 
division for the gathering and dissemination of information as 
to the best construction practices and methods, technical and cost 
data and matters relating to city planning, etc., in order to en- 
courage standardization and improved building practices 
throughout the country. 

2. A bill to provide for the gathering and publication by 
existing governmental agencies of current facts as to produc- 
tion, distribution, available supplies, standards of quality, costs 
and realization of coal. 

3. An amendment to the Transportation Act directing the 
Interstate Commerce Commission not to declare without hear- 
ings an emergency which will give preference of priority in 

4. An amendment to the Federal Reserve Act to permit the 
Federal Reserve Board to direct the use of savings and time 
deposits of national banks for long-time loans, this giving such 
deposits greater security and supplying a source of long-term 
money for home building. 

5. A home loan bank bill to provide for district home loan 
banks, which may sell under federal supervision bonds secured 
by the aggregated loans deposited by the member banks. 

6. An amendment, limited to five years, to the Revenue Act 
of 1918 to provide for the exemption from excess profits and 



income taxes of the profits on sales of dwelling houses where 
such profits, plus an equal amount, are reinvested in dwelling 
house construction. 

7. An amendment to the Revenue Act of 1918 to exempt from 
taxation interest on loans up to $40,000 on improved real estate 
used for dwelling purposes when such loans are held by an 

8. An amendment to the Revenue Act of 1918 limiting the 
taxation of profits from the sale of capital assets by providing 
for their taxation as of the years of accrual rather than as of 
the year of their sale. 

9. An amendment to the Revenue Act of 1918 to limit the 
surtax upon saved income to an amount not in excess of 20 per 
cent of such income. 

10. An amendment to the Postal Savings Law increasing the 
limitation on deposits as to amount and time and authorizing 
the rate of interest to be changed from time to time and pro- 
viding for compensation of postmasters for their extra duties. 


NEITHER of two measures introduced in the Sixty- 
Sixth Congress to secure federal action on race riots 
and lynching was carried to fruition, though both had 
considerable support behind them. The Curtis resolution, 
asking for the appointment of a sub-committee by the Com- 
mittee on the Judiciary of the Senate to investigate race riots 
in the city of Washington and other cities, to investigate 
Iynchings which have occurred in different parts of the United 
States, to ascertain, as far as possible, the causes of such race 
riots and Iynchings, and' to report what remedy or remedies 
should be employed to prevent their recurrence, after some 
hearings died in committee. Senator Curtis intends to re- 
introduce it shortly. The Dyer bill (H. R. 14097) was re- 
ported favorably by the House Judiciary Committee, but too 
late for action; this also is to be re-introduced shortly. This 
bill would enact that: 

Whenever any criminal prosecution shall have been instituted 
or any warrant of arrest shall have been issued, or any arrest 
shall have been made or attempted, with the purpose and intent 
oi criminal prosecution, in any state court, against any person 
within the jurisdiction of the United States or not, and such 
person shall appeal . . . for the protection of the govern- 
ment of the United States upon the ground that he has reason- 
able cause to apprehend that he will be denied the equal 
protection of the laws by the state within whose jurisdiction he 
is, or by any officer or inhabitant of such state, such person 
shall be entitled to the protection o£ the courts and officers of 
the United States to the end that the protection guaranteed by 
the Constitution of the United States may be given. 

Another clause guarantees similar protection to a person 
charged with a felony or crime who has reason to apprehend 
that because of his race, nationality or religion he is likely to 
be denied protection by the laws or officers "or other inhabi- 
tants" of the state within whose jurisdiction he is, or wishes 
to show that other persons of his race, color, nationality or 
religion, charged with some similar offense, "have been put to 
death without trial or brutally assaulted or otherwise mal- 
treated, or have been denied trial by due course of law." 
Machinery is provided for such protection and hearing of the 
case in a United States district court, and for the punishment 
of persons guilty of resisting federal authority or attempts at 
abducting the prisoner. Participation in a riotous assembly 
by which such a person is put to death is defined as murder, 
and the county in which such unlawful putting to death oc- 
curred is subjected to a forfeiture of $10,000 to the United 
States government; while state or municipal officers neglect- 
ing to protect the prisoner or to make all reasonable effort to 
prosecute those participating in the mob are to be punished* by 
fine or imprisonment or both. This bill, first introduced as a 
result of hearings held before the House Committee on the 
Judiciary in January, 1920, has since been amended to meet 
some of several objections to it on the grounds of constitu- 
tionality. Representative Dyer has expressed his intention of 
again promoting it at an early date. 

Another bill, in some points resembling the Dyer bill, is in 
process of preparation by a group of jurists who are well 

known for their activity on behalf of the cause of good govern- 

Such southern newspapers as the Atlanta Constitution, the 
Houston Post, the Chattanooga Times and the San Antonio 
Express predict federal action, and some would seem to favor 
it, provided the constitutional difficulties can be overcome. 
With the prevailing public opinion in many districts, it is 
sometimes difficult for press or public men to be outspoken or 
energetically active on behalf of criminal prosecution of 
neglectful state and local officers and courts. While investi- 
gations by the federal Department of Justice would not stop 
all Iynchings so long as the present mob temper — often due to 
economic causes — remains, these men often admit privately 
that they would have a very wholesome effect. Especially 
if some prominent case were brought before the Supreme 
Court of the United States, the public opinion created 
throughout the country would, they believe, force a stricter 
enforcement of state laws for the upholding of law and order. 
Private individuals who have collected information on recent 
outrages feel convinced that a congressional committee of in- 
vestigation or a United States district court would have no 
difficulty in securing evidence. 


ST. PATRICK'S day saw the inauguration of a campaign 
for ten million dollars by the American Relief Committee 
for Ireland. Cabling to the New York Evening Post 
from Dublin on March 16, Carl W. Ackerman reports that 
an agreement has been definitely entered upon between 
the British military authorities and the committee's representa- 
tives in Ireland by which the latter are permitted to remain 
there to continue their investigation and to lay the foundation 
for reconstruction work, provided that the Irish White Cross, 
or any members of it, have no part in the operations. Further, 
General MacCready authorized the committee immediately 
to proceed with the feeding of children in Dublin and Cork 
and assisting unemployed shipyard workers in Belfast. The 
rebuilding of destroyed creameries and other buildings, it was 
agreed, should be carried on by the Americans in collaboration 
with moderate Irish business men; the committee voluntarily 
offered to have their books audited by British engineers to as- 
sure the authorities that every dollar was spent on relief and 

The chairman and officers of the committee in New York 
absolutely deny that such an agreement has been made. The 
delegation in Ireland, they say, not only has had no difficulties 
at all with the government, but was not authorized to con- 
template any application of funds except to -the relief of dis- 
tress among women and children. 

That the American relief committee upon their arrival 
in Ireland should have sought the cooperation of the Irish 
White Cross was only natural, since this is the largest and 
most active relief agency of the country; the objection to it 
on the part of the British authorities is due to their belief 
that its executive committee is almost entirely composed of 
Sinn Fein though, as a matter of fact, it includes all parties 
and has associated with it such men as Sir Horace Plunkett, 
George W. Russell, Cardinal Logue and others well known 
for holding moderate opinions on the political issue. 

Conditions in Belfast, according to recent reports, are al- 
most as serious as in the south of Ireland, owing to the distress 
of the unemployed and their dependents; in Cork 3.000 chil- 
dren are daily fed by relief agencies. From the smaller towns 
subjected to reprisals, thousands, of families have sought 
refuge in the open country. 

Among the supporters of the American committee are five 
state governors, those of Idaho, Ohio, West Virginia, Wis- 
consin and Rhode Island ; and President Harding last week 
sent it a letter of warm commendation. 




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This new book answers the question, "What is 
industry doing to train its own workers?" To 
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visited forty manufacturing plants employing from 
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The material is of especial value to the employer 
who depends largely on skilled workers to main- 
tain his output as it considers every aspect of the 
apprentice problem. The steps taken by various 
corporations to educate their employees are fully 

In all, thirty-five programs are outlined. These 
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(Continued from page 17) 
of Father Ross will fall on fertile ground, not only among Catholics 
but also among other lovers of their fellow men. He quotes, with 
approval, an eminent Protestant to the effect that we are producing 
activities faster than experience and faith, that social progress re- 
quires an occasional step backward to secure strength and discipline. 
But "merely to retire from the world in order to avoid its tempta- 
tions is to succumb to them, is to yield to the most insidious form of 
selfishness." No religious enthusiasm is of highest value that does 
not express itself in deeds. He says: 

There are Catholics who will descant for hours on the medie- 
val guild ; what are they doing to make trade unions better 
today? There are Catholics who will argue to the divinity of 
the Church from the claim that she abolished slavery and serf- 
dom; what are they doing to mitigate child labor and wage- 
slavery? There are Catholics who boast of how the Church 
has elevated the position of woman; what are they doing now 
to ameliorate the condition of working-women? 

Interspersed with the hortatory chapters are simple narratives, 
bearing upon the ma'n thesis, of the lives of Catherine of Siena, 
Joan of Arc, Ignatius Loyola, Vincent de Paul and that most 
beloved of saints — among Christians and non-Christians alike — 
Francis of Assisi. B. L. 


— Galileo 


By Felix Bonjour. Frederick A. Stokes Co. 226 pp. Price, 

$1.50; by mail of the Survey, $1.70. 

Mr. Bonjour's Real Democracy in Operation is a clear and con- 
scientious exposition of the origin of direct democracy in Switzer- 
land and of the evolution of Swiss federation from the loose form 
prior to 1848 to the more or less centralized confederation of post- 
war times. For all interested in the League of Nations such a study 
is exceptionally interesting as it represents a laboratory experiment 
of that very scheme. 

Originally the Landgemeinden or land communities of the first 
pastoral cantons, high up, enclosed in secluded Alpine valleys, and 
exemplifying, to the full, direct democracy, were the natural and 
unavoidable outcome of both limitation and seclusion of those un- 
transformable mountainous areas. But when their freedom had at- 
tracted the plains below and still more their little market towns, 
representative institutions became imperative. Yet even there, some- 
thing of direct democracy survived in the cantons through the 
modern popular referendum and initiative that keep the people in 
constant touch with its legislators. By the referendum any new law 
can be challenged, and confirmed or rejected by universal suffrage. 
By the initiative any desirable law not on the legislative program 
can be suggested to the legislature, and then adopted or rejected by 
universal suffrage. Even the whole executive is mainly elected and 
revocable by popular suffrage. 

Such exceptional popular powers of interference in the state give 
good results in Switzerland, because permanently tempered there, so 
far, by the predominance of that highly traditional spirit so charac- 
teristic of pastoral communities. But that traditional predominance 
is actually threatened by the advent of a new factor in social evolu- 
tion, the rapid and irresistible development of industries and espe- 
cially of transports. For that unforeseen and fast growing develop- 
ment, the present cantonal and federal machineries appear more and 
more inadequate. And it is to that very inadequacy, not to any 
personal value of their own, that the present agitators owe all their 
not inconsiderable power of disturbance. To sit heavily on the 
safety valve, thanks to an army which is avowedly inadequate toj 
oppose any modern aggression from neighboring countries, is no| 
solution of the problem. But from the very practice of communaM 
administration in the oldest cantons may be derived a suggestive! 
means of general satisfaction. In those communes, indeed, besides] 
the general assembly there are other specialized assemblies for those 
interested in landed property or in the churches, or in education. 
Why could there not be specialized assemblies for those interested 
in different industries and in transportation? 

Obviously the more complicated social life becomes, the less can 
the state by itself cope with every problem, the more is it compelled 
to limit itself to the by no means unimportant task of coordinating, 



and harmonizing the work of the various specialized assemblies. 
And since life today does not depend so much upon the land — 
pastoral or even agricultural — as upon industry and transport, why 
should not the state welcome the development of specialized assem- 
blies in those new preponderant objects — assemblies which, by the 
very nature of things, will be less and less dependent upon any cir- 
cumscribed area? M. F. C. H. 
Geneva, Switzerland. 


By Sir M. Visvesvaraya. P. S. King & Son, London. 333 pp. 

Price, 7s. 6d ; by mail of the Survey, $2.50. 

Engineers seem to be coming into their own in our political life. 
The author of Reconstructing India is a distinguished civil servant 
and a distinguished consulting engineer. His plan for the upbuild- 
ing of India is based on acceptance of British rule as modified by 
the new Government of India Act. The main need, for a long 
time to come, to him seems the development of Indian citizenship. 
In his reconstruction program, education in all stages, from an 
elementary school system for not less than 15 per cent of the popu- 
lation to a university for each province, takes the first place. 
Foreign study for future officials and practical training in econ- 
omics, civics and industrial technique are prominent parts of this 
educational plan. He would entrust a board of industries, com- 
posed of Indian members, with the direction of industrial develop- 
ments, and foster cooperative organizations to improve methods 
of agriculture. For the control of the financial life of the empire 
he proposes a system of banks linked together under a federal 
reserve board. Ministries of reconstruction and of conservation, 
both in the central government and for each province, would further 
aid to mobilize the country's wealth. To carry through these im- 
mense projects, he suggests a spirited public propaganda and an 
appeal to the latent ideals of the people. 

This program is worked out in clear and well arranged chapters. 
Whether, framed as it is in the language and more or less accord- 
ing to the viewpoint of western Europe, it will commend itself to 
the support of Indian patriots remains to be seen. At any rate, 
it is a hopeful sign of the times that the change of political status 
for the Indian nation, with its vast importance for the future of 
all the civilized wtorld, should at once bring forth so thoughtful 
a contribution to practical statesmanship. B. L. 

Vol. I, American Volume; Vol. II, Foreign Volume and Statist- 
ical Mirror. Interchurch World Movement. Interchurch Press. 
317 and 322 pp. Price, $2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.50. 
It is difficult to know how to go about a review of these volumes, 
for they are not survey reports in the commonly accepted meaning 
of the term. Indeed I do not believe those who named the volumes 
could have thought of them as presenting the salient facts bearing 
upon world problems in which the churches are interested, as anal- 
yzing these facts to discover what they mean, and as presenting a 
constructive world progrem of action based upon the facts. They 
could not have expected the volumes to do this, for they were issued 
when the survey work of the Interchurch World Movement was only 
getting under way and nowhere near the stage when it could report 
its findings. 

A more precise title would indicate, as is done in some of the in- 
troductory statements of the volumes, that the contents are in the 
nature of preliminary announcements of facts gathered in the early 
stages of the survey — facts bearing on some of the great world needs 
facing the church, on new conditions of life with which the church 
should deal, on the importance of the church carrying its survey of 
these needs and conditions much farther, and on the budget amounts 
necessary. Material along these lines, drawn very largely from 
documentary and other secondary sources, will thus be found in the 
reports by those interested to consult them — material undoubtedly of 
value to many who are making their first ventures into territory in 
which the church and the social sciences have interests in common. 
Such persons should however, be on their guard against assertions 
not accompanied by supporting evidence. 

More specifically the American volume discusses home missions, 
including a certain amount of data on the size and growth of cities; 
the New York metropolitan area; small town and country life; new 
Americans (here meaning those from Southern and Eastern Europe 
and the Levant) ; Negro Americans; migrant groups; the American 
Indian; Alaska; Orientals in the United States; Hawaii; Spanish- 
speaking peoples in the United States; and the West Indies. It also 

The Best Book of Synonyms 



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long series of reissues since its first appearance in 1852, 
the latest is a 'large type edition,' revised and brought 
down to date by Mr. C. O. S. Mawson. The large type 
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the 'Thesaurus' now available." — Dial. 

"A necessary part of the reference equipment of every 
writer in English" — BOSTON TRANSCRIPT. 

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The principles of Guild Socialism — which mean substantially 
"democracy in industry" fully set forth by its leading ex- 
ponent. Mr. Cole's treatment is lucid throughout and brought 
right down to date, taking into account the lessons of the 
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in the modern state. With special preface for American read- 
ers, suggesting the significance of Guild Socialism in relation 
to American industry. Net $1.60 

By Mr. Cole, Previously Published 


"A survey of liberty in terms of institutions," says the New 
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theory of Social organization. In this, book Mr. Cole makes 
a brave and wonderfully successful effort to grapple with its 
difficulties." Net $1.50 


A remarkably well-reasoned book pleading for the gradual 
adoption of Guild Socialism in economic affairs. "Until there 
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At Your Bookseller's or direct from the publishers, 
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A Vocational story. Which door to life? College? Business? Social Work? Home? A 
group of normal, fun-loving girls form the V. V. Club to find out. Did they open the right 
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Price, $i-7S 


Compiled by Elvira J. Slack 

Every child is born under some guardian star. Every 
month therefore, has been given some particular "magic," 
and you are to look carefully on the fly-leaf of your 
birthday month in order to find what is your good-luck 
penny, — your spiritual heraldry. How could November 
have the same good-luck as June! 
This is an extract from our birthday book for girls. 

Price, $1.50 


By Harriot Stanton Blatch 

A record of facts with constructive conclusion and 
strong program for progress by one of America's fore- 
most thinking women. The New York Tribune has said 
of it, "A Woman's Point of View is informed with so 
strong a conviction and so keen an intelligence that it 
is likely to make its way even against the common weari- 

Price, $1.25 


By Florence Wells 

Tama as a book is unique. At the same time it is one 
of the most delightfully amusing and human little 
stories ever published. The quaint 'pidgin' English in 
which it is written will cause gales of merriment when 
read aloud. This story from the heart of a little Japanese 
girl will appeal to young and grown-ups alike. 

Price, $1.00 


By Edna Geister 

No library is complete without this fun-making, play- 
planning little volume which holds the key to the success 
of every conceivable kind of a party! A splendid volume 
for grown-ups, children and the in-between ages. 

Price, $1.35 

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THE WOMANS PRESS, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City 

discusses American education, including material on denominational 
and independent colleges, secondary schools, tax-supported institu- 
tions, and theological seminaries; religious education in the home, 
in Sunday schools, and young peoples' societies; American hospitals 
and homes for the aged and homes for children ; ministerial salaries, 
pensions and relief; and finally, as already indicated, it presents 
the campaign budget of the Interchurch World Movement. The 
book contains 115 charts and diagrams. 

The foreign volume has two main parts: the topical section and 
the geographical section. The former takes up the following topics: 
the area, population and government of the United States; the bal- 
ance of the nominally Christian world, and the non-Christian world ; 
the factor of daily bread in these divisions of the world; health 
necessities; education; literature; and the interests of women and 
children. The geographical section has sub-sections on Europe, 
Latin America, the Near East, Africa, India and Central Asia, 
Southeastern Asia, China, and Japan. Upward of fifty charts and 
diagrams illumine the pages of the volume. The use of color in the 
charts and other graphic material adds greatly to their attractive- 
ness and interest-stimulating quality. Shelby M. Harrison. 


Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science. 
166 pp. Paper. Price, $1.00; by mail of the Survey, $1.10. 

This symposium was edited by Robert W. Balderston, of Phila- 
delphia, and Richard L. Cary, of Baltimore, while in Germany as 
members of the American Friends' Service Committee unit, and con- 
sists of contributions by American and foreign authors — the former 
including Paul D. Cravath and Edward D. Filene in addition to the 
editors, and the latter German government and trade union officials, 
business men, economists and social workers. The greater part of 
the volume is given over to a discussion of industrial conditions and 
legislation, especially that bearing on works councils, and the larger 
measures adopted to adjust the staple industries to present condi- 
tions of labor and marketing. The symposium as a whole gives a 
rounded picture, such as has not previously been available for Amer- 
ican readers; a picture in part of misery and despondency but also 

of ordered progress and statesmanship which makes appear unlikely, 
in the near future, the success of disruptive influences — provided 
only that even remotely practicable and tolerable conditions of life 
and labor are imposed upon the German people from the outside. 

B. L. 


By Corinna Haven Smith and Caroline R. Hill. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 247 pp. Price, $3.50; by mail of the Survey, $3.75. 

In a volume purporting to tell of the reconstruction work now 
proceeding in France, the authors digress every few pages to tell 
how well our men had behaved, and how very popular they were 
with the inhabitants of the war-torn regions. These points seem 
to weigh on their minds until they eclipse the main theme. The 
book is not a complete record of the work of reconstruction, but is 
chiefly based on personal experiences, sometimes of an irrelevant 
nature, and on hearsay evidence. Statistical information is present- 
ed in little fragments and not coordinated. There are, however, 
three statistical tables showing the status of industry; but these 
are in an appendix and unrelated to the text. There are many 
interesting photographs and the narrative is pleasant and easy- 
flowing, though the impression left is rather hazy. The book has 
a strong propaganda strain — propaganda for the peace treaty. 

W. M. Josopait. 


Fight the Famine Council, London. 132 pp. Paper. Price, 
2 s. 6d.; by mail of the Survey, $0.85. 

Lord Parmore, Bishop Gore, Sir W. Beveridge, Sir George Paish, 
Norman Angell, J. A. Hobson, together with eminent European 
economists, including Schulze-Gaevernitz and J. Redlich, in the 
second International Economic Conference, held at Westminster last 
October, laid bare the forces making for the ruin of not one country 
or a group of countries, but Europe as a whole, and arrived 
considerable consensus of opinion on the measures that must 
taken to produce normal activity on the part of all the people 


ntry J 

at a ] 

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For 30 Days, Beginning April 1, 1921, We Snail Let You 

Take Your Cnoice of Pocket Series at 10c Per Volume 

THIS is without question, our greatest book offer. It is generally agreed that our regular price of 25 cents per volume for the 
titles in the Appeal's Pocket Series is very inviting. Our special price for combinations of 50 has more than surprised lovers 
of good literature. Well, we are going to make all previous offers look sick, and at the same time we are going to knock 
you over During April you may take your pick at 10 cents per copy. We are doing this for a limited period— only 30 days— in 
order to introduce our Pocket Series to a still greater public. Our experience is simply this: The person who buys a few titles today 
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that time we shall be forced to return your money. We cannot afford to hoTd this exceptional offer open longer than 30 days. 
Automatically, at the close of this sale, the price per volume goes back to 25 cents. This means that if you will act during April, 
1921 that you will be able to get some of the finest books in the English language at only 10 cents per copy— and we pay the postage. 
This announcement is appearing in a number of periodicals, so we expect an enormous increase in business. Our best advice is 
to act at once. Don't do your book shopping too late. We are organized to send out all books the day we receive your order. 
Here are a few things to remember: 1. You don't have to copy the name of each book. Merely order by number. For instance, 
instead of writing down Gautier's "One of Cleopatra's Nights" merely write down "178." That will save you a lot of time, and 
enable us to fill your order more promptly, as we handle all book orders by number anyway. 2. Order as many copies as you can 

a g or( j g et some for yourself and some for your friends. Don't be afraid to order the entire list. It's the greatest book bargain 

we shall ever offer you. 3. Try to order at least 10 copies. Now, let's go. Here is the list. The book number is printed before 
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order by number TAKE YOUR PICK AT ONLY 10 CENTS A VOLUME order by number 

1. Rubalyat of Omar 


2. Oscar Wilde's Ballad 

of Reading Jail. 

4. Soviet Constitution 
and Land Laws. 

6. Socialism Versus An- 
archism. De Leon. 

«. Twelve Short Stories. 
De Maupassant. 

t. Great Proletarian 

11. Debate on Religion, 

Between John 
Haynes Holmes 
and George Bowne. 

12. Poe's Tales of Mys- 


13. Is Free Will a Fact 

or a Fallacy? Debate 

14. What Every Girl 

Should Know. Mar- 
garet Sanger. 

15. Balzac'sShortStorles. 

16. Religion of Capital. 

By Paul La Fargue. 

17. T h e Emballoted 


18. Idle Thoughts of an 

Idle Fellow. Jerome. 
11. Nietzsche: Who He 
Was and What He 
Stood For. 

20. Let's Laugh. Nasby. 

21. Carmen. Merimee. 

22. Money Question. 


23. An Appeal to the 

Young. Kropotkln. 
21. People's Rhyming 

26. On Going to Church. 

Bernard Shaw. 

27. Last Days of a Con- 

demned Man. Vic- 
tor Hugo. 

28. Toleration. Voltaire. 

29. Dreams. Schrelner. 

30. What Life Means to 

Me. Jack London. 

81. Pelleas and Mells- 

ande. Maeterlinck. 

82. Poe's Poems. 

83. Brann: Smasher of 


84. CaseforBlrthControl. 

85. Maxims of La Roche- 

36. Soul of Man Under 

Socialism. Wilde. 
87. Dream of John Ball. 

William Morris. 

38. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. 

Hyde. Stevenson. 

39. Did Jesus Ever Live? 


40. House and the Brain. 


41. Christmas Carol. 78. 


42. From M o n k e y to 79. 

Man, or the Rom- 
ance of Evolution. 80. 

43. Marriage and Di- 

vorce. Debate by 81. 
Horace Greeley 82. 
and Robert Owen. 

44. Aesop's Fables. 83. 

45. Tolstol'sShortStorles. 

46. Salome. Wilde. 

47. He Renounced the 84. 

Faith. Jack London. 

48. Bacon's Essays. 85. 

49. Three Lectures on 

Evolution. Ernst 86. 

50. Common Sense. Tom 87. 


51. Bruno: His Life and 88. 


52. Voltaire, an Oration 89. 

by Victor Hugo. 

53. Insects and Men; In- 

stinct and Reason. 90. 
Clarence Darrow. 

54. Importance of Being 91. 

Earnest. O. Wilde. 

55. Communist Manifesto. 

56. Wisdom of Ingersoll. 92. 

57. Rip Van Winkle. 

58. Boccaccio's Stories. 93. 

59. Epigrams of Wit, 

Wisdom and Wick- 98. 
edness. 99. 

60. Emerson's Essay on 100. 


61. Tolstoi's Essays. 101. 

62. Schopenhauer's Es- 102. 


63. Questions and An- 103. 

swers about Social- 
Ism. 104. 

64. SoclallstAppeal. Quo- 

tations from Au- 105. 
thoritative Sources. 

65. Meditations of Mar- 106. 

cus Aurellus. 

66. Kate O'Hare's Prison 107. 


68. Shakespeare's Sonnets. 108. 

69. The Life of Debs. 

70. Lamb's Essays. 109. 

71. Poems of Evolution. 

Anthology. 110. 

72. The Color of Life. E. 

Haldeman-Julius. 111. 

73. Walt Whitman's 


74. On the Threshold of 112. 

Sex. Gould. 

75. On the Choice of 113. 

Books. Thomas ''14. 
Carlyle. 115. 

76. The Prince of Peace. 116 

Bryan. 117 

77. Socialism of Jesus. 

How to be an Orator. 119. 

John P. Altgeld. 120. 

Enoch Arden. Ten- 121. 

nyson. 122. 

Pillars of Society. 

Care of the Baby. 123. 

Common Faults In 

Writing English. 124. 

Marriage: Its Past, 
Present and Future. 126. 
Annie Besant. 127. 

Love Letters of a 

Portuguese Nun. 
The Attack on the 128. 

Mill. Emile Zola. 
On Reading. Georg 

Brandes. 129. 

Love: An Essay. 

Vindication of Tom 130. 

Paine. Ingersoll. 
Love Letters of Men 
and Women of Gen- 
ius. 131. 
Public Defender: De- 132. 

Manhood: The Facts 133. 
of Life Presented to 
Men. 134. 

Hypnotism Made 

Plain. 135. 

How to Live One Hun- 
dred Years. Cornaro. 136. 
How to Love. 137. 

Tartuffe. Mollere. 138. 

The Red Laugh. An- 
dreyev. 139. 
Thoughts of Pascal". 
Tales of Sherlock 140. 

Pocket Theology. Vol- 141. 

Battle of Waterloo. 

Seven That Wer« 
Hanged. Andreyev. 
Thoughts and Aphor- 
isms. George Sand. 142. 
How to Strengthen 

Mind and Memory. 143. 
How to Develop a 

Healthy Mind. 
How to Develop a 144. 

Strong Will. 
How to Develop a 
Magnetic Personality. 145. 
How to Attract 
Friends and Friend- 146, 
How to Be a Leader 

of Others. 147, 

Proverbs of England. 
Proverbs of France. 148 
. Proverbs of Japan. 
. Proverbs of China. 
. Proverbs of Italy. 149 

:. Proverbs of Russia. 1T0, 

Proverbs of Ireland. 151. 
Proverbs of Spain. 
Proverbs of Arabia. 152. 
Debate on Spiritual- 
ism. Conan Doyle 
and Joseph McCabe. 153. 
Debate on Vegetar- 
Keir Hardle's Social- 154. 
1st Epigrams. 155. 

History of Rome. 156. 

What Every Expec- 
tant Mother Should 157. 
Julius Caesar: Who 
He Was and What 
He Accomplished. 158. 

Rome or Reason, De- 159. 
bate Between Inger- 
soll and Manning. 160. 
Controversy on Chris- 
tianity, Debate Be- 161. 
tween Ingersoll and 
Gladstone. 162. 

Redemption. Tolstoi. 
Foundations of Rell- 163. 

Principles of Elec- 164. 

How to Organize Co- 165. 

Socialism for Million- 166. 

aires. Bernard Shaw. 
Training of the Child. 167. 
Home Nursing. 
Studies in Pessimism. 168. 

Fight for Your Life. 170. 

Ben Hanford. 
America's Prison Hell. 171. 

Kate O'Hare. 
Would Practice of 
Christ's Teachings 
Make for Social 175. 
Progress? Debate 
Between Scott Near- 176. 
Ing and Dr. Percy 
Ward. 177. 

Bismarck and the 

German Empire. 178. 

Pope Leo's Encyclical 
on Socialism, and 180. 
Blatchford's Reply. 
Was Poe Immoral? 181. 
Sarah Helen Whit- 182. 
Five Great Ghost 183. 

Snow-Bound. Whlt- 
tier. Pled Piper. 184. 
Cromwell and His 187, 

Strength of the 190, 
Strong. Jack Lon- 
Socialist Ginger- Box. 
Socialist Pepper- Box. 

Man Who Would Be 

King. Kipling. 
Foundations of th« 

Labor Movement- 
Wendell Phillips. 
Socialism and How It 

Is Coming. Upton 

Epigrams of Ibsen. 
Maxims of Napoleon. 
Andersen's Fairy 

Marx Versus Tolstoi. 
Debate Between 

Clarence Darrow and 
Alice In Wonderland. 

Lincoln and the 
Working Class. 

Ingersoll's Lecture on 

Country of the Blind. 
H. G. Wells. 

Karl Marx and the 
American Civil War. 

Sex Life In Greece 
and Rome. 

Michael Angelo's Son- 

Discovery of the Fu- 
ture. H. G. Well*. 

English as She Is 
Spoke. Mark Twain. 

Rules of Health. Plu- 

Epigrams of Oscar 

Socialization of Mon- 
ey. Daniel De Leon. 

Has Life Any Mean- 
ing? Debate Be- 
tween Frank Harris 
and Percy Ward. 

Science of History. 

Four Essays on Sex. 
Havelock Ellis. 

Subjection of Women. 
John Stuart Mill. 

One of Cleopatra's 
Nights. Gautier. 

Epigrams of Bernard 

Epigrams of Thoreau. 

Steps Toward Social- 

Realism In Art and 
Literature. Clarence 

Primitive Beliefs. H„ 
M. Tlchenor. 

The Humor -of 

Psycho - Analysis — 
the Key to Human 
Behavior. William J. 

We have a large stock of each title in stock. We can give prompt and efficient service. The Appeal's guarantee stands 
behind these books — if you don't like them send them back and you will get your money refunded. 

On May 1, 1921, the price goes to 25 cents per volume — the regular advertised price. Act now and you will save money. 
Order all of these books and you will have a wonderful library. AH books neatly printed on high-grade book paper, bound 
in heavy cardboard. Range in size from 64 to 160 pages. Pocket size. 






Forty-Eighth Annual Meeting 

of the 

National Conference of 
Social Work 


Milwaukee, Jane 22-29. 

TN JUNE all roads will lead to Mil- 
waukee, for the National Conference 
of Social Work will be holding its 
Forty-eighth Annual Meeting in the 
Auditorium in that city. 

If you are a social worker, teacher, 
nurse, physician, clergyman, or if you 
are none of these but just one of the 
thousands of American citizens who are 
interested in carrying on the work of 
human helpfulness in this big country of 
ours, plan to go to Milwaukee in June. 

There you will hear and meet men 
and women from all parts of the United 
States and Canada who have been think- 
ing and doing in the whole field of social 
service. They will give you the results 
of their thought and experience on a 
range of subjects so wide as to cover 
practically the entire field of social 

The railroads have granted reduced 
rates from all parts of the United States. 
The round trip fare to Milwaukee will 
be one and one-half times the single fare 
from your home. 

For program and information, write 
to the National Conference of Social 
Work, 25 East Ninth Sreet, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

concerned. In the main, the findings of the conference are those 
indicated by J. G. Macdonald in his interview reported in the 
Survey for December 25. Different sessions dealt with the gen- 
eral collapse; problems of coal, transport and raw material; 
emergency measures of international finance; the League of Na- 
tions and the treatment of backward countries; the need for 
revision of the peace treaties ; means of making the league an 
effective instrument of reconstruction. The council (whose address 
is Premier House, Southampton Row, London, W. C.) is in im- 
mediate need of funds, if for no other purpose than that of dis- 
tributing its reports in those countries where the present rate of 
exchange prevents the purchase of foreign literature. 


By Alfred Seligsberg. Boni & Liveright. 159 pp. Price, $1.75; 
by mail of the Survey, $1.85. 

An unpretentious traveler's tale, this little book bears the stamp 
of sincerity and is to be recommended to anyone wishing to know 
how conditions in Europe impress an intelligent and observant Amer- 
ican visitor. Not poverty but mutual hatred is the new element in 
social and national relations that has struck Mr. Seligsberg the most. 
He visited England, France, Germany and Italy. Everywhere he 
found the peasantry relatively well off, the salaried classes worst. 
"To pass from France into Germany is like passing from day into 
night." In spite of the tremendous losses suffered by France, there 
is nothing like the general depression witnessed across the border, 
where "the people seemed absolutely exhausted and discouraged." 
In Italy the sense of being on the eve of great changes prevailed ; 
but owing to a freedom of discussion and general liberalism not 
found elsewhere in Europe, there is no likelihood of a revolution. 

The author freely discusses the political conditions of the different 
countries and America's relation to them. To his mind, continental 
Europe is politically in so diseased a condition that it cannot help 
itself; and if the European civilization is to be saved, the two great 
English-speaking nations will have to join hands and lead a move- 
ment for peace and permanent betterment. In this endeavor, Amer- 
ica's freedom from the involvements of the peace treaty seems to him 
particularly fortunate. The book is well written and represents a 
promising attitude to the outstanding problems of American foreign 
policy. B. L. 


By Robert Lansing. Houghton Mifflin Co. 328 pp. Illustrated. 
Price, $3.00; by mail of the Survey, $3.20. 

Statesmen -who forget that men are at the base of the political 
structure meet failure more than half-way. This is the whole moral 
of Mr. Lansing's admirable defence of himself, documented with 
his private notes and memoranda jotted even as the event raced 
by. Fundamentally it is a record of his own difference with Presi- 
dent Wilson ; his opposition to the president's entering the Paris 
negotiations; to the reckless haste which characterized the drafting 
of the League of Nations covenant; to the abandonment of the 
"fourteen points." "Self-Determination" he regarded as a dan- 
gerous phrase loosing all the ancient separatist passions in 
Europe; and he insisted that economic stability should be as closely 
guarded as racial aspiration. The League of Nations he not only 
desired but worked for; found himself blocked in endeavoring to 
prevent the covenant from becoming a European grand alliance ; 
saw his own ripened judgment disregarded while an amateur drafts- 
man strung together the present covenant. Withal there is a 
scrupulous, even painful, attempt to be fair to Mr. Wilson, giving 
him credit for great qualities and ideals; and an endeavor to sup- 
press the bitterness at the downright discourtesy so continuously 
shown to himself. 

A third figure emerges in 1 the story: Gen. Tasker Bliss. This 
veteran of many struggles stood with Lansing in a vain attempt 
to show the president how far he had wandered from the war ideals 
when he surrendered Shantung to the imperialism of Japan. One 
of the letters written on behalf of the dissenting American delegates 
is republished. Even on its face it bears evidence that it is only 
one of a series of letters; these, with the testimony of men like 
Lansing, form alike the explanation and the indictment of the tragic 
negotiations of Versailles. The book leaves the impression of a 
story half told; and an even stronger conviction that its author's 
part in international affairs is by no means ended. 

Adolf A. Berle, Jr. 



The Sex Factor 

Thomas W. Galloway has 
produced a genuine contri- 
# _ j w •/• bution to the literature of 

|/| riUTTXCLtX Lite social hygiene. Everyone 

has asked himself hundreds 
of questions regarding sex. In a simple straightforward way 
the author has answered them, with careful regard to sound 
scientific details. 

A book for the general reader as well as for the student. 

Size izmo., cloth covers, price $1.25 net. 
From your bookseller or direct, on receipt of price and 10 
cents postage from: 

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Training for Store Service 

The Vocational Experiences of Juvenile 
Employees of Retail Department, 
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This book will interest educators, 
store employees and store executives 

Price $2.00 $2.10 Postpaid 

Women's Educational and Industrial Union 

264 Boylston Street ' Boston, Mass. 

"Banish the Cods from the Skies and the Capitalists frtm the Etrth, 
and make the world safe for Industrial Communism." 


Analyzed and Contrasted from the Viewpoint of Darwinism, by Bishop 
William Montgomery Brown, D. D. The author, an Episcopalian ecclesi- 
astic, has squarely renounced all theology and accepted the Marxian phil- 
osophy of economic determinism. "Bishop Brown is the reincarnation of 
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pages, one copy 25 cents, six copies $1.00, postpaid. Thirtieth thousand 
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THE SURVEY'S special issue on "Three Shifts in Steel, the Eong 
Day and the Way Out," presenting the results of investigations car- 
ried out for the Cabot Fund into the excessive hours of labor in the 
continuous processes in steel-making, their human consequences and the 
forces for change. Articles by John A. Fitch, Whiting Williams and 
S. Adele Shaw. 

25 cents a copy TIip CTTRVKY 112 East 19 St 

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Through a fortunate purchase at wholesale, we are able to offer 
this important book at half price to any person, library or or- 
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Written by Pam U. Kellogg, the Editor, and Arthur Gleason, 
former London correspondent of The Survey. A book that 
'foreshadows changes that will affect and condition the whole 
fabric of western civilization." "A fine piece of work for which 
future historians and students of sociology should be grateful." 

112 £. 19 Street 


New York 

A Prophet 
Among Women 

She was called the pioneer in worn- 
en's industrial education, a states- 
man in organization, a great public 

She had a large part in the found- 
ing and development of Teachers' 
College in New York City. She was 
the first president of the National 
Board of Young Womens Christian 
Associations. She was president of 
the Board of Directors of the Ameri- 
can College for Girls in Constan- 

She organized the first clubs for 
working girls. She founded the 
Travelers' Aid Society. She was the 
first woman to serve on the Board 
of Education in New York City. 

This woman was truly a servant 
of society. 

You can read the story of the life 
and work of Grace Hoadley Dodge 
in the May issue of 

The Association Monthly 

Published by the National Board of the 
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He wouldn t hurt a fly — 

That used to he a compliment. 

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Address Advertising 



112 East 19th Street 
New York City 


WANTED for State Industrial School: 
An instructor and a school teacher. Living 
expenses provided; fair 1 salary; vacation, 
etc. Apply Donald North, Sockanosset 
School for Boys, Howard, R. I. 

SUPERINTENDENT wanted for modern 
Jewish Orphanage at Rochester, N. Y., con- 
ducted on cottage plan. Please state train- 
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Adler, 1008 Granite Bldg., Rochester, N. Y. 

EXPERIENCED workers wanted for 
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Yiddish. 3795 Survey. 

SOCIAL WORKERS, dietitians, matrons, 
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I., Box 5 East Side; Bost.n, 16 Jacksan 
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STATISTICIAN acquainted with social 
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WANTED: Local representatives, men 
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for books of all kinds in their community; 
generous commissions paid. 3800 Survey. 

DIRECTOR for New York institutional 
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WANTED: Supervisor for fifty boys, age 
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Salary according to experience. Boys do the 
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tend Public School. Hartford Orphan Asy- 
lum, 171 Putnam St., Hartford Conn. 

JEWISH Social Service Bureau of Chica- 
go wants a worker with legal aid training 
and experience. Apply to Superintendent, 
stating age, education, training, experience 
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JEWISH Social Service Bureau of Chica- 
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intendent, stating age, education, training, 
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WANTED: Port representative for Im- 
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woman, trained social worker. Apply Council 
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WOMAN with sixteen years' institutional 
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ing, desires position as superintendent of 
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WOMAN thirty-four years of age, trained 
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ecutive in family welfare, probation work, 
home service, protective and law enforce- 
ment work, community organization, etc., 
desires to make a change. 3796 Survey. 

MAN AND WIFE, now Superintendent 
and Clerk of home for destitute and delin- 
quent children in heart of large city, desire 
similar positions in institution in country. 
3797 Survey. 

TRAINED, experienced physical director 
and social worker, man, 27, available after 
June 15 for position in church, institutional 
or community work. Successful record in 
promoting plays, pageants, boys' clubs, 
camps, work with men and girls, etc. 3802 

COLLEGE GRADUATE desires position, 
with experience in teaching, child welfare 
work, and in approach. Training in special 
courses in social work. Executive ability. 
Excellent credentials. M. K. Fuller, White- 
ville, N. C. 

EXECUTIVE POSITION social service 
wanted by man, thirty-five, experienced in 
fields industrial education, child welfare, 
organizing and promoting social work. 
Speaks Italian and Swedish. Masters de- 
gree Columbia. Travelled at home and 
abroad. 3803 Survey. 

SOCIAL WORKER, male, twenty-nine, 
enthusiastic, experienced executive in re- 
search, family case work, financial federa- 
tion and public welfare in city of a million 
population. Modern viewpoint on social and 
economic questions. Available after June 
1st, 1921, for position in United States or 
abroad. 3804 Survey. 


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The Trend op Jewish Population in Boston: A 
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Crbdit Unions. Free on request to Mass. CrediS 
Union Assn., 5 Park Square, Boston. 

The Cost op Venereal Disease to Industry. By 
Ray H. Everett, American Social Hygiene Assn., 
105 West 40th Street, N. Y. City. Free. Ask 
for Publication S. 322. 

Debate on Birth Control. Margaret Sanger, 
famous advocate of birth control, versus Winter 
Russell, well-known speaker and assistant cor- 
poration counsel of New York City. Subject: 
"Resolved: That the spreading of birth control 
knowledge is injurious to the welfare of human- 
ity." Published by the Fine Arts Guild, 48* 
Fifth Ave., New York City, by mail 3«c. 

Derate — "Resolved: That Capitalism has more to 
offer to the workers of the United States than 
has Socialism." Affirmative, Prof. Edwin R. A. 
Seligman, Head of the Department of Eco- 
nomics, Columbia University; Negative, Prof. 
Scott Nearing, Rand School of Social Science. 
Chairman, Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor 
"The Nation." Published by the Fine Arts 
Guild, Dept. 2, 489 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
By mail, 55c. (paper), $1.10 (cloth). 

Second Report op the Committee on Foreign 
Inquiry. Social Insurance Department. From 
the National Civic Federation, Floor 33, Metro- 
politan Tower, New York city. $2.50. 

The Second Generation op Immigrants in thj 
Assimilative Process (Reprint from The 
Annals of The A. A. of P. & S. S. January 
1921) by T. Sleszynski, 510 State St., Erie, Pa. 





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Layout and Equipment op Playgrounds. Play- 
ground and Recreation Association of America, 
One Madison Avenue, New York City. Price, 
25 cents. 

Pioneering por Play. Community Service, One 
Madison Avenue, New York City. (Suggestions 
for conducting campaigns for community recre- 
ation). Price, 30 cents. 

How to Meet Hard Times. Edited by Bruno 
Lasker. A summary of the report of the 
Mayor's Committee on Unemployment, appointed 
by Mayor Mitchel of New York during the 
Unemployment crisis of 1914-1915. The Com- 
mittee s report is now out of print. But this 
summary makes available all of the essential 
parts and the Recommendations. Reprinted 
from The Survey of February 5, 1921. 25 
cents a copy postpaid. 100 or more copies post- 
paid to one address, $20.00. The Survey, 112 
East 19 Street, New York. 

Prohibition and Prosperity: What Freedom I 
from Unemployment, Low Wages and Drink I 
means to a Representative American City I 
(Grand Rapids, Mich.) A reprint of the en- 1 
tire November 6, 1920, issue of The Survey! 
Quoted throughout the entire English-speaking I 
world. Invaluable for speakers, debaters, coll 
lege and high school class use and to all whcl 
are interested in any aspect of the subject. 251 
cents a copy. The Survey, 112 East 19 Street, f 
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FOR RENT „„-_ 


At Essex, N. Y.— Lake Champlaln 
On breezy hill overlooking lake and moun- 
tains; ten large, comfortable rooms: all im- 
drovements, electricity, garage; . excellent 
boating and fishing. $600 for season. Address 
123 Chestnut St., Rochester, N. Y. 

For Sale or To Let — Summer Cottages 

Furnished-unfurnished. Elevation 2,000 1 feet 
Mountain top. 100 miles from c ,ty Air like 
wine. LONG— Cragsmoor, Ulster Co., N. Y. 


A beautiful house, 10 rooms, 2 baths, up to 

date; on large acreage overlooking lake, 

bathing; boating; garage; also a six-room 

cottage, modern. Ask for details. 

Owner, 37^5 Survey. 


Weatport on Lake Champlain, 

New York 
COTTAGE HOUSE for the Season— 7 
rooms and bath, large fireplace, electric 
llehts, garden and garage. For particu- 
lars address R. H. STEWART, 22 Beacon 
Street, Boston. 

FURNISHED Country Cottage, four 
•ooms; sleeping porch, garden, one hour 
rom New York. Rent $150 for six months. 
\. A. Chown, St. Cloud Ave., W. Orange, 

FOR RENT, $300. Waterville,N.H. 

In the heart of the White Mountain* 

>vith six bedrooms, living room, bath, etc 
Meals can be obtained at Hotel if desired, 
virs. MERRILL HUNT, So. Lincoln, Mass. 

• homes. One 8 bed rooms, 3 baths, 3 

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hauffeur's room, $1,200; one 7 bed rooms, 
>ath, 2 toilets, $600; one for 5 persons, shore 
•athing, $200. Wilder W. Perry, Camden, 

[| -,ko 

Squirrel Island, Me. l°LS^£l 

vely furnished cottage, 9 rooms and bath. 
Vpply to Mrs. George S. Paine, Winslow, Me. 

3 dy 


f ORNISH N H for rent. 
K* kj ti n 1 o n, 11. n. Fu . rnished housei 

9 rooms, 2 bathrooms, sleeping porch, fire- 
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FOR SALE Delightful furnished cot- 

v tage overlooking Indian 

River at Melbourne. Cheap. Must leave. 

Address Owner, Box 101, Melbourne, Fla. 


PAR1VI 3°° acres > more or ' ess > on Pen- 
obscot Bay, Maine. Full particu- 
lars by addressing, Jones Sisters, Bedford, 

FARMS °^ ever y name and nature in 
TAIVMO {he Berkshires and e i sew here. 

1205 acres, good buildings, $9.50 per acre. 
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N. Y. 

tmm w niw n— ■■■■■— m—iim— mm iiiiim iiii— in ttii nn 


PURE extracted buckwheat honey in 10- 
pound pails. $2.50 postpaid in first, second, 
and third zones. Harris Bee Yard, Jeffer- 
son, Schoharie County, N. Y. 

RESEARCH: W< = assist in preparing s?e- 
»'""—■'—" — » • cia j arrl cles, papers, speech- 
es, debates. Expert, scholarly service. AuThoi'8 
Research Bureau, 580 Fifth Avenue, New York. 


Survey — Natl. Geographic Magazine and other 
periodicals, $1.65 
114 East 13th St. New York City 


During the year 1920 the Survey car- 
ried 1302 classified advertisements. 
These covered a wide field of needs 
but especially in connecting the worker 
with the job were satisfactory results 

If vacancies occur on your staff during 
the coming year our classified service is 
at your disposal weekly with prompt 
and efficient service. 

The following are among the "wants" 
advertised during the past year: 

Public health nurses, Welfare workers, 
Teachers, Personnel managers, 

Institutional workers, Supervisors, 
Case workers. Organisers or executives, 

Social investigators, Campaign managers, 
Community and recreation workers. 


Classified Adv. Dept. 


Give your Boy a chance 


A choice Summer Cemp for Boys on a Lake 
in the Maine Woods near Belfast, Maine 

Exceptional Care and Personal 
Supervision Given Every Boy 

For Booklet address 


Tower Hill School Wilmington, Del. 

Camp Swago in Pennsylvania 

J. Jablonower, 5 West 65 th Street, 

D. I. Kaplan, 4712 13th Avenue, 




Devoted to the interests of social wo 
and all engaged in Civic bettermeiu. 

Special lecturers, American and foreign. 
. Party sails June 7, 1921. 
Address DR. JOHN N O L E N, 

Suite 4, 65 Franklin St., Boston, Mass. 


Fifty cents a line per month, four weekly inser- 
tions, copy unchanged throughout the month. 

ffllte Arbitrator endeavors to apply moral prin- 
ciples to social problems of the day without re- 
gard to popular opinion. $1 a year. Sample 
free. P. O. Box 42, Wall St. Sta., N. Y. C 

Setter Stmea reports the most important activi- 
ties *f the 2000 charitable and public welfare 
agencies in New York City. Ten issues per 
year— $2.00. 70 Fifth Ave.. N. Y. 

Hospital Social Service; monthly $3.00 a year; 
published under the auspices of the Hospital 
Social Service Association of New York City, 
Inc. 19 East 72d Street, New York. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2.00 a year; puk- 
lished by the National Committee for Mental 
Hygiene, SO Union Square, New York. 

Public Health Nurse; monthly; dues $3.00 and 
upward; subscription $3.00 per year; publish- 
ed by the National Organization for Public 
Health Nursing, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 


Valley, N. Y. Old-fashioned residence, 

urnished. Modern conveniences, fireplaces, 

. lawn, garden, 6 bedrooms. Attract- 

ituation near village. Photographs. 

\ddress Miss E. B. PBEL-ON, Cherry Val- 

ey. N. Y. 

j\dirondacks— Keene Valley, N. Y. 

Iro Rent: Cottages, fully equipped, very mod- 
ern, baths, toilets, etc. Season $300 to $1,000. 
fe. W. Otis. 

The Wiscasset Bungalows and 
Central Dining Hall 

'he comforts of a home without the cares of 
lousekeeing. H. C. Lockwood, Mt. Pocono, Pa. 


If you want to keep abreast of social and industrial progress. 

If you want accurate news and first-hand information on social and industrial 

If you are interested in any of the subjects discussed in this issue — for the 
Survey "follows up." 

The Survey. 112 East 19th Street, New York. 
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For the Man who wants the stiffest Job 

he can £et 

T 1 

V HE demand for Social Workers is a demand by in- 
telligence for intelligence, and cannot be met by those 
whose only working tools are the methods of trial and 
error and undisciplined inspiration. 

The field ot Social Work is attractive and stimulating to 
the ablest minds; but the achievement of continuous, cumu- 
lative efficiency in this field depends on serious professional 
training as well as on native ability. A great number of 
institutions, business organizations and government depart- 
ments are calling for experts in Social Work. The demand 
for ability of this character comes from Societies for Case 
Work with Families and Children, Community Centers, 
Personnel Departments in Industry, Public Health Organi- 
zations and numerous other sources all over the country. 

Plainly it is no longer a field where the mere amateur, 
however well intentioned and enthusiastic, can hope to suc- 
ceed in welfare operations conducted on so large a scale. 

The New York School of Social Work 
supplies the appropriate training for such 
a career. In order to enlist those best 
fitted for advanced Social Work the School 
offers four Fellowships of $850 each, for 
the school year 1921-22, which will be 
awarded to recent college graduates includ- 
ing the class of 1921. 

The award will be decided by competitive 
examination, with preference to graduates 
not more than five years out of college. 

The examination will be held April 30 at 
the School or, by arrangement, at your 
own college. Application must be made 
not later than April 23. A form will be 
sent on request as per coupon below. 

The New York School of Social Work 

New York 
107 East 22 



send me 

of Social Work, 
New York. 

application blank 







APRIL 9, 1921 


John Burroughs — The Social Unit Solvent— Family Desertion — The 
British Miners Strike— California Defines Social Work— New York's 
Clothing Conflict— Bread and Education — The Railroad Maze— Or- 
egon's Marriage Law — Spurious Banking — At Brussels 

The U. S. Steel Report 

W. E. B 

Peonage and the Public 
Charles McCarthy 
The Spirit of Raif ord . 


The Italian Boy Colonies . 

Mexican Child Welfare 

The Child in Soviet Russia— In Japan 


The Alabama Coal Settlement . 
Scrub Women .... 
The Labor Press 


Illiteracy Entailed . . 
The School and the Flannel Shirt 
Schools and Rural Life 
Kindergarten Legislation 

John A. Fitch 

Arthur Gleason 

Hastings H. Hart 

Louis B. Wehle 

Orlando F. Lewis 

Giuseppe Prezzolini 
Anna Kalet 

William L. Chenery 
Ethel M. Johnson 

A Southerner 
M. C. C. 
J. K. H. 








15 Cents a Copy 

$5.00 a Year 



i _ 

ERS-ito "da M. Ca^°n pies ^Social Sdrvi^e ©apartment , Massa- 
E , Tr^>„l>i H«sSta Boston. Massachusetts., Miss Ruth V. 
^l^fn «c'y Nalr^Headflu^iers. Amerit>an Red Cross. Waah- 
^STn C brS^tion to i promote development of social work 
ISTo^iUl, and dSp^sa^ies. Annual meeting with National Con- 
ference of Social Work. 

pro-school age and school age. 

c^mrnunity^eadership. Address our nearest offiee- 

Tribune Building. New York. 

133 W Madison Street, Chicago. 

7l| Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 

, MC ,, r . N COUNTRY LIFE ASSOCIATION— KenyonU Butter- 
AMERICAN couini HY ^, Lindeman, Greensboro, N. C 

^-^^'■A^uS'^fe^^with annual reports. Emphasizes 
(ho hu^n aspects of country life. Membership, $3. 
AMERICAN HO^^^^f^^SOClAr^^^^^^ 
Coopor, f ec >v t B ^l 6 C^eekban tAr mm . ^hools, institutions 

K^mX?^™*" ESSES" Some Economics. 1211 Cath- 
edral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN ^^^{ruS^"^™^ " ^£S," 
^^y P etr C . e lr^Deerfn° f Caif Sectary and Editor. HMU 
Colorado Building, Washington, D. C. 

^^s^^s^^^^^^ss^ rasas 

^K^cS^fceeAliilff jWMTSKV F. Lewis. 

gen. sec'y., 13& E. 15th St., N. Y. C. 


_„_ ANT , SALOON LEAGUE OF AMERICA— The Church in Ac- 
Mr 11 ^Ernest H cSngfon General Manager Department of ^}^r 

National HeadSarte^Westervihe Ohio, Mr Wayne B. Wheeler. 
Esquire. Attorney, 30-33 Bliss Building, Washington. D. C. 
~i-iii r> ucai xh ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA— 156 Fifth Ave., 
S H i vorv Dr L. Set Holt 7 Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, Dl- 
N . n 7 n r To arouse p™ interest in the health of school children; to 
•rfcouraee the sysiemat^ teaching of health in the schools; to develop 
S«w^hod9 of interesting children in the forming of health habits; 
T^iiMsn andd\striDute pamphlets for teachers and pubhc health 
^kerstnl health literature for children; to advise in organization 
•f local child health programme. 

f H i^urra E ^t^ R r^n^ E e^n £ din ^ ^^^1S» 

^,»S •? successful effort The iiague will be glad to consult 
w1?h^y alenw with a view to assisting it in organizing or re- 
we*nWn/*ite children's work. C. C. C^rstens, Director, 1*0 E. 
22nd SL, New York. 

Tori? Organized *n February, 1919, to help people of all communities 
Implovthetr leisure time to their best advantage for recreation and 
e^od citizenship. While Community Service (Incorporated) helps in 
organizing : the work, in planning the programme and raising the 
funds and wfll, if desired? serve in an advisory capacity, the com- 
munity itself, through the community committee representative of 
c^mmunrty interests^ determines policies .an ' as | u ^ u c c ° m ^ s t | c P y 0n - 
trol of the local work. Joseph Lee, pres., H. S. BraucLer, secy. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan pres" Dr J. H. Kellogg, seCy.; Prof. O. C. Glaser exec, 
sec'v A public service for knowledge about human inheritances, 
■.ereditary inventory and eugenic possibilities. Literature free. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTED. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenix, vice- 
ores -F. H. Rogers, treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, Va 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a Government 
eohool. Free illustrated literature. 

ICA — Constituted by 30 Frotestant denominations. Rev. Chas. S. 
Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l sec'ys.; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 
Commision on the Church and Social Service — Rev. "Worth M. 
Tippy, exec, sec'y.; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y. ; 
Agnes H. Campbell, research ass't.; Inez M. Cavert, librarian. 

Headquarters, 1*6 Henry St., New York; Etta Lasker Rosensohn, 
chm. Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, guides. Interna- 
tional system of safeguarding. Conducts National Americanization 

Culbert Faries, dir., 101 E. 23rd St., New York. Maintains free in- 
dustrial training classes and employment bureau; make artificial 
limbs and appliances; publishes literature on work for the handi- 
capped; gives advice on suitable means for rehabilitation of disabled 
persons and cooperates with other social agencies in plans to put the 
disabled man "back on the payroll." 

secretary, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Objoct — to promote an 
intelligent interest in Socialism among eollege men and women. An- 
nual membership, S3, $5, and 325; includes monthly, "The Socialist 
Review." Speaial rates for students. 

ORED PEOPLE — Mow-field Storey, pres.; Jamas Weldon Johnson, 
seo'y., 70 Fifth Avo., New York. To s»curo to colored Americans tho 
common rights of Amorican citizenship. Furnishes information re- 
garding race problems, lynchings, etc. Membership 90,000, with 350 
branches. Membership, Si upward. 


Rush Taggart, pros.; Mrs. Robert L. Dickinson, treas.; Virgil V. 
Johnson, sec'y.; 25 West 43rd SL, New York. Composed of aon-com- 
mdrcial social agencies which protect and assist travelers, especially 
women and girls. Non-sectanian. 

ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexington Ave., Now York. To advaaee phy- 
sical, social, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young wo- 
men. StudonL city, town and country centers; physical and social 
education; camps; rest-rooms, room registries, boarding houses, 
lunchrooms and cafeterias; educational classes; employment; Bible 
study; secretarial training school; foreign and overseas work. 

Body of the Catholio Organizations of tho country. 

National Executive Offices, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., 
Washington, D. C. 

General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.F. 

Department of Education — Acting Director, Right Rev. Mgr. Edw. 

A Pace. 

Department of Laws and Legislation — 

Department of Social Action — Directors, John A. Ryan and John 
A. Lapp. 

Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin McGrath; 
Ass't. Director, Michael Williams. 

National Council of Catholic Men — President, Richmond Dean; 
Exec. Sec'y., Michael J. Slattery. 

National Council of Catholic Women — President, Mrs. Michael Ga- 
vin; Exec. Sec'y., Miss Agnes G. Regan. 

National Training School for Women, Washington, D. C. — Dean, 
Miss Maud R. Cavanagh. 
Bureau of Immigration — National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. 

105 E. 22nd St., New York; 36 State branches. Industrial and agri- 
cultural investigations; legislation; studies of administration; educa- 
tion; delinquency; health; recreationi; children's codes. Publishes 
quarterly, "The American Child." Photographs, slides and exhibits. 


Powlison, gen. sec'y.; 78 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and pub- 
lishes exhibit material which visualizes the principles aad conditions 
affecting the health, well being and education of children. Cooper- 
ates with educators, public health agencies, and all child welfare 
groups in community, city or state-wide service through exhibits, 
child welfare campaigns, etc. 


Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir.; Associate 
Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. 'Williams and Dr. V. V. Ander- 
son; Clifford W. Beers, sec'y.; 50 Union Square, New York City. 
Pamphlets on mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble- 
mindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war neuroses 
and re-education, psychiatric social service, backward children, sur- 
veys, state societies. "Mental Hygiene;" quarterly, $2 a year. 

pres New York; W. H. Parker, gen. sec'y., 23 East 9th SL, Cincin- 
nati. Ohio General organization to discuss principles of humanitarian 
effort and increase efficiency of agencies. Publishes proceedings 
annual meetings, monthly bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information 
bureau. Membership, $3. 48th annual meeting, Milwaukee, June 22- 
29 1921. Main Divisions and chairmen: 

Children— J. Frentice Murphy, Philadelphia. 

Delinquents and Correction— Mrs. Martha P. Falconer, Philadelphia. 

Health— Dr. Riehard Bolt, Baltimore. _ 

Public Agencies and Institutions— R. F. Beasley, Raleigh. 

The Family— Frances Taussig. New York. 

Industrial and Economic Conditions— Sophonisba P. Breckinridge. 


The Locai Community— Howard S. Braucher, New York. 
Mental Hveiene — Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, New York. 
Or^nYzaSon oTiocial Forces-Otto W. Davis. Minneapolis 
Uniting of Native and Foreign-Born in America— Graco Abbot, 




NESS — Edward M. Van Cleve, managing director; George D. Eaton, 
field sec'y.; Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y.; 130 E. 22nd St., New 
York. Objects: To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lec- 
tures, publish literature of movement — samples free, quantities at 
cosL Includes New York State Committee. 

sec'y; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state and nation, far meeting the 
fundamental problems disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

-•••-*~ -J 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF GIRLS' CLUBS— Jean Hamilton, gen. sec'y., 
180 E. 59th St., New York. Girls' clubs; recreation and educational 
work in non-sectarian, self-governing groups aiming toward complete 
self-supporL Monthly publication, "The- Club Worker," S1.60 a year. 

NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE— Publishes monthly the maga- 
zine "National Municipal Review" containing articles and reports 
on politics, administration and city planning. The League is a clear- 
ing house for information on short ballot, city, country and state 
governments. Hon. Charles E. Hughes, pres. ; Mr. H. W. Dodds, 
sec'y.; 261 (A) Broadway, New York. Dues, $5.00 a year. 

Ella Fhillips Qrandall, R. N. exec, sec'y.; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of public health nursing; to 
develop standards of techniques to maintain a central bureau of in- 
formation. Official organ, the "Public Health Nurse," subscription 
Included in membership. Dues, $3.00 and upward. Subscription $3.00 
per year. 

King, mgr., 136 E. 22nd St., New York. A cooperative guild of social 
workers organized to supply social organizations with trained per- 
sonnel (no fees) and to work constructively through members for 
professional standards. 

Charles J. Hatfield, M.D., Managing Director. Information about 
organization, eduoation, institutions, nursing problems and other 
ph&3»s of tuberculosis work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crusade, publishers "Journal of the Outdoor Life," "American Re- 
view of Tuberculosis" and "Monthly Bulletin." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE — For social service among Negroes. 
ll Hollingsworth Wood, pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y.; 
127 E. 23rd St., New York. Establishes committees of white and colored 
people to work out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

A. Gordon, president. Headquarters, 1730 Chicago avenue, Evanston, 
Illinois. To secure effective enforcement of the Eighteenth Amend- 
ment, to advance the welfare of the American people through the 
departments of Child Welfare, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance 
Instruction, and other allied fields of endeavor. Official publication, 
The Union Signal, published weekly at Headquarters. 

Robins, pres.; 64 W. Randolph St. (Room 1102), Chicago, 111. Stands 
for self-government in the work shop through organization and also 
for the enactment of protective legislation. Information given. Of- 
ficial organ, "Life and Labor." 

— H. S. Braucher, sec'y.: 1 Madison Ave., New York City. Play- 
ground, neighborhood and community center activities and admini- 
stration. Special attention given to municipal recreation problems. 

sentation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y., 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
Membership, $1, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

For the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race 
Improvement. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Confer- 
ence, the Eugenics Registry, and lecture courses and various allied 
activities. J. H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION^For the Improvement of Living 
Conditions — John M. Glenn, dir.; 130 E. 22nd St., New York. Depart- 
ments: Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education. Statistics, 
Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Stu- 
dies, Library, Southern Highland Division. The publications of the 
Russell Sage Foundation offer to the public in practical and inex- 
. pensive form some of the most important results of its work. Cata- 
logue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An Institution for the training of Negro 
Youth; an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the 
South; furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and 
on the Tuskegee idea and methods. Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren 
Logan, treas.; A. I. Holsey, acting sec'y., Tuskegee, Ala, 






Wed., April 13, 8.15 P. M. What is the Matter With the 

World Today? 
Wed., April 20, 8.15 P. M. What Democracy Has Meant. 
Fri., April 29, 8.15 P. M. Economic Obstacles to Peace. 


61 East 34 th Street 


Two Dollars for Three Lectures; 75 Cents for Single Lectures; 

Profits to be used for the Work of the Women's Peace Society. 
Application for Tickets should be sent to Women's Peace Society, 

525 Park Avenue, New York. 



Fridays, at 3.30 p. m. 
APR. 8— WHAT AILS THE PURITAN?: Puritanism, 

Erotic Neurosis. 
Social, Economic and family factors which drive peo- 
ple into a neurotic flight from reality. 
Tickets for Single Lectures $1.25 plus war tax. 
THE FINE ARTS GUILD, Inc. 489 Fifth Avenue Phone Vanderblit 8260 



Putting the 
On Probation 

EXCELLENT PFOPLE, with the very best 
"feelings" have traveled conscientiously up 
to Albany and Lansing and 46 other state 
capitals to urg^ that life imprisonment be made 
the punishment for burglary. They want to 
be able to say, when a burglar comes bustling 
in their bedroom, "Look out there. If you 
steal my watch I'll have the cop send you up 
for life." 

There has been a flare-back to the old idea of severe 
punishment, a good deal of criticism of modern proba- 
tion systems, a tendency to rush into legislation limit- 
ing the discretion of a judge in using probation and 
the indeterminate sentence. 

A state authority on probation has been studying police 
and court records. He would be the last to deprecate 
crime. But he finds the crest of the crime wave on the 
front page of the newspapers rather than the police 
blotters. And he advances the idea of PUTTING THE 

Crime Wave on Probation. What he writes will be 

published in The Survey — of course. 
If you are interested in any aspect of crime, prison 
reform, probation, parole, or any angle ot human con- 
duct you'll want The Survey regularly, for The Survey 

Yearly subscription $5. Or, with a copy of Punishment 
and Reformation, by Frederick Howard Wines, revised 
edition by Winthrop D. Lane, of The Survey and the 
New York Evening Post (retail $2.50) for $6.50. 

112 East 19 Street The SURVEY New York City 




"THE SEX LIFE OF MAN" For Men Only Puberty. Menstruation: normal and abnormal. 

lion. Birth Control. Questions and Answers. 
The most prevalent sexual disorder among civilized men. Sexual Impotence. Sexual RUMFORD HALL, 50 East 41st Street, near Madison Avenue 

Neur?sthenla. Sterility and Its causes. Sterility and Marriage. Difference In the Admission $1.00 plus 10 per cent. 

■tensity of the Sex Instinct. Questions and Answe rs. Management FINE ARTS GUILD. Inc.. 489 Fifth Avenue. Telephone Vanderblit 8260 

The Survey, Vol. XLVI, No. 2. Published weekly by the Survey Associates, Inc., 112 E. 19 St., New York. Price $5.00 yearly. Entered as second-class 
■latter. March 25, 1909, at the post-office, New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at a special rate of postage provided 

for in Section 1103, Act ef October 3, 1917, authorized on June 26, 1918. 

Editor of "The Clitic and Guide." Honorary Member of The British Society for the 
Study of Sex Psychology. Member of the International Association for Serual Research. 

"WOMAN: Her Sex and Love Life" For Women Only 

Conception, Gestation and Lacta- 



The Crimes of the "Times"! 

(Being Instalment No. 2 of the "Brass Check Weekly") 

For a year the New York "Times" refused to admit the existence of "The Brass Check." Hush! .Not 
a word! Not even in the advertising columns! A perfectly good check for $156.80 was rejected, together with 
a perfectly good advertisement accepted by the New York "Tribune," "Herald," "Globe," and "Evening Post." 

But everybody in New York is reading "The Bras Check." All the men on the "Times" staff have read 
it; the editors cannot go to a dinner party without hearing it discussed. So something must be done. A cham- 
pion is selected, James Melvin Lee, who got his training in journalistic ethics on the staff of "Leslies," the 
barber-shop weekly, and now is sanctified by an academic mantle, director of the Department of Journalism of 
New York University. Prof. Lee delivers a lecture before the Brownsville Labor Forum, entitled "The Fal- 
lacies of the Brass Check," and the "Times," carefully provided in advance with clippings and quotations, displays 
everything which the Professor said in defense of the "Times," in a two-column article opposite the editorial page 
— "preferred position" ! 

Was Professor Lee reviewing "The Brass Check" or was he reviewing the Brownsville Labor Forum? Again 
and again he would call for facts — for names, dates and places — and when his Brownsville audience could not 
supply them, the Professor would declare that he had answered "The Brass Check." The "Times" gave pre- 
ferred position to these claims; and in every single instance where the professor clamored for facts, there were 
facts given in "The Brass Check" that fitted his requirements, and in several instances the guilty newspaper was 
the "Times"! 

We wrote the "Times" a letter, not so long as the attack on the book, and sent it by registered mail. But 
of course we might as well have put the letter into the trash basket. When the Great Madame of metropolitan 
journalism puts up a job, she does not let anybody else put it down. We telegraphed twice, asking the cour- 
tesy of a decision by wire collect. Dead silence. We sent the "Times" another advertisement of the book, with 
a bank draft for $200, and wired, asking their decision on this. No answer. However, we have perfect confi- 
dence in their honesty. We know that we shall get the bank draft back. (Later: We got it!) 

Also we tried the Professor — wishing to see just what sort of journalistic ethics he is teaching to your sons 
and daughters at New York University. We ask the Professor, will he publicly demand that the "Times" print 
the news? We ask, will he publicly retract his defense of the "Times," if the "Times" does not publish the 
facts for which both the Professor and the "Times" have clamored? We ask reply by wire collect, but we 
get none. However, we are going to smoke out this Professor! We are going to print the controversy in pam- 
phlet form — both sides of it, please note! — and mail a copy to every student in New York University. We 
are going to do this every year so long as the Professor lives and teaches. Never again will he talk about journal- 
istic ethics to a group of guileless boys and girls who believe him ! 

Meantime, "The Brass Check" has been concluded serially in the London "Daily Herald," and is about to 
start in Berlin "Vorwaerts" and Paris "1'Humanite"; al in Norway, Sweden, Holland, Italy, Japan, and Argen- 
tina. Even when they travel, the editors of the "Times" will be asked about it! Even in their beloved little Bel- 
gium!. "Lumiere," Antwerp, says: "Upton Sinclair, the greatest writer of America, permits us to publish some 
extracts from his extraordinary history of American journalism. ... A man known to all lettered people 
of the world, whose whole life has been a sacrifice to an ideal of justice, of truth. He is one of the greatest 
consciences of our society. He is at the same time one of the most prodigious men of action that one ever sees." 

People complain that it is hard to get "The Brass Check" in the East. The bookstores do not love it. So 
we have decided to open a New York office. Joshua Wanhope, who used to edit the New York "Call," and ran 
away to sea for his health, turned up in San Diego the other day on a collier, and we offered him the job. He 
said he was no business man, and sailed away on his ship. Then with a couple of telegrams to Long Branch, 
New Jersey, we stole his wife, and when Joshua arrives in the East, he will be a surprised sailor — he will find 
Mrs. Sallie in charge of our New York office at No. 3 East 14th Street. You will find her there also, sur- 
rounded by stacks of books, and you may have all you can carry. Also you will find a pamphlet entitled "The 
Crimes of the Times." Will you help us circulate it, and teach a lesson to the Great Madame? Will you help 
us persuade her patrons to read the facts — the 444 pages of facts known as "The Brass Check" ? 

Please note also that we have arranged with The Economy Book Company, Thirty-three South Clark St., 
Chicago, to act as our middle western agents. All orders will be promptly filled by them. You can save time 
by ordering from the nearest place. 

Please note also that we have two new editions ready: "King Coal," a novel of the Colorado coal country, 
and "The Cry for Justice: an Anthology of the Literuture of Social Protest." This book contains 891 pages, 
in addition to thirty-two half-tone illustrations. It is a collection of the world's greatest utterances on the sub- 
ject of social justice, chosen from thirty languages and four thousand years of history. Jack London called it 
"This Humanist Holy Book" ; Louis Untermeyer says, "It should rank with the very noblest work of all time." 
The price is, paper bound, $1.00 postpaid; cloth bound, $1.50 postpaid. The prices of all our other books, "The 
Brass Check," "100%," "The Jungle," "The Profits ofReligion," "Debs and the Poets," and "King Coal" are: 
Single copy, paper 60c. postpaid; three copies, $1.50; ten copies, $4.50. Single copy, cloth $1.20 postpaid; three 
copies, $3.00; ten copies, $9.00. 

Upton Sinclair, Pasadena, California 


Vol. XLVI 


No 2 




Associate Editors 




S. ADELE SHAW, Managing Editor 
Published weekly and Copyright 1921 by Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 Street, New York. Robert W. deForest, president; Arthur P. 
Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

Price: this issue, 15 cents a copy; S5 a year; foreign postage, $1.25; 
Canadian, 65 cents. Changes of address should be mailed us ten days in 
advance. When payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon 

Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post office, New 
York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at « 
special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917 , 
authorized on June 26, 1918. 


CLOSE upon the announcement by an American chemist 
that he has perfected a simple process of producing milk 
synthetically from grain, comes the claim of a research 
worker of Twickenham, England, that he has achieved the 
manufacture of synthetic alcohol from carbon and other cheap 
raw material on a commercial scale, permitting sale at a price 
of £20 a ton. In the meantime, a New York brewer 
who has converted his germinating plant into a mushroom 
nursery has appeared before a congressional committee claim- 
ing tariff protection for his product ; and the attorney-general, 
interpreting his predecessor's opinion that wine and beer may 
be sold to holders of medical prescriptions, affirms his belief 
that not saloons but soda fountains will henceforth be the 
temples of Gambrinus. Is it surprising if the seeker after 
liquid refreshment has become a little confused and no longer 
knows where to turn ? 


WITH the death of John Burroughs the older tradition 
passes from the field of nature study as it passed with 
Howells from the field of fiction. Eighty-four years 
is a long time for a man to live in any country and in the 
United States it is nearly an eternity. Burroughs lived his 
: eternity for the most part in his native state of New York, 
.devoting himself after experiments with teaching, government 
service, and bank examining to a study of his natural environ- 
ment and a participation in the activity of it. He was not so 
I much a student of nature as a part of nature and he saw in 
1 the plants and animals and seasons which he loved more of 
the life of man than most of us see in the ways of men and 
i women which we too closely follow. What is most fortunate 
|of all perhaps is that Burroughs, like Thoreau, had the gift 
of presentation. In his books we may live in the light of his 
interpretation of the simple common things of life upon which 
rest the uneasy foundations of our social system, things which 
it is well to look at and to think of now and then when human 

days seem too much made of calendars and organizations and 
not enough of earth and air and water and the fire of flesh and 
blood. It is well that John Burroughs lived to add his voice 
to those that must eventually be heard, saying that the earth 
and all it holds is man's and the systems of life and growth the 
bases of his social system. 


ALTHOUGH application was made last week to the 
Supreme Court of New York city for the appointment 
of a receiver for the National Social Unit Organiza- 
tion, Wilbur C. Phillips, executive secretary, states that the 
organization is solvent, having, in addition to an interested 
and active membership, assets for more than $30,000, which 
is far in excess of the amount needed to satisfy any outstand- 
ing claims. It is understood that this account is in the form 
of a claim against the New York City Committee for the 
Promotion of Community Councils. Although this bill, 
which has remained unsatisfied for nearly ten months, has 
been acknowledged by the Community Councils as a just 
claim, the Social Unit refuses to name the organization or to 
comment upon the situation. 

In December, 19 19, while each organization maintain- 
ed its own identity, an affiliation was effected between the 
Social Unit Organization and Community Councils, and 
plans were made for a joint fund-raising campaign. The ac- 
tual campaign never materialized. With the expectation, how- 
ever, that such a campaign would be carried out, the National 
Social Unit practically met the expenses of Community Coun- 
cils, in addition to paying a considerable indebtedness which 
existed on the part of that organization at the time the af- 
filiation was effected. George Gordon Battle, chairman of 
Community Councils, states that the matter will be cleared 
up shortly. In case Community Councils meets its obligation 
to the Social Unit, not only will all claims be met, but a con- 
siderable amount will still remain in the treasury of the latter. 
The National Social Unit was originally formed to con- 
duct an experiment in the Mohawk-Brighton District in 
Cincinnati, with a population of 12,000 persons. [See the 
Survey for November 15, 1919.] It included the demo- 
cratic plan of having representatives of this district participate 
in the work. This embraced the election of three councils 
from the district. The first was a citizens' council consisting 
of a representative from each of the blocks in the district. 
The second was an occupational council, consisting of the 
representatives of vocational groups. The third was a gen- 
eral council consisting of the union of the other two. The 
three years' experimental period was concluded last year. 
It demonstrated, among other things, an increased efficiency 
in public health work (amounting, in certain services, to 
from 500 to 1,200 per cent) ; an increased economy through 




the centralization of various forms of social activities; an in- 
creased neighborliness within the area; and an increased par- 
ticipation on the part of the people themselves in the study 
of their own needs and the formulation and control of their 
own programs to meet those needs. 

The executives of the organization are at present engaged 
in preparing a book setting forth the philosophy underlying 
the unit plan with special reference to its effect on govern- 
ment. In view of the attack made by Mayor Galvin of Cin- 
cinnati against the basic theory of the plan, the organization 
believes that before attempting another demonstration a thor- 
ough understanding of the theory of the social unit as a 
practical, working hypothesis should be brought about. The 
book when completed will contain a definite plan for the 
future activities of the organization. 


ON March 7, the Senate Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions reported out a treaty with Great Britain, provid- 
ing for the extradition from Canada of men from the 
States who have deserted their minor children. In case this 
treaty is ratified by the Senate it will partly sever one of the 
most difficult knots which charitable agencies in the United 
States have to unravel in dealing with the problem of family 

Because of the absence of extradition treaties covering 
family desertion, the situation has long been one with which 
welfare organizations have been practically powerless to cope. 
An illustration of this is the statement of Walter H. Lieb- 
man, president of the National Desertion Bureau, that his 
organization has upward of six hundred cases of fathers 
who have abandoned their families and have fled across the 
border. In only a few of such cases has the deserter been 
brought back to this country by deportation proceedings. 

The treaty has been pending for years. The State Depart- 
ment during the Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson administrations 
urged its ratification. There developed considerable senatorial 
opposition, however, because in its original form it provided 
for the extradition of wife deserters as well as child abandon- 
ee. It was mainly because of this opposition that the Senate 
committee failed to take favorable action until this time, and 
ultimately amended the treaty so as to apply only to cases in 
which minor children are involved. Once ratified by the 
Senate, it will have to be referred back to the Canadian au- 
thorities for like action. 


ONCE more the British miners have stopped work and 
the conflict is again three-cornered, the government, 
the miners' union and the coal operators being parties 
in interest. The immediate cause of the controversy lies in 
the government's decision to advance the date of its with- 
drawal from control of the mines to March 31. The miners 
are generally opposed to de-control at any time because in the 
fuel administration, to use an American term, they saw one 
step toward nationalization of the mines. The government, 
on the other hand, was influenced in part at any rate by the 
need of reducing public expenditures. [See the Survey for 
April 2, p. 11.] The miners, however, were especially mov- 
ed by the fear that de-control now would mean a reduction 
of wages. The end of government intervention would be 
followed, the miners foresaw, by local rather than national 
wage agreements. The division of their bargaining power 
would result in a lowering of the workers' standard of liv- 
ing, they argue. The situation was rendered more intense 
by the belief of railway men and others that the miners' 
strike was being made a test case and that if the miners were 
defeated other contests would soon be at hand. 

Various local branches of the railwaymen's unions and of 
the transport workers' expressed sympathy with the miners 

in meetings held last Sunday. A conference of the leaders 
of the "triple alliance," which consists of the miners, rail- 
waymen and transport workers, was arranged. J. H. 
Thomas, the railwaymen's leader and a spokesman of the 
Labor Party in Parliament, hurriedly returned to London 
from Holland. The "triple alliance" was called to decide 
whether a general strike is to be ordered in support of the 
miners or other methods are to be used. At the time of the 
last coal strike the railwaymen intervened and obtained a 
settlement. Similarly other members of the "triple alliance," 
including the miners, negotiated a settlement of the railway 
strike. Some of the operators are reported, however, to hold 
the view that the present industrial situation offers a favor- 
able opportunity for a general settlement with labor, while 
at the outset of the strike Mr. Lloyd George went to the 
country house recently acquired for the use of prime min- 
isters, and the government took the position that the issue 
was one to be decided by operators and unionists. 


FOR the first time an attempt has been made to prescribe 
the status of social work by legislative enactment. A bill 
has been introduced in the California Legislature not 
only defining social work and social worker but also provid- 
ing for the examination and registration of social workers. 

Drastic penalties are incorporated in the bill for anyone 
who represents himself a registered social worker who has not 
complied with the requirements. He is, indeed, upon such 
misrepresentation, guilty of misdemeanor, and upon conviction 
shall be fined not less than $10 or not more than $100 for 
the first offense. 

A bureau of examination and registration of social workers 
is to be maintained by the state Board of Charities and Cor- 
rections. Two members of the bureau are to be chosen from 
the faculty of the University of California and four from th« 
ranks of active social workers. Since at least one examina 
tion is to be held each year in connection with the state Con 
ference of Social Work, official recognition is given to thi: 
meeting. It is mandatory upon the bureau to outline require 
ments for examination and suggested reading for publicatioi 
in newspapers and the bulletin of the Conference of Socia 
Work. Applicants for examination must be at least twenty 
one years of age and must present credentials of good mors 
character. Only persons who have been engaged for on 
year in full-time work or two consecutive years in half-tim 
work in an agency whose work is satisfactory to the burea 
are eligible for. examination. Furthermore, applicants for e: 
amination must furnish proof of satisfactory accomplishmei 
in the job. 

Councils of social agencies and financial federations ha^ 
found difficulty in distinguishing between poor work ar 
satisfactory work. Such discrimination involves not sna 
judgment but careful scrutiny by trained investigators w) 
are also students of the general field of social work and : 
implications. Therefore, to determine whether or not a pt 
son has been engaged by an agency whose work is satisfacto 
to the bureau implies facilities for study and evaluation of t 
services of agencies. Otherwise the judgments of the bure 
would be of doubtful value. 

Those applicants passing a satisfactory examination will 
ceive the certificate of a registered social worker. Althou 
the holding of such a certificate is not necessary to engage 
social work, no person may hold himself as belonging to 
registered group without possessing one. However, soc 
workers presenting satisfactory credentials to the bureau 
the first registration after the act goes into effect, if pass 
may be admitted as registered social workers. 

The definition of social work and social worker as outli \ 
in the bill is as follows: 

The term "social work" as herein used is declared to met 







all protective and preventive work such as applies to traveler's 
aid, dance hall supervision, social hygiene and other protective 
and preventive work; all relief work such as applies to relief 
organizations or to medical social service ; all child-caring work 
including character-building work in children's institutions; all 
correctional work, including that generally performed by proba- 
tion officers, parole officers, prison workers, workers in correc- 
tional schools and detention homes, and workers with the sub- 
normal or mentally handicapped; all welfare work, including 
that generally employed by non-commercial employment agents, 
personnel managers and welfare workers; all settlement work, 
including that pertaining to commuhity organization, settlement 
club work, physical training in settlement work, playground 
work and the like; field investigation, in its bearing upon hous- 
ing and immigration, or upon supervisoral agences for welfare 
work, or upon endorsement agencies; the work of social service 
executives; all welfare work in educational institutions; all 
forms of social welfare work. The term "social worker" as 
herein used is declared to mean a person engaged in social 
work, as that term is herein defined. 

The drafting of this bill was the work of a group of social 
workers representing the various lines of activity and the 
different geographical areas of the state. It was endorsed at 
the recent meeting of the state Conference of Social^ Work. 
It raises, of course, a host of questions. It emphasizes the 
importance of social work and gives it a more or less profes- 
sional status. It also erects a barrier in the path of quacks. 
Since the majority of the board responsible for making policies 
is to be drawn from the ranks of social workers themselves 
and not from alien groups, standards should be set in accord- 
ance with the best thought of the workers themselves. 

"R. N." has become the accepted trademark of the regis- 
tered nurse. Representing, as it does, a standard of training 
and a certain proficiency, it is as zealously guarded as the "M. 
D." is by the medical profession. If this bill passes, perhaps, 
"R. S. W." will become the nomenclature for the registered 
social worker in California. 



AFTER four months of struggle, the lines in the New 
York clothing lockout and strike are still tightly drawn 
with, however, a number of more or less tangible sug- 
gestions of an impending settlement. The most important re- 
cent event in the controversy was the dismissal by Justice 
Nathan Bijur in the Supreme Court of the actions brought 
lt? | against Sidney Hillman and other members of the Amalga- 
mated Clothing Workers of America by J. Friedman and 
'"'Company. The manufacturer sought an injunction against 
'^picketing, $500,000 damages, and most important of all, the 
^'dissolution of the union. In the course of his decision re- 
-fusing to dissolve the union Justice Bijur observed that the 
"suit was aimed at something other than the ordinary ele- 
, Jments present in controversies between employer and employe; 
?i te it is designed to challenge the right of the defendant organi- 
)rt ""zation to continue to function." He considered in detail that 
rction of the preamble of the union's constitution which stated 
.that one of the purposes of the organization was "to put the 
^'[organized working class in actual control of the system of 
; s nproduction and the working class will then be ready to take 
'"'possession of it." These words were held to be "quite inno- 
Stuous" by Justice Bijur. He drew attention to the fact that 
! ::re l'jhe union expressed a desire to be in control of the system of 
lf>roduction rather than of the instrumentalities of production. 
he suit was dismissed. 

Although a new action was started by the Friedman com- 
- oany, the loss of the dissolution suit was a heavy blow. The 
: ' original petition had served as a vehicle through which a 
j:harge of extreme radicalism was leveled at the union. That 
""j Jillegation was one of the principal weapons used against the 
organization. The failure of the court to uphold the con- 
:ention accordingly made possible a. settlement by other meth- 
ods. The economic pressure for a composition of the dif- 


Acuities is great. The spring season has passed, but prepara- 
tions are now being made for autumn and winter clothes. 
Because of the lockout, business which ordinarily came to 
New York was diverted to Rochester and to Chicago and to 
other cities where the manufacturers and the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America have maintained friendly rela- 
tions. It is pointed out that the New York manufacturers 
are unwilling to lose another important season's trade, and 
that consequently settlement may be imminent. 

On March 9 Mayor Hylan appointed a citizens' commit- 
tee for the purpose of bringing about peace in the industry. 
During the four months of the lockout the union has raised 
$930,000 for the support of its members. This is one of the 
largest sums ever expended by a labor organization for such 
a purpose. At the present time, it is stated, contracts have 
been made with shops employing 25,000 of the 60,000 cloth- 
ing workers ordinarily engaged in New York. 


HERBERT HOOVER tells an amusing story of the 
thrift of the Belgians as he saw it in action a few days 
after the Armistice before the shadow of the invading 
armies had gone from the land. As he drove into a Belgian 
town he saw every man of the village on his roof painting it 
the bright color it had been in the cheerful days of peace, and 
every woman out with a pail of whitewash whitening the 
baseboards of the house. 

This same trait of thrift has resulted in a balance left in 
the hands of the Commission for Relief in Belgium that is 
large enough to support permanent educational foundations 
for the young men and women of Belgium who lack the 
means to pay for university training. This fund represents 
some residue from the sales of foodstuffs both outside and in- 
side Belgium, largely accrued during the period of the Armis- 
tice under the Commission for Relief in Belgium, which con- 
tinued in service until April, 191 9, and the Comite Na- 
tional which was the associate organization of the American 
commission and made up of a great number of Belgian people 
under the direction of distinguished Belgian business men. 

After the Armistice it was desirable that the system of 
providing mass food supplies be continued until such time as 
Belgium should have reestablished herself on a pre-war basis. 
In November, 191 8, approximately 900,000 people received 
free food, while the balance of the population, about 7,- 
000,000 people, were still able to find local money with which 
to pay for their rations. 

Under the arrangements of the Comite National the Bel- 
gians who had money had always charged themselves a small 
profit, which was expended in support of the totally destitute. 
With the Armistice, the amazing industry, vitality and in- 
genuity of the Belgian population showed itself in an immedi- 
ate and astonishingly rapid reduction of the number of totally 
destitute, so that not only was there an accumulation of profit 
formerly expended for the destitute, but a new profit from 
the former destitute, whose pride prompted them to begin 
paying as fast as they secured employment or were able to 
come again into possession of property over which they had 
lost control during the occupation. Further profit was made 
in liquidation of surplus foodstuffs and equipment. It should 
be remembered, however, that these profits or margins of 
safety were inherently due to the voluntary character of the 
commission, whose service in direction and voluntary distri- 
bution — added to charitable discounts by shipping, railroad, 
insurance, and commercial firms without profit to the agencies 
employed — accounted for such vast saving as would occur if a 
great manufacturing concern suddenly found itself almost 
free from labor charges. The total administrative expendi- 
ture was held down to less than one-half of 1 per cent of the 
entire operation. The record of economy may be extended 
even further than this; for, the changing tides of war 


ed to 




require the diversion of cargoes and sales of foodstuffs outside 
of Belgium to meet emergency readjustment of purchases or 
supplies that had been arranged for shipments or distribu- 
tion. Upon these transactions entirely outside of Belgium a 
balance of profit over nine and one-half million dollars was 
earned, several times greater than all overhead expenditures. 
The economy of operation in the organization has, in fact, 
reached an even higher test than this, in that the average 
prices maintained for food supplies in this occupied territory 
during the entire period of war were from 15 to 20 per cent 
less than the prices in the Allied countries during the same 

No question ever arose but that these profits or margins 
were the property of the people of Belgium. The only ques- 
tion to be determined was how they were to be returned to 
the public. The Belgian government expressed the desire that 
they be applied in some manner beneficial to the public and to 
commemorate the relief organizations of the war. A meeting 
was arranged by the Belgian authorities at Brussels at which 
the Premier, speaking on behalf of the ministers, requested 
Mr. Hoover to make this decision. After study and reflec- 
tion, Mr. Hoover proposed that the money be used for edu- 
cation in Belgium. This suggestion was accepted, and rep- 
resentatives of the Belgian universities were called into con- 

Ninety-five million francs were made available to enable 
the Belgian universities and technical schools to resume activi- 
ties immediately. Further amounts as they became available 
after final liquidation were allocated to permanent founda- 
tions from which the income only would be expended. This 
was designed to build a permanent bridge of fine and high 
relationship between the two countries. The balance avail- 
able for that purpose amounts to about 100,000,000 francs, 
whose eventual value cannot be determined in the present 
condition of exchange. 

In August, 1 91 9, Mr. Hoover wrote to the Belgian gov- 
ernment as follows: 

During the last four years of association with the Belgians, 
and from the discussions with my colleagues in the Comite 
National, with the members of the governments, and the uni- 
versities, and the public, it has become evident that no more 
democratic service could be rendered to the Belgian people 
than that these funds should be applied to the extension of 
higher education in Belgium. The war and the recent economic 
situation have demonstrated the extreme importance of the wid- 
est distribution of higher education amongst all classes, espe- 
cially those of limited means. In order to compass this end 
it is necesary: 

1. To undertake such measures as will open the' institutions 
of higher learning to the sons and daughters of those who have 
not the means to undertake the expenses of such higher training, 

2. To strengthen the financial resources of the institutions 
themselves not only so that they may render more efficient serv- 
ice to the community as a whole, but also that they may under- 
take the additional burden of this increased attendance. 

To carry out the first part of this program, two parallel 
foundations have been created, the Fondation Universitaire, 
chartered by act of Parliament in Belgium, and the Commis- 
sion for Relief in Belgium Educational Foundation, Inc., in 
America. Every year over 2,000 Belgian boys and girls will 
benefit by the loans. They have ten years in which to repay 
the Fondation Universitaire after leaving college. Forty- 
eight exchange fellowships are available annually, twenty- 
four for American students in Belgium, twenty-four for Bel- 
gian students here. At present seventeen young men and five 
young women from this country are studying in the univer- 
sities of Brussels, Ghent, Louvain, Liege, and the School of 
Mines at Mons, and twenty-three young Belgian men and 
one young woman in eleven of our universities, Harvard, 
California, Columbia, Chicago, Cornell, Johns Hopkins, 
Pennsylvania, Princeton, Yale, Stanford, and Massachusetts 
of Technology. These students, in addition to their academic 
work, study the practice of the sciences in which they are in- 
terested, as they find it in the American cities where they are 

and are invited to make practical recommendations for fur- 
thering those sciences in Belgium. 

The second half of Mr. Hoover's program has been met by 
the disbursement of 95,000,000 francs to the Belgian univer- 
sities for immediate rehabilitation. One-half of the Belgian 
foundation members have been nominated by the American 
foundation, the other half by the Belgian universities. 

American students wishing information regarding the work 
of the foundation should address Perrin C. Galpin, secretary 
of the Fellowship Committee, C. R. B. Educational Founda- 
tion, Inc., Room 1700, 42 Broadway, New York city. 


THE railroad problem, supposedly settled twelve months 
ago when the Esch-Cummins Transportation Act went 
into operation, day by day becomes more complicated. 
With a view to untangling the situation, last week President 
Harding held a conference at the White House with Chair- 
man Edgar E. Clark of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
and with Chairman R. M. Barton of the Railroad Labor 
Board. At the same time the National Association of Own- 
ers of Railroad Securities invited vthe leaders of the four rail- 
road brotherhoods to meet in conference, and while these two 
seperate efforts were in progress, the Railroad Labor Board 
at Chicago was hearing the appeal of the Association ot Rail- 
way Executives, and in its own fashion the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission was active. 

The essential facts in the situation are relatively clear. 
Last July, in accordance with the terms of the Transportation 
Act, railroad wages were raised. Congress had specifically 
enjoined the Railroad Labor Board to consider the cost of, 
living in the arbitrament of wages. Later the Interstate Com-' 
merce Commission increased railroad rates in order to make 
it possible for the railroads to pay the wages ordered by the 
Railroad Labor Board, and to enjoy the revenues approved by 
Congress in the Transportation Act. With the falling prices 
and the period of industrial depression, high rates failed to 
produce adequate revenues. The first "economy" step taken 
by the railroad managers was to attempt to abrogate the na- 
tional agreements which bind the railroads and the transporta- 
tion unions. Earlier in the autumn a labor committee of 
the railway executives had given its sanction to these agree- 
ments, but following the campaign of W. W. Atterbury, 
vice-president of the Pennsylvania lines, C. R. Gray, presi- 
dent of the Union Pacific, who had been chairman of the 
labor committee, resigned, and Mr. Atterbury was given his 
place. ' Following that change the Association of Railway 
Executives began to demand the annulment of the national 
agreements, arguing that by change of working rules $300,- 
000,000 annually might be saved. A few weeks later the 
campaign of the railway executives was broadened to include 
a lowering of the wage rates fixed last July. 

The railroad unions combatted vigorously the contention 
of the executives, and for some weeks the Railroad Labor 
Board at Chicago has been considering the case. Meantime, 
on their own behalf, the union leaders charged that campaign 
of the executives was a part of the effort of the scheme of a 
financial coterie to further the "open shop" campaign. Ex- 
tensive documents showing the interconnections of New York 
banking houses with the interlocking directorates of leading 
railroad lines were presented to the Railroad Labor Board 
and introduced in the United States Senate by Senator R. M. 
LaFollette. These exhibits and charts were printed in the 
Congressional Record for March 14. 

The National Association of Owners of Railroad Securities 
intervened. This body, led by S. Davies Warfield, is said to 
represent $12,000,000,000 of railroad securities, mostly in the 
form of bonds. The views of the security owners have clash- ( 
ed with those of the railway executives. The security own- | 
ers first suggested to the Senate committee that a new variety 



of governmental operation be tried in order to save the rail- 
roads in this emergency. Congress not being in session, con- 
sideration of this application had necessarily to be deferred 
until the special session which meets early this month. Fol- 
lowing that, the security owners invited the leaders of the 
four brotherhoods to meet them in direct conference on April 
4. Then came the White House conference. As a result 
of the failing railway revenues and the high cost of transpor- 
tation, the entire matter of the control and operation of the 
railroads of the country may be brought up before the special 
session of Congress. For the time being, at any rate, the 
Esch-Cummins law seems to be an admitted failure, and a 
new experiment in transportation developing seems about to 


ALTHOUGH Oregon for some years has had in opera- 
tion a law for the sterilization of the unfit, the state 
legislature has recently taken another exceptional step 
in this direction. Largely through the unceasing efforts of 
Dr. Owens-Adair, a woman physician over eighty years of 
age, the state legislature has passed a bill requiring an exami- 
nation into the health and mental fitness of all applicants for 
marriage licenses. Further, a license will not be issued to 
the physically and mentally .subnormal until one or both of 
the applicants have been rendered sterile. The act now goes 
to the voters of the state either for their rejection or endorse- 
ment at the next general election. 

It is of interest that the act strikes deeper than at requiring 
such a mental and physical examination. The certificate of 
the examining physician shall not only contain a statement as 
to the mental qualifications of the applicants for a marriage 
license but shall also show the educational qualifications of the 
physician himself. Further, provision is made for an appeal 
from the findings of the examining physician to those of three 
competent physicians selected by the court. 

Dr. Owens-Adair, the sponsor of the bill, in a letter to 
members of the legislature made a strong plea for the practice 
of birth control : 

Every husband and wife [she states] should have the priv- 
ilege of deciding the number of children that should come into 
their home. Such children are love children and will bring 
blessings with them. A child well born will be an asset of 
great worth to his country, the other a curse. When the call 
to arms came, your sons and the sons of other normal men 
rushed to its call and passed the test; the subnormal failed. 
The "boobs," as the soldiers dubbed them, were allowed to 
go home and propagate their kind. The unfit should not be 
allowed to propagate. 


THE exploitation of aliens by business concerns, often of 
their own nationality, is an old evil which various legis- 
lative endeavors have attempted to eliminate, but have 
not quite succeeded in removing. With the rival of immigra- 
tion, limited as it practically is to friends and relatives of aliens 
already in this country, foreign money transactions, in con- 
nection with the purchase of steamship and railroad passage 
and other expenses, have assumed a considerable volume. 
1 he transmission of money to foreign countries for purposes 
of relief, in spite of the facility of food drafts available for 
some of them, also has remained a flourishing business. In- 
vestigations made in recent months by the New York World 
have shown that crooks, operating in the guise of steamship 
and express agents, take advantage of this movement to swin- 
dle their clients in the matter of exchange rates and excessive 
fees; and in some cases employ for their own uses moneys 
entrusted to them for transmission to Europe. These agents 
are not employed by responsible transportation companies, but 
trade on their own account, collecting what they can and 
paying out, when they must — which is often after use of 


TN view of the important -primary municipal election 
■*• campaigns about to start throughout the United Slates, 
the following felicitous definition of a mayor's qualifications 
by the Pittsburgh I oters' League •will be of interest: 

What manner of man should be selected as candidate for 
mayor ? 

First — He must be of unimpeachable integrity, command- 
ing the confidence of the whole community. 

Second — He must be a man of ability, with a knowledge 
of the municipal conditions of the city, and if possible be 
familiar with all its departments. 

Third — He must be a man of courage, who cannot be 
swerved from the right by fear of loss of popularity or of 
chances for political preferment. 

Fourth — He must be a man of vision, yet practical withal, 
who can see that a city is something more than brick and 
stone and streets, but is composed of human beings who 
have the right to demand in their place of residence not only 
physical cleanliness, but moral cleanliness — not only a mart 
in which to sell their services, but a playground for the en- 
joyment of life, where education, recreation and the op- 
portunity to develop the best that is in them are always of 
first importance. 

You cannot expect a dyed-in-the-wool partisan political 
follower, if elected mayor by a partisan factional political 
machine, to be anything but a dyed-in-the-wool partisan 
political follower. The city needs now, as never before, a 
non-partisan candidate, a candidate whom the people can 
elect as the representative of all the interests of the city, 
both great and small. 

funds entrusted to them for many weeks — the actual charges 
for tickets and services rendered, minus such commission as 
is customary. Neither state nor federal law affords protec- 
tion against their nefarious operations. 

Salvatore Cotillo has introduced in the Senate of New 
York a bill (No. 561) to amend the general corporation law 
in such a way as to force all associations and corporations en- 
gaging in banking business, except telegraph companies, to 
register under and become subject to the banking laws of the 
state. It is an amendment to a law adopted in 1909 which 
exempts from such subjection express companies that have 
contracts with railroad and transatlantic steamship companies. 
These companies oppose the bill on the ground that it would 
prohibit them from engaging in the transmission of money. 
But there is nothing to prevent them, if they want to continue 
that branch of their business, from registering as banks. Wil- 
liam H. Matthews, director of the Department of Family 
Welfare in the New York Association for Improving the 
Condition of the Poor, in warmly commending this bill, 
writes : 

My own experience in the social welfare field leads me to 
believe that Senator Cotillo is proposing a piece of much needed 
legislation. I have looked over much of the data which he has 
gathered in regard to these agencies, data which to me plainly 
show the need of such legislation as is proposed by the bill. 

The exemption granted in the law of 1909, it is recalled 
in New York city, was the result of agitation on behalf of 
the express companies; it was not in the original draft of 
the law. 


ANOTHER magnificent gift to promote health educa- 
tion in Europe has been made by the Rockefeller Found- 
ation which announces a contribution of 43,000,000 
francs toward a budget of 100,000,000 francs required to 
rehouse and endow the medical school of the University of 
Brussels, to establish in connection with it a training school 
for nurses in memory of Edith Cavell and Madame Depage, 
late head of the nursing division of the Belgian Red Cross, 
and to rebuild the municipal hospital of St. Pierre to serve 
as a center of teaching in connection wiith the medical school. 



The U. S. Steel Report 

THE nineteenth annual report of the United States 
Steel Corporation recently made public covering 
J1920 contains figures that have an important bear- 
ing on the ability of the Corporation to make 
changes in labor policy. Its earnings for the year were over 
$185,000,000. After meeting interest on bonds, providing 
for depreciation and sinking funds, paying regular dividends 
on common and preferred stock, and meeting sundry fixed 
charges, there remained a surplus of $59,000,000. 

The impressiveness of this showing is increased when all 
the circumstances are taken into account. The year began 
with the steel strike still on, and ended in a period of general 
curtailment of operations. Despite these unfavorable condi- 
tions, earnings were greater by nearly thirty-three million 
dollars than they were in 191 9, and greater than in any other 
year of the Corporation's history excepting the three war years 
of 1 91 6, 191 7, and 191 8. Even in the last quarter of 1920, 
when mills were in general closing down or going on part 
time, Steel Corporation earnings were greater than they were 
in the first and second quarters and greater than they were in 
any quarter of 1919. 

These facts may well be considered in relation to the ques- 
tion of the adoption of eight-hour shifts in Steel Corporation 
mills. The report shows that in 1920 the Corporation em- 
ployed in manufacturing, on the average, 200,991 men. Fig- 
ures recently secured by the Survey from Steel Corporation 
officials indicate that about 40 per cent of these employes were 
two-shift workers, averaging twelve hours a day. Accord- 
ingly, about 80,396 men worked on this schedule in 1920. 

The average income of all Steel Corporation employes, ac- 
cording to Corporation figures, in 1920 was $2,175. If we 
apply this to the twelve-hour men, we may assume that they 
received altogether in 1920, $174,861,300. It would be in- 
teresting to know how much larger this wage bill would have 
been if three shifts had been employed in 1920 instead of two. 

The experience of the independent steel mills shows that 
a third shift can be introduced without increasing the force by 
50 per cent. It seems reasonable to assume — as does Horace 
B. Drury in his recent study of the eight-hour plants — that an 
increase of 35 per cent in the force would be sufficient. 

The figures given above show that if the Steel Corpora- 
tion had introduced the three-shift system in 1920 by increas- 
ing its force in the departments affected by 35 per cent, and 
had paid each man as much for eight hours as he formerly 
had received for twelve, the addition to the payroll would be 
something over $61,000,000. This statement is made with- 
out taking into account a probable increase in efficiency that 
would cut down the cost very materially. It is obvious that 
the money which went to surplus in 1920 was just about 
$2,000,000 short of the amount necessary to pay this bill. 

It is generally assumed, however, that the steel workers 
would be willing to accept some reduction in daily earnings in 
return for the eight-hour day. If the three-shift system had 
been adopted in 1920, and the rate per hour increased 25 per 
cent each man would have suffered a loss of 16 Yj, per cent in 
his daily earnings and the total increased cost to the Corpora- 
tion would have been $21,800,000, a bill which could have 
been met by the Corporation and $37,000,000 left in the sur- 
plus. The eight-hour system could have been adopted then in 
1920, had the Corporation willed it, with scarcely any reduc- 
tion in the daily earnings of the men affected. 

In considering the ability of the Corporation to make such 
a change, the total undivided surplus of $522,000,000 should 
be considered. It is probable that if an eight-hour day were 
adopted it would bring increased efficiency such as to cut 
down, if not altogether to wipe out these figures of potential 
cost. Whatever practical objections there may be to intro- 
ducing in the year 1921 the three-shift system, these obstacles 
are not financial. John A. Fitch. 

W. E. B. 

f ■ ^RADE 


unionists, teachers and students met in New 
Ej York on April 2 and 3 to form a Workers' Edu- 
' cational Bureau of America, a W. E. B., as Britain 
has a W. E. A. (Workers' Educational Associa- 
tion). Twelve labor officials, 34 trade unionists and other 
workers, 20 students, 52 teachers, and many other persons 
interested in workers' education attended, making a group of 
over two hundred. This first gathering brought together 
135 from New York, 30 from Pennsylvania, 15 from Mas- 
sachusets, and 6 scattered, so the organization of the group 
into an educational bureau is at first regional, with the hope 
that it shall grow into a nationally representative movement. 

The purpose of the bureau is to act as a clearing house of 
information ; an organization for publicity ; a register of teach- 
ers; a laboratory on text-books and other classroom materials, 
on syllabi of courses and on methods of pedagogy; an agency 
for the collection and coordination of statistics. 

What was accomplished by the conference was the tying 
in of workers' education a little closer to the American labor 
movement. The clothing industry has conducted successful 
experiments for years. But this conference was unusual in the 
presence also of machinists, bricklayers, coal teamsters, street 
railwaymen, miners. This achievement has been due to the 
interest of such men as James Maurer, John Brophy and Wil- 
liam Kehoe. The focussing of this interest into a policy-mak- 
ing conference, with an effective program, is the devoted work 
of Fannia Cohn, and of Abraham Epstein, who as secretary to 
the labor education committee of the Pennsylvania Federation 
of Labor, has established classes in industrial communities. 

What was revealed by the conference was an unformed but 
eager group, ready for the next step. The need is for in- 
formation on how to form groups, what to teach, how to 
teach, and for ideas on what workers' education is, its object, 
its method. Most of the fundamental questions went un- 
answered. There are almost no adequate text-books, few 
teachers, no discussion of the idea, no outstanding figure in the 
labor or educational group devoting his life to making this 
one thing prevail. Instead, we have tired, busy people, serv- 
ing on many committees, active in a dozen causes. As a 
teacher in Pennsylvania labor work states: "The greatest 
need of the movement is for devoted and enthusiastic propa- 
gandists of the idea of workers' education." 

Mr. Epstein, in his report to the conference, gathered for 
sthe first time a detailed comprehensive account of the Amer- 
ican experiments in labor education. His full report is essen- 
tial for an understanding of the subject. His survey covers 
twenty-three workers' educational enterprises carried on in 
twenty-two cities. Most of these have sprung up in the last 
two years. Previous to 191 8, only three of these experiments 
were in existence. In 191 9 three new schools were organized, 
in 1920, thirteen. These were organized by central labor 
unions, local unions, international unions, state federations, 
the Women's Trade Union League. Sixteen are entirely under 
the control of trade unions. Fifteen give no remuneration 
to their organizer or educational director. "In the majority 
of cases the movement depends largely on the few individuals 
who keep it alive." 

The total enrollment in the twenty-three enterprises (this 
survey omits the Rand School and the United Labor Educa- 
tion Committee) amounts to 4,670. Outside of the radical 
and Jewish organizations it is mostly the older men who at- 
tend. With a few exceptions, the women workers show lit- 
tle interest. The cause of the faint response in America to 
workers' education is assigned by nineteen experiments to 
"apathy" on the part of workers and unions. 

The success of the tentative bureau rests with the executive 
committee. James H. Maurer, president of the Pennsylvania 
State Federation of Labor, is chairman, and Spencer Miller, 
Jr., of Columbia University, secretary. Arthur Gleason 




Peonage and the Public 

THE discovery of the bodies of eleven Negroes 
killed in Jasper County, Georgia, at the farm of 
a planter by whom they had been held in duress, 
has shocked the public into realizing that sinister 
forms of peonage persist in the United States. A Negro 
overseer has confessed to some of the murders but charges 
that they were done under orders and threats from his white 
employer. The murders themselves might easily have been 
the acts of perverts. The more serious thing is the condi- 
tion of servitude which the incidents reveal. 

The public has long been baffled by the lack of compre- 
hensive information as to the extent and degree of the prac- 
tices which have come to be known as peonage. It is apparent 
that this information cannot be obtained at the present time 
when feeling runs high, through local agencies or private 
inquiry, because the dangers to witnesses are too evident. 
Furthermore, in a letter written this last week, Governor 
Dorsey of Georgia brings out the difficulties with which state 
officials in the South must contend. He writes: 

I assure you that all true Georgians deplore the awful trag- 
edies recently brought to light, and I am leaving no stone un- 
turned to put the wheels of justice in motion and hope to bring 
about the conriction of the guilty parties. The governor, as 
you know, has no jurisdiction. All he can do is to try to bolster 
up the officials elected by the people. 

As violations of the Thirteenth Amendment, made specific 
and operative by federal statute of March 2, 1867 (in the 
Revised United States Statutes, paragraphs 1990 and 5526) 
by which peonage, defined, was abolished forever within any 
state of the union or in any territory, the United States De- 
partment of Justice investigates alleged cases of peonage. Al- 
ready the federal Grand Jury has started a far-reaching in- 
vestigation of alleged violations. But the need is to go beyond 
individual cases to what lies back of them. 

A comprehensive congressional inquiry into peonage as a 
violation of federal law would furnish a basis on which the 
public could act with intelligence. Such an investigation by 
a Republican Congress immediately after a great Republican 
victory would of course meet with opposition in certain quar- 
ters in the South. Only a committee which by its adequate 
representation of Southerners and Democrats would carry 
conviction of its fairness, could serve in this serious juncture. 
During the past five years, by request of governors and 
other officials, I have made studies of social work and progress 
in the states of Virginia, West Virginia, South Carolina, 
Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas, which brought 
me into personal contact with governors, public officials, 
superintendents of institutions, doctors, lawyers, ministers, 
and educators. Particular attention has been given to the 
social conditions and progress of the Negro race. 

There were rumors and occasional specific statements 
as to the existence of peonage in certain districts of the 
teuth ; but very little concrete information was available. 
The Negroes who chiefly suffer this form of coercion are 
usually timid and ignorant. They do not know their rights 
and could not assert them if they did know them. The 
public officers in the remote districts, far from railroads 
and towns, where such conditions exist, are apt to be men of 
limited intelligence. Peonage rests on terrorism, and those 
who practice it terrorize neighbors and public officers as 
well as their victims. 

A peon is defined in the Century Dictionary as "a spe- 
cies of serf compelled to work for his creditor until his 
debts are paid." A form of peonage may exist under 
nominal legal sanction, under laws which require discharged 
prisoners to work out a fine after their release, or, as in 
Texas, under a parole law whereby the discharged prisoner 
is placed in charge of his employer, at a nominal wage, for 
a term of years which may be long extended. Or a type 

of peonage may exist under a farming contract whereby the 
tenant is continuously in debt to his landlord for seed, sup- 
plies, and cash advances, and is held by threats and ter- 
rorism in a kind of servitude. Numerous cases of trouble 
between the white and black races, and a considerable num- 
ber of cases of lynching or mob violence have been con- 
nected with alleged peonage of this latter sort. While 
there is comparatively little evidence in the form of judi- 
cial findings, grand jury reports, or legislative investiga- 
tions, it is a matter of common knowledge that this kind of 
oppression has not infrequently occurred. 

In the state of Texas there exists by legal sanction a con- 
dition which amounts to very much the same thing as peon- 
age. Some fifteen years ago the legislature enacted an in- 
determinate sentence law, intended, presumably, to encour- 
age reformation by enabling prisoners to shorten their sen- 
tence and obtain a final discharge after a suitable demon- 
stration of their right purpose during a period of parole. 
Texas has a Board of Pardon Advisors, to assist the gov- 
ernor to decide upon applications for pardons and paroles. 
This board submitted a report in January, 19 19, in which 
they' said : 

The real object of the parol is to give worthy men ... an 
opportunity to adjust themselves to a realization of their re- 
turn to society ... by restoring him to liberty in charge of 
some competent and reliable person, who will take a personal 
interest in his welfare, counsel and advise him, see that he is 
encouraged in industry, given employment and good associa- 
tion. . . . 

It has been our observation, and we have had much practical 
evidence, . . . that the principal motive that has impelled an 
application for the parole of convicts . . . [from individual em- 
ployers to whom they were to be paroled] has been to obtain 
able-bodied men who are capable of rendering good service, 
either as a farm laborer or as a mechanic, at comparatively 
speaking, a low compensation. The longer the term the convict 
has to serve the more desirable he is to the applicant for 
parole. We have had frequent letters from men under parole 
stating that they are overworked and asking, in some cases, 
that they be returned to the penitentiary, if they cannot be 
paroled to some one else, or granted a pardon. Some claim 
that they are not paid for their services as agreed upon, others 
that they are not given sufficient food. How much truth may 
be in these complaints we have not been in a position to 
determine. . . . Without a very close and careful surveillance 
of the men who are paroled, their condition may become one 
that would almost amount to slavery. 

Apparently the paroled prisoner had no remedy, because 
if he left his employer he would doubtless become a fugitive 
from justice, liable to incur an additional prison term as 
an escaped convict. 

The question of peonage is of course only part of the 
larger problem of race relationship. A wide-spread feeling 
is manifested among the most intelligent and patriotic white 
citizens whom I have met in the South that the Negro has 
not been receiving full justice in this and other respects, 
and that the white race, holding the authority of govern- 
ment and the power of public sentiment, owed it to them- 
selves and to their black neighbors to take active steps for 
a change in these conditions. Governor Brough of Arkan- 
sas said in a public statement: 

None but the most prejudiced Negro hater . . . would con- 
trovert the proposition that in the administration quasi public 
utilities and courts of justice the Negro is entitled to the fair 
and equal protection of the law. 

For the past eight years these matters have been freely 
discussed and published in the annual proceedings of the 
Southern Sociological Congress. In 1919 an Address to the 
Nation protesting against mob violence and lynching was 
published over 100 signatures including those of some of 
the foremost public officials, educators, ministers and law- 
yers of the South. White citizens of Atlanta, Memphis, 
Norfolk, Nashville and other southern cities are meeting 
their colored citizens to insure a square deal, and represen- 
tatives of the two races are cooperating actively to that 
end. These and a multitude of other Southerners who hold 





like principles can be relied upon to condemn the practice 
of peonage wherever found and to join in efficient meas- 
ures for its suppression. In my judgment the remedy for 
this evil, together with mob violence and other forms of in- 
justice to the Negro, is to be found in this united action of 
right-minded white men, cooperating with the best and 
most intelligent Negroes. It will require courage and con- 
tinuous action ; but the courage and persistence of the strong 
men of the South was demonstrated many years ago. 

Hastings H. Hart. 

Charles McCarthy 

THE clear flame of Charles McCarthy of Wisconsin 
has burned itself out. His rugged constitution, al- 
ways recklessly bestowed, has finally, at forty-eight, 
beaten itself to pieces in that endless task of trying 
to fit government justly to human life. With his vigorous 
magnetism, his intellectual equipment, his creative imagina- 
tion, his unique contribution to American political develop- 
ment, and his broad appeal, he embodied potentialities for a 
future leadership with many aspects of greatness. 

To suggest, merely, the range of McCarthy's activities and 
influence: When the Blankenburg reform administration 
was elected in Philadelphia, the mayor and a group of his 
officials made a special pilgrimage to the Legislative Refer- 
ence Library at Madison, Wis., which McCarthy had in 1901 
conceived and created, to meet McCarthy and to become 
acquainted with the material he had collected on city govern- 
ment technique. President Roosevelt frequently called him 
into consultation on economic problems. He was a familiar 
figure at national conventions, both as an organizer and as a 
fighter for progressive platform planks. The calls upon him 
from coast to coast were continual. Throughout his career he 
trained and inspired young men and women to carry on his 
work in other states. He originated a university extension 
system which projected the service of the University of Wis- 
consin throughout the remotest parts of the state. He drafted 
laws dealing with education, direct primaries, agriculture, 
railroads, pure-food control, public health, workmen's com- 
pensation, and with many other social-economic problems for 
Wisconsin and for a number of other states. For fifteen 
years he was a leading formulator and a principal figure in 
the advocacy of "the Wisconsin idea" in government regula- 
tion which furnished standards for much of our federal and 
state regulatory systems. 

It seems safe to say that he advanced scientific legislation 
and effective administration in America by many years. He 
planned and led the first effective steps by the farmers of the 
United States looking toward collective action and coopera- 
tive purchasing and marketing. He was personally intimate 
with the foremost workers for Irish rural cooperation, and 
his career was in 1915 the subject of an essay, by his close 
friend, Sir Horace Plunkett, in the Nineteenth Century. 
In the spring of 191 7, when he was beginning his war service 
in connection with the draft laws, with food production and 
labor, he declined an offer at a high salary to serve the Re- 
public of China as agricultural advisor. He was in continual 
active touch with many foreign statesmen, and knew the 
fundamental, agricultural and industrial conditions, and the 
legislative and administrative movements in every quarter of 
the globe. 

But although McCarthy's work in research and formula- 
tion made him nationally and internationally known, it was 
in Wisconsin, through his long years of struggle for sound 
laws and effective administration, that he did his real life- 
work and left his chief monument in institutions and in intel- 
lectual influence. Also in a multitudinous affection; for, 
though a hard hitter, he had the Gaelic humor and charm at 
their best, and the peculiar capacity of being at once in sym- 
pathetic touch with all classes of life. His parents were Irish 

immigrants who first met as operatives in a Boston factory 
and moved to Brockton where McCarthy was born. In his 
early boyhood he lived through a strike, in the course of 
which the family home was mortgaged to help the strikers. 
His schooling was interrupted by a run-away trip to sea, and 
a period as stage carpenter in a Bowery theater. Nineteen 
found him painting scenery in a theater in Providence, where 
he seized the opportunity to enter Brown University. Here 
he specialized in history, but is perhaps best remembered 
through a football career which at the weight of only 128 
pounds twice won him a place on the "all-American" team. 
There followed sometime later a period of research work 
in history and economics at the University of Georgia 
where he supported himself by coaching the football team. 
Thence he went in 1899 for his Ph.D. to the University of 
Wisconsin, attracted by its progressive political tendencies. 
Here he again coached football — a service with which he al- 
ways maintained some connection, thus building up in many 
successive college generations an immense acquaintance and 
the firm friendship of thousands of men later influential in 
the life of the state. This circumstance, combined with a 
compelling sincerity, a dramatic oratorical power deeply 
touched with the poetic, a contagious humor, a shrewd poli- 
tical insight, and a rare capacity for tolerance and impersonal 
patience, enabled this inwardly fierce zealot for justice to 
secure results through political action with a singular effec- 

These qualities in McCarthy were apt to produce situa- 
tions with a flavor all their own. For instance, in 191 5, the 
state administration, which commanded a strong majority in 
the legislature, had a bill introduced to abolish the Legisla- 
tive Reference Library with its bill-drafting bureau, through 
which, for a decade and a half, McCarthy had wielded a far- 
reaching influence, and to transfer its records to the state law 
library. He appeared before a legislative committee and 
smothered the bill under an avalanche of mirth, suggesting to 
the committee that the bill as drawn was defective, but that 
his drafting bureau would gladly put it into proper shape; 
pleading with the committee not to burn down the barn in 
order to kill the rat, offering to resign if the legislature would 
merely request this by an informal resolution; and suggesting 
that, after all, he would enjoy being outside the capitol throw- 
ing bricks through the windows, which he could do immedi- 
ately by registering as a lobbyist and fighting for the legis- 
lation most needed by the state. He was never again in 
jeopardy; and two years later, when, through Herculean work 
in organizing the state's army draft registration machinery, he 
succeeded in landing Wisconsin's report in Washington ahead 
of every other state in the Union, he had the satisfaction of 
receiving the whole-hearted friendship of the man who had 
been perhaps his foremost enemy. 

Always poor, McCarthy's generosity kept him ordinarily in 
a state of financial privation. In order to perform his war 
work in Washington he lived in quarters that were positively 
unsanitary. He returned home from that work and from 
his mission to Europe in a state of health which, though 
grave, might have been overcome by one willing to spare 
himself. He left his library at Madison toward the middle 
of March, and went to Arizona for a long stay ; but, following 
an unexpected surgical operation, died there on the twenty- 
sixth of March. 

Charles McCarthy was a dreamer, but he was not vision- 
ary ; a scholar but not a thcorizer ; a terrific fighter, but never 
a creator of bitterness; a passionate reformer, but not an ex- 
tremist; a leader, yet frequently from choice a worker in the 
background without recognition ; a prodigious toiler and or- 
ganizer for results, but throughout many defeats with a soul 
philosophically aloof from personal disappointment. The 
man made his deep impress on his generation because of these 
rare balances within him, but mainly because of his consuming 
sincerity, and his genius for making men aware of their own 
ideals. Louis B. Wehle. 

The Spirit of Raiford 

Florida's Substitute for the Convict Lease System 

By Orlando F. L 



THROUGH the early dusk of a warm January 
afternoon I have just traveled by railroad back 
from the State Prison Farm at Raiford, Fla., to 
Jacksonville. Against a gray background of hazy 
sky stood silhouetted the endless scattered southern pines, 
their trunks scraped bare, for several feet on one side, by the 
turpentine gatherers. 

Out of the flat uncultivated soil protruded numberless 
stumps, punctuating the desolation left by the forest plunder- 
ers. Yet only today I have learned that even these gnarled 
remnants of the predatory lumber gatherers may be collected 
in the retorts, which are rendering-ovens, yielding a con- 
siderable profit from the stumps in light turpentine oil, heavy 
oil, tar and charcoal. So ingenious is ever the mind of schem- 
ing man, set on the acquisition of further wealth. 

My train this morning, on the Atlantic Coast Line, passed, 
in the forty miles or more of monotonous stretch between 
Jacksonville and Raiford, not a single even half-pretentious 
house. The eye catches, in this plunge into northern central 
Florida, only endless miles of semi-denuded flatlands, spotted 
with gray, isolated, never-painted shacks. However, at one 
collection of nondescript buildings, the place called Raiford, a 
portentous thing has happened. Here the state of Florida 
has bought 15,000 acres of this same kind of land, at from $5 
to $7 an acre, and today there dwell and work upon these 
thousands of acres some five hundred convicts, mostly black, 
but all of them, white or black, in stripes, broad and con- 
spicuous to the eye. 

However, the mind of the observer, once traveling beyond 
the repugnant sight of the black bars upon the clothes, and 
beyond the relatively crude housing and living equipment, 
meets immediately the real wonders of this place, out in the 
great north reaches of Florida. To this unique penal farm 
are sent the convicts of the state — lifers, long-term men, old 
men, young men from sixteen up, all, in short, who in our 
northern states would be committed to the state prison or 
even to the reformatories for felons. It is the state prison of 

Through the creation of this farm of ranch-like proportions, 
with its cluster of wooden dormitories in the center, Florida 
did away, a few years ago, with the incredibly cruel medieval 
leasing system that had made the state a flagrant and brutal 

legal trafficker in human flesh. State convicts had been sold 
into practical slavery under the guise of renting out prisoners 
to turpentine camp contractors. High prices had accrued to 
the state from such slavery, but there had been gross neglect 
by the state of even the cursory supervision of the lives and 
conditions of its convicts. The contractors wielded almost 
the power of life and death over these wretched beings. And 
this explains, incidentally, and in part, why today there are 
innuendos and charges that the Raiford farm is not a suffi- 
ciently paying proposition, and why the so-called "ultra- 
humanitarianism" of Warden J. F. Blitch is a target for 
those who allege that "convicts go to prison to be punished," — 
the same old cry of those who always rebel against progress 
in prison management. 

It was Governor Gilchrist who year after year attended 
the annual conventions of the American Prison Association 
and who fought and beat the convict lease system of Florida 
less than ten years ago. And Raiford is the result. During 
my day at Raiford I saw high in the air the black omnipresent 
buzzards soaring contemplatively. Unquestionably there still 
hover over the present penal system of Florida some who 
mourn in pocketbook and loss of profits the passing of penal 
slavery, and who watch with ceaselessly sharpened eye for the 
possible dissolution of the Raiford Prison Farm. Yet the 
highly encouraging feature of the situation is the sound and 
enthusiastic advocacy, by representative citizens of Jackson- 
ville, of the present methods. 

The farmer-warden of those 15,000 acres met me at the 
little wooden railroad station, his round face heavily tanned 
by the southern sun. "You'll have to ride in the buggy, be- 
hind a horse, a strange experience these days," Mr. Blitch 
said, without apology. "I sent two boys over to Ellenby this 
morning who had toothache, and they had to go in the flivver." 
Here I caught at the outset one of the dominant notes of this 
unique prison in the South. I, a somewhat corpulent individ- 
ual, rode in a buggy, squeezed under pressure into a narrow 
seat beside another somewhat corpulent individual, so that the 
center of gravity of this frail conveyance was perilously high 
■ — while two convicts in stripes went in the car to the dentist's. 
Here is an astonishing fact about Raiford. There are not 
over a dozen persons on the payroll, and yet there are some 
five hundred inmates. Up north, we claim that there must 




be, for efficiency, at least one employe for every ten inmates. 
But here at the Florida Prison Farm, I saw inmate foremen, 
earning not a cent of pay, take out into the fields — so broad 
in their stretches as to resemble the ocean — their gangs of con- 
victs, both white and colored. 

There were lifers managing the chicken colonies; convicts 
caring for the hogs, the cattle — everything. Wherever I 
turned, these convicts worked almost entirely without guards. 
In the women's quarters I saw some thirty colored prisoners 
entirely under the supervision of one white woman, a neat, 
modest appearing convict herself, with a sentence of ten years. 
Later, far off in the fields, so small as simply to dot the land- 
scape, this group appeared, digging potatoes, clearing the 

It is not a great stretching of the truth to say that a prison 
is as strong as the personality of its warden. I know of north- 
ern prisons where, it is said, the warden does not dare to go 
down into the prison yard among the inmates. But at Raiford, 
Warden Blitch stood at the gate of the stockade while the 
men filed out from dinner to go to work. He gave quick, 
concise, unmilitaristic commands, and settled at once the fre- 
quent questions raised by the convict foremen about the after- 
noon's disposition of the working gangs. It seemed to my 
northern imagination an echo of the old semi-feudal planta- 
tion methods, with the changes that time and imprisonment 
would bring. Off upon their horses rode the inmate foremen 
with their gangs. 

There is a fine spirit of humanness pervading the place. I 
saw the recommendation to the pardon board written by 
Warden Blitch for "Uncle Ben," a colored man of uncertain 
age. "He is an industrious white-man's nigger." And Uncle 
Ben grinned appreciatively. Uncle Ben, recently discharged 
from the prison, is in love with a woman prisoner, who 
cooked at the dairy farm of the prison when Uncle Ben 
worked there. They want to marry, and the warden is ask- 
ing the pardon board to let Mary out. 

The spirit of the place? No warden in any prison can con- 
ceal the "spirit of the prison" from the trained observer. A 
warden can attempt to camouflage his institution by expati- 
ating upon the high polish of the floors, the excellent cleanli- 
ness of the nooks and crannies, the fine light bread, the 
precision of administration — and those are necessary parts of 
a prison regime, but not the soul of it. The warden can seek 
by hale and hearty joviality, or by an assumption of learning, 
or confidential communications, or apparent solicitude for his 
"boys," or for "penology," and the like, to conceal other con- 
ditions of dubious nature. 

But he cannot camouflage the way the inmates react to 
him, look at him, get ready for him as he approaches — and 
these things are tell-tale barometers of an institution. This 
Raiford project could hardly last over night, with the present 
paid employes, if something besides the law did not hold it 
together. Even the powerhouse, the electric plant, the 
mechanical heart of the institution is run wholly by inmates. 
At any instant, of an evening, the lights could all be cut off, 
the power shut down. The few cars or teams could be com- 
mandeered without too much difficulty. So something must 
hold Raiford together, for throughout the institution, during 
the day, there are no guns. The gangs working under in- 
mate overseers are not dominated by shotguns or rifles. 

The something that makes Raiford go is probably a com- 
bination of good spirit, the sense of a square deal, a traditional 
submission to authority, and a fear of the extremely heavy 
penalties for attempted escape. It would be hard to escape 

permanently in these desolate stretches. But if men were 
goaded, they would frequently try, whereas the records seem 
to show about one escape a month — a strikingly low record. 

The spirit of an institution is the finest asset — or Ae greatest 
liability — that can be presented to the state by the institution. 
Industry, product, buildings, discipline are, of course, essen- 
tial. But the intangible thing, the spirit of the place, the 
thing that underlies the daily life of the place, underlies honor 
systems, attempts at self-government and the like — that is the 
conditioning factor in reclamation and rehabilitation, the 
cement that holds the highly dynamic mass from flying off 
centrifugally, when guns and guards are lacking, and the 
portals yawn with temptations to escape. 

The four thousand acres at Raiford now capable of cultiva- 
tion are worked by some four hundred Grade-B men. The 
most able-bodied convicts are not retained at Raiford, but 
placed out upon road work in various parts of the state. In 
New York we have Great Meadow Prison, with perhaps 
seven or eight hundred acres capable of cultivation. We think it 
a large area. Yet the prison farm of Florida, started only some 
five years ago, is already many times as large as Great 
Meadow in tillable land ready for planting, and its popula- 
tion is only about half that at Great Meadow. 

The spirit of the place? All the way from a city in cen- 
tral New York had come a poor woman, Hungarian by birth 
— two nights and a day on the train — to see her son at Rai- 
ford, who, with a companion, had been on the previous day 
brought out to the prison farm from Jacksonville to serve 
five years for burglary. The woman passed the warden and 
me in a hired car, as we journeyed slowly along in our buggy. 
"Take the lady to my house," said the warden to the chauf- 
feur. "It's the only real place we have, till our office is 
built," he explained to me. 

At his home, with a fine natural courtesy, he called Mrs. 
Blitch to assist the poor crying woman to remove her coat 
and to be comfortable. There in the warden's home parlor 
she sat, the woman who throughout thirty-six hours had been 
picturing to herself high, stern, gray walls imprisoning her 
son, and stern blue-coated officials paying indifferent atten- 
tion to her plight. And then we sat down — this woman, the 
warden, his wife, and I — to a bountiful dinner in the pleas- 
ant, simple home. The eyes of the convict's mother roved 
from the warden and his sympathetic wife to the broad fields 
that for several years were to mean "prison" to her boy. She 
had the chance to pour forth her heartrending story of dis- 
grace and woe, the ruin of her hopes for her boy. "The lit- 
tle sister's keepin' company with such a nice man, and now 
when he hears her brother's in a prison — My God, what'll 
he do?" 

The warden sent for the buggy to take her to her boy, 
newly clad in stripes within the stockade. I saw him myself, 
when he was told by the warden that the mother was there, 
in Raiford. His lips quivered, his eyes went down to the 
ground, his fingers dug into his palms, and he kicked piece 
after piece of dirt slowly with his foot. 

When, late in the afternoon, it was time for the only train 
back to Jacksonville, Warden Blitch sent the mother to the 
station in the same car that took me. As we rode along 
she said : "I'm going to sell out my business. I'm coming down 
here to wait during the years — for my boy! And God bless 
that man — the warden — who said he'd look out for him 
while he's here, and let me know if anything happens to 

The spirit of the place? Part of it is clear to the visitor's 



view — in the varied and useful agricultural industries of the 
farm. They sent over 21,000 eggs to Jacksonville during 
January, and several restaurants of that city pay a flat rate 
of seventy cents a dozen, the year round. January showed 
an increase of over eight thousand eggs over December. 

One sees a reason for success, when one hears, far off in 
one corner of the great plantation, the aged Negro at one of 
the chicken colonies calling in weirdest wailing the chickens 
to feed. The chickens flock by hundreds to the flying corn. 
And the old Negro is all alone — the "whole show!" You see 
success in the multiplicity of trap nests for registering each 
laying hen, the bands on each hen's leg, the careful records 
kept of each hen in each colony, the deliberate breeding of 
the best hens on the basis of egg production and the like. 

You see thoughtful development of these thousands of 
acres, in the plans for great areas of corn, of rice, of grain, 
for this is ploughing and planting season at Raiford. You 

real farmer has to know pretty nearly something of every- 
thing! And there's so much to do here!" 

This is the barren season at Raiford, but permit me to 
take the figures of a newspaperman who was there last year : 
2,500 acres of corn, with velvet beans and peanuts planted 
between the rows. 

500 acres of upland rice. 
250 acres of Porto Rican sweet potatoes. 
100 acres of sugar cane. 

200 acres of sorghum and Texas seeded ribbon cane. 
The other 450 acres on the farm this year [1920] include 100 
acres of rape for poultry, feed and pasture, 25 acres of Irish 
potatoes, 10 acres of cabbage and garden patches, running from 
a few rows to 20 acres or more each of beans, turnips, cucum- 
bers, squash and other vegetables. 

And the newspaperman gave then the crop figures of the 
last year — which will of course be surpassed this year: 
50,000 pounds of rice. 
15,000 bushels of sweet potatoes. 

Four 180-ton silos filled with corn and Texas seeded cane. 
540 hogs butchered. 


One herd of Raiford's 1,200 hogs 

see ditching going on in various parts of the farm, isolated 
convicts ploughing on broad fields, unattended, apparently 
unwatched. You visit a huge smoke-house full of fresh pork 
and hams, and beef. Every little while you pass in the car 
a herd of black hogs so fat as to delight the sight. You see 
convicts hewing stumps to pieces, and elsewhere you see the 
two retorts that are squeezing some $70 worth of turpentine 
oils out of each two cords of otherwise useless wood. You 
come upon enormous tracts of land still untilled and growing 
the southern pine, lending a striking contrast to the cleared 
acres. Off toward Ellenby is the great cattle farm and dairy, 
in charge of a paid descendant of the Pennsylvania Dutch, 
who lives by himself with ten convicts, day-in and day-out, 
and dreams of having within a few years the show-place of 
northern Florida. 

_You understand the spirit of Raiford when the warden 
stands upon his front porch, and lets his eyes roam over the 
great expanse of fields. "I love farming. My people were 
farmers, and so were my wife's people. I'd rather do this 
sort of thing than anything else in the world. I tell you, the 

12,000 dozen eggs marketed. 

The convict farmers harvested and shelled 1,000 bushels of 
velvet beans, 500 bushels of field peas and 250 bushels of pea- 
nuts for seed, and the remainder of these crops was harvested 
in the fields by the hogs, of which there were then 1,200 on the 
farm, most of them blooded Poland Chinas. 

But this is not an article on statistics. I might point out 
the striking difference between the fine full-blooded Jersey 
cattle at Raiford, and the poor tick-infested native cattle in 
the near-by small farms. I would like to tell of the ingenu- 
ity of the dairy superintendent, with his home-made "ma- 
ternity house" for the cows, who no longer drop their calves 
in the fields, and his "nursery" for the calves. I found the 
cows' "parlor" a long broad building, strewn with something 
like tan-bark. Into it the cows may come off the range when 
the weather is cold or lowery. The chief feature of the dairy 
farm, however, was the intensely personal interest manifested 
in it by both superintendent and convicts. It is indeed the 
absorbing center of existence in a region where otherwise 
"nothing goes on." 

In time, the sides of the railroad, both belonging to the 
state, will have been cleared from Ellenby in the direction of 
Raiford, and on the pasturage will graze fine cattle ; then 




travelers, wearied with the deadly monotony of the endless 
miles of sameness, will suddenly become alert to the exten- 
sive exhibition of prize stock that the state can produce. It 
will be good advertising. 

Raiford will receive much advertising also this coming fall *, 
when the American Prison Association will bring to Jackson- 
ville perhaps a thousand persons dealing with the manifold 
forms of delinquency and crime. The great annual congress 
will pilgrimage for a day to Raiford. Visitors from other 
states will open their eyes — and, I trust, their souls. 

For, after all, it is the soul of Raiford that compels me to 
write this article. I believe in the personality of institutions, 
and of wardens and superintendents. Katharine B. Davis, 
who for so many years was the leading exponent of reforma- 
tory treatment of women in this country, said recently at a 
public meeting that she had become convinced, after many 
years of experience, that the only enduring reformations are 
those achieved through the influence of a dominant person- 
ality upon those who need guidance and strength. 

So, at Raiford, it seems to be the spirit of the warden that 
permeates and makes possible this remarkable plant — moder- 
ate and economical indeed in equipment, almost too scanty in 
living equipment in the dormitories. You can catch the spirit 
of the place in the following little story. 

Warden Blitch led me into the women's quarters inside the 
stockade. There were three white women and some thirty 
Negro women, mostly young. I saw an old mammy, with 
spectacles, sleepily sitting in a corner; I saw a young Negro 
mother, with a sober-eyed baby of perhaps four months 
dressed daintily in white. I saw, as I came in, and Warden 
Blitch called, "Hullo," a young Negress open a wide mouth, 
giggle, wriggle with hysterical delight, and shout: "Oh 
Lawsy!" Like children they watched the big man move 
swiftly through the room, where some were ironing, some 
washing clothes, some doing not much of anything. 

Warden Blitch stood on the stoop of the back yard. "Sallie ! 
Come in and sing something! Leave that washing right on 
the line! Quick! Hustle! I want some of those songs you 
sang to me the other day! Get the girls together in the 
dining room!" 

Picture to yourself a long, narrow room, with two rows of 
benches, each against the wall, one line of solemn-faced col- 
ored women sitting with elbows leaning upon the wooden 
tables, one line of Women sitting with folded arms, or lolling 
in their seats. They eye each other silently, almost without 

1 Fifty-first Annual Prison Congress, Jacksonville, Fla., October 28-Nov- 
ember 3. 

expression. Suddenly Sallie bursts forth, in a weird, strained, 
musical exclamation: 

"Ah want to be — laike Je — sus . . ." 
Rhythmically, in perfect naturalness, the others follow, 
harmonizing with that amazing intuitive accuracy of the 
colored race. They stamp their feet — a customary and in- 
dispensable part of the singing. Tramp — tramp — tramp go 
the feet, verse after verse, and the words roll out, in ex- 
traordinary Negro accents, without change of countenance. 
The old mammy in the corner sings softly with closed eyes. 
The little pickaninny travels from lap to lap, held with de- 
light by woman after woman. And all the time the song 
goes on, only to be stopped finally, after some dozen verses, 
by the upraised hand of the warden. 

They give me the chance to suggest a song: "Swing Low, 
Sweet Chariot!" As if at a revival meeting, a girl spon- 
taneously picks up the solo, and again the rest join in the 
chorus. Then comes 

Steal away . . . 

Steal away . . . 

Steal away, to Jesus. . . . 

I didn't want to leave. During the war, I had heard much 
community singing, and sometimes the so-called Negro spiri- 
tuals sung by colored people. Yet that was in public places, 
before audiences. Here, in this remote prison, stripped of all 
gaudy show, or frenzied living, right down to the bed-rock 
of the wages of a sinful life, these women, strange tokens of 
a strange and emotional people, sang from the soul. 

"Sallie, we've got to be getting along! Now, you girls 
sing just one verse of Nearer, My God to Thee," said the 

Sallie pitched the song. Eyes slightly raised, she sang, and 
immediately the familiar hymn rang out, deep and resonant, 
with seemingly four parts mingling elusively. Far down the 
line some one was singing a deep contralto. Opposite me 
a young Negress searched the very highest notes that would 
contribute to the accompaniment of the solo. And in all the 
singing, a marvelous trueness to pitch and to musical sense. 

Strange paradox of life! Here in this room were mur- 
deresses, scarlet women, thieves, wantons, outcasts of a race 
that is, itself, perpetually struggling for a footing. They 
sang, in simple unpretentious manner, devoutly, their own 
songs to the man who to them was the law that kept them 
from their liberty — and to some one else who, for all they 
knew, might also be the representative of that society that 
had made them outcasts and convicts. 
That is the spirit of Raiford ! 




Conducted by 

The Italian Boy Colonies 

THE colonies of boy workers in Italy came into being 
in the days of sorrow that followed the Austrian in- 
vasion of Venetia in the autumn of 191 7. It was then 
that a group of friends of children decided to rescue young 
refugees and orphans and gather them under a common roof 
with companions who should take the place of the lost or 
scattered families. 

The first colony was founded in February, 191 8, in tht 
old Umbrian city of Castello situated in the deep valley of 
the Tiber, in the very heart of the country of Saint Francis. 
It owns about ten acres of land, with stalls, vegetable gardens, 
and rabbit warrens and has since built two manual training 
schools, one for shoemakers, and the other for carpenters. 
The second was founded with the assistance of the American 
Red Cross near Perugia, in the Collestrada section and has 
three farms at its disposal. The third, in process of organiza- 
tion at Spoleto, has over thirty acres of land. The three 
colonies, working together, virtually form one organization. 
Children from seven to twelve years of age are received at 
Castello, from twelve to fourteen at Perugia, and from 
fourteen to seventeen are provided for at Spoleto with a 
course of instruction in elementary and technical agriculture. 
The boys will graduate from one colony to the other to com- 
plete a single progressive course. 

Similarly, for general education, an elementary boarding 
school for the first four grades is annexed to the colony at 
Castello, and a similar one for the last four grades, with that 
at Perugia. From the elementary agricultural instruction 
given at Castello the boys pass to the experiment of direct 
control of the farm at Perugia to complete their education 
in the model farm which will be started at Spoleto. 

Under the name of Orto di Pace, (Garden of Peace) a 
fourth colony is being opened in Rome on the Janiculum, 
through the generosity of the Countess Anna Piccolomini of 
Triana. Here courses in agriculture will supplement those 
of the Umbrian colony. It is destined, according to the in- 
tention of its founders, to prepare capable cultivators for the 
vegetable and flower gardens which in summer adorn the 
princely and papal villas of Rome. 

The principle which governs all the colonies is not to sur- 
round the children who are gathered there with artifical 
barriers, but to keep them in touch with the very heart of 
life. Nature is invoked before everything else as a powerful 
element in education, and as the teacher of a physical and 
moral balance based on the spirit of truth and human solidar- 
ity. The social sense is developed in the reciprocal relations 
of the boys with each other and with their superiors. The 
colony school, in order not to neglect the broader life which 
goes on in the world outside, teaches the boys to cherish the 
memory of home and family. The concept of "nation," 
ipatria) is taught, not as a basis for sterile pride or patriotism, 
but as a principle of action, cooperation. "Family," "country" 
are merely steps of a ladder at the top of which is a Humanity. 
To teach the students self-government and the principles 
of fraternal solidarity, a school cooperative has been started in 
the colony at Collestrada. The students take part in the 
council of school discipline ; they are represented in the 
directorate of their cooperative and are called upon to sit in 
judgment on the misdeeds of their companions. 

Like the Fratelli Adottivi there are "adopted sons" among 
the colonies to bind the friends of the colonies to the boys 
harbored there in real and personal relations. Some of these 
friends — institutions or individuals — undertake the main- 
tenance of one or more children and assume obligation to 

spend a certain quota for a set period. The Italian Junior 
Red Cross, for instance, supports twenty children. A journal- 
ist who recently visited the colony at Costello writes: 

Work, continuous activity, fresh air and sun which they enjoy 
continually, gives a vigorous, healthy appearance to the boys. 
Their little eyes sparkle and are full of life, their faces are 
smiling and chubby. They are accustomed to take cold baths 
regularly. They do the housework every day and clean and 
tidy themselves. They transact "business," run errands, chop 
wood, cultivate the fields, take the animals to pasture, set the 
table, and attend to all the tasks necessary in a well regulated 
family. Open-air games constitute a particular feature of the 

Discipline is not heavy, or stern, or impressive: It is the 
discipline one sees in a well ordered family. Always accom- 
panied by great kindness, it leaves the little pupils freedom and 
a chance to develop a sense of responsibility. They are taught 
to answer for the different tasks assigned them ; and the big 
boys are expected to help and supervise the little ones of less 

Rome. Giuseppe Prezzolini. 

Mexican Child Welfare 

SIGNIFICANT of the new spirit of Mexico is the hold- 
ing of a first Child Welfare Congress in Mexico City, in 
January, in commemoration of the first centennial of Mexican 
independence. The congress was planned and organized by 
Felix F. Palavicini, of Mexico City, publisher of the great 
progressive daily El Universal. The congress, which was at- 
tended by welfare workers, physicians and lawyers from 
various parts of Mexico and a few delegates from other 
American countries, was divided into six sections: medical 
pediatrics, surgical pediatrics, eugenics, child legislation, edu- 

Members of an Italian boys' colony getting first-hand experience 
at farm luork 



Anna J. Haines, as far as is known, the only American woman 

•worker in Russia, participating in after-dinner games with children 

at the forest school at Beekova, Moscow 

cation, and child hygiene. El Universal reported the pro- 
ceedings at length. 

In the field of the child legislation section, the outstanding 
problems considered were: the need for a better system of 
guardianship of minors, better reformatories for minors, im- 
provement in the management of institutions for dependent 
children, protection of working children, and legislation for 
the protection of abandoned children and for juvenile courts. 
At the first meeting of this section, Alva B. Blaffer, of the 
American Humane Association, and apparently the only dele- 
gate from the United States, presented her report on the 
protection of children in the United States. Juvenile courts, 
so far absent in Mexico, were discussed in particular detail 
and a bill for juvenile courts, recently drafted by an official 
committee of judges as a part of a general bill for the re- 
organization of courts, which is to be presented soon to the 
Mexican legislature, was also taken up. 

The child legislation section wound up its work by de- 
manding regulation of industrial child labor, the establish- 
ment of juvenile courts, of agencies for the protection of chil- 
dren and home visiting of expectant mothers, proper medical 
service, milk stations, schools for mothers, and properly con- 
ducted homes and asylums for infants and older children. 
It concluded with an appeal to the welfare workers to urge 
upon the state legislatures the enactment of laws for these 

The proceedings of the section on education show advanced 
thinking and a thorough understanding of up-to-date prob- 
lems quite surprising in a country with an established reputa- 
tion for backwardness. In addition to such every-day prob- 
lems as school lunches, agricultural schools, kindergartens, 
and instruction of abnormal children, the delegates analyzed 
some new questions, only now beginning to attract the atten- 
tion of experts in more progressive countries, such as physical 
and mental classification of school children, the use of 
chemistry in the care of the child, and the esthetic education 
of the child. They urged the introduction of puericulture 
in the public school curriculum and practical teaching of 
habits of hygiene. 

One speaker, in picturing the needs of the public school 
system, said that a bill for a federal system of public in- 
struction, recently drafted by the National University of 
Mexico, makes provision also for the protection of children. 
At present, he said, the budget of the War and Navy De- 
partment is 140,000,000 pesos, and that of the Department 
of Public Instruction is 2,000,000. "The country will not 
be entitled to be called really civilized until the budget for 
public instruction is many millions and that of the War De- 
partment 2,000,000, used only for the maintenance of the 

The greatest amount of attention was given to the questions 

of child hygiene. The Mexican physicians and welfare work- 
ers realize that child hygiene is to begin with the mother; 
again and again they emphasized the importance of teaching 
the mother care of herself and her child. The question of 
instructing the Mexican mother in the comparative value of 
maternal, mixed, and artificial feeding was discussed, and 
emphasis was put on the value of maternal feeding. As re- 
gards the prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum, which causes 
great ravages among the infants of Mexico, the congress 
asked the Superior Council of Public Health to issue an order 
requiring physicians and midwives to apply to the eyes of each 
newly-born infant nitrate of silver as soon as possible after 

Various phases of school hygiene were given thorough con- 
sideration, including theoretical instruction in hygiene and 
training of children by the teachers in habits of hygiene. The 
need of cooperation in this matter between the parents and 
teachers was emphasized. Dr. Puig Casauranc made a re- 
markable speech on child hygiene. After having drawn a 
dark picture of the situation of the children of the poor classes 
in Mexico, he made an attack on the indifference on the part 
of the government and the public. He quoted a resolution 
passed at the Congress of Hygiene held in Brussels in 1903, 
asking that public authorities take a hand in the matter of 
feeding infants born in poor families. School hygiene, accord- 
ing to the same speaker, is in Mexico simply a myth, due to 
the treasury's shortage of money for any other than war 
purposes. The cause of all these social defects as, in the 
speaker's opinion, lack of altruism on the part of the people; 
everything is expected from the state. It is true that the 
official neglect of children is intolerable, but it is also true 
that a certain amount of public spirit and social cooperation 
could perform wonders, even without state assistance. 

But the delegates, according to the organizer of the con- 
gress, came together not only to talk but to accomplish re- 
sults ; therefore, at the last session it was proposed that a 
standing committee be formed to help carry out the resolutions 
passed, to continue the studies started for this congress, and 
to call a second congress in January, 1923. Anna Kalet. 

The Child in Soviet Russia 

THROUGH the welter of contradictory information 
about Russia it is salutary to learn what steps are be- 
ing taken there to promote the welfare of children. The 
following material ds taken from a report of The Provision 
for Children in Soviet Russia by Arthur J. Watts, for over 
a year the representative of the English Friends' Service Com- 
mittee in Moscow. Until a few months ago, when this 
British committee was joined by the American Friends' Serv- 
ice Committee, it was the only non-Russian organization 
contributing largely to the relief of suffering children in 

According to a decree of the government, no child is tried 
by ordinary tribunals in Russia, but by the Children's Com- 
mission. This decree is carried out efficiently in Petrograd 

These are not children in an up-to-date American institution but 
those in a home for infants under twelve months in Moscow 




and to some extent in Moscow and the provinces. It is not 
entirely complied with because of the dearth of people quali- 
fied to serve on such a commission. In Petrograd a chil- 
dren's reception home receives those children arrested for 
crime or who are deemed incorrigible by the school teachers. 
They remain here twenty-eight days. They are, further, not 
regarded as criminals, but are made as comfortable as possible 
by a staff consisting of doctors, teachers and psychologists. 
After such a period of observation, if they are mentally de- 
fective they are sent to a special home for such cases. If it 
is felt that environment is responsible for their failure, they 
are sent to an ordinary children's home where no stigma is 
attached to them because of their previous history. If, how- 
ever, their failure is charged against moral shortcomings, they 
are sent to a reformatory or home for moral defectives. Here 
their length of stay is determined not so much by the serious- 
ness of the offense as by the susceptibility to reformation. 

Professor Griboedoff, assisted by a staff of doctors and 
teachers, is in charge of a special home for mental defectives 
in Petrograd located on Kameni Ostrov. Here the children 
are carefully examined and either kept for treatment or sent 
to some other home. The school is equipped with an ex- 
cellent laboratory and a specialized library. The same friend- 
ly spirit between the staff and children exists here which one 
finds in other colonies; the children also seem to enjoy life 
very much. They have no hesitation about being examined 
and in fact are eager to visit the laboratory. Very careful 
records are kept and when a child is discharged, instructions 
are given as to the kind of training that is required. Six 
hundred children have passed through this home and 8o 
doctors and 220 teachers have received training here during 
its two years' existence. 

These children's colonies are exceedingly interesting. They 
are of two kinds, that in which children live all the year 
round, and the summer colony in the country to which city 
children go during the hot months. The largest of these is 
located about forty miles from Petrograd in buildings former- 
ly occupied by the late czar. Here there are more than two 
thousand children in thirty-two colonies. One of these is a 
special colony for morally defective boys and girls patterned 
very much after the George Junior Republic. There are 
three or four houses in the colony with twenty-five boys and 
girls in each house, and a manager in charge. Visits to about 
a dozen of these indicated that the boys and girls seem to be 
growing up in natural and healthy, companionship. 

The house formerly occupied by the tailor of the czar is 
now a home for moral defectives. It is maintained under the 
direction of Professor Belski, who is assisted by a doctor, 
teachers and manual instructors. The purpose of this home 
is to educate, as far as possible, the socially backward in social 
responsibility, and to re-direct their energies into the right 
forms of expression. To accomplish this a general education 
with emphasis on manual work and special attention to the 
development of a collective responsibility is provided. Chil- 
dren who have been there three months are permitted to go 
home for occasional week-ends. It is felt that these visits 
form in themselves a valuable test. The child is observed on 
his return to see if there is any tendency to relapse into 
former habits after contact with old associations. When chil- 
dren are discharged, every effort is made to have them sent 
to the country, away from the temptations of town life. 

in Russia there are also three government commissariats 
to deal in part or altogether with children. They are the 
commissariats for the protection of health, for public instruc- 
tion, and for the administration of justice. The first named 
cares for the health of children, its obligation to the child 
beginning eight weeks before birth ; the second corresponds to 
our department of education but with special features; the 
third shares with the other two the responsibility for abnormal 
children — backward, neurasthenics, epileptics, idiots and luna- 

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Catherine. Breshkovsky, according to latest accounts, is recovering at 
a Paris sanatorium from a recent illness. Her interest in suffering 
childhood, however, is as keen as ever, as she has sent a pathetic 
appeal to her American friends, through Alice Stone Blackvuell, not 
to forget her internat for boys at Uzhorod, in Russian Carpathia, 
•where the photograph reproduced above <was taken shortly before 
she left for France 

tics, and for "moral defectives"- — for each class of whom 
there is separate provision. 

The expansion in the day school system is also serving to 
touch this problem of juvenile delinquency. These schools 
stress manual training. Certain of these shops are for the 
teaching of carpentry, bookbinding, engineering and needle- 
work. There are likewise special schools for the teaching of 
art and music. Due to the shortage of books and writing 
materials, most of the work has to be done orally. In Petro- 
grad out of a present population of 800,000, 135,000 are re- 
ported as registered in schools, of whom 91,000 are in day 
schools and 28,000 of school age in children's houses. It was 
estimated that 107,000 children in Moscow are attending day 
schools with 8,000 in children's houses. In all of Soviet 
Russia last year some 6,000,000 children were reported as 
being in day schools as contrasted with 190,000 in boarding 
schools and colonies. 

There is a great shortage of food and clothing, particularly 
in the provinces where the opening of schools, colonies, homes 
and food kitchens is prevented simply through lack of supplies. 
It is the impression of Mr. Watts that in general the machin- 
ery for child welfare today exists and that if Russia only had 
the supplies, her children would be well cared for. 

In Japan 

INFANT mortality in Japan is about twice as great as in 
some European countries, according to Arthur Black, who 
contributes, in a recent issue of The Child (Eng.), an in- 
forming article. "This situation," he states, "is largely due 
to overcrowding, sanitation and underfeeding, together with 
wide-spread ignorance of the facts, and lethargy of the social 
conscience." Police authorities are given considerable latitude 
in dealing with juvenile offenders without bringing them into 
court. The average number of cases for the past five years 
subject to judicial examination was 30,000. Ten thousand of 
these were prosecuted, some fined, some put on probation 
and some imprisoned. Juvenile courts, however, have been 
set up in the large cities under special judges. Elsewhere, 
however, young offenders are isolated from adult criminals. 
For some years a special committee has been working upon an 
amending bill to extend a system of probation to all under 
eighteen years of age guilty of some criminal offense or liable 
to commit one. 




Conducted by 

The Alabama Coal Settlement 

THE full text of the decision of Gov. Thomas E. Kilby 
of Alabama, who was appointed arbitrator of the con- 
troversy between the striking coal miners and the oper- 
ators in that district, shows that the operators won a com- 
plete victory. Governor Kilby denied the right of the min- 
ers to obtain union recognition and at the same time refused 
all the other demands which they made. The arbitration 
arrangement was made by Victor H. Hanson, editor of the 
Birmingham News. Following the publication of the deci- 
sion Mr. Hanson made public his recommendations, which 
had been previously submitted to the committee appointed by 
Governor Kilby to ascertain the facts. Mr. Hanson's pro- 
posals were far more generous than was the ultimate award 
of Governor Kilby. 

The coal strike in Alabama was officially called on Sep- 
tember 7 last, although sporadic strikes had been conducted 
in the coal fields since the award last year of the Bituminous 
Coal Commission, appointed by President Wilson to deal 
with the coal strike. At that time the United Mine Workers 
charged that Alabama coal operators had refused to enforce 
the decisions of the Bituminous Coal Commission. After the 
general strike was on, the state militia was sent into the field, 
and it is reported that the constitutional guarantees of free 
speech and free assemblage were denied the striking miners. 
A public mass meeting held at the Jefferson Theater, Bir- 
mingham, Ala., on January 9, passed resolutions in the course 
of which a number of illegal acts were cited. A circular 
letter from General Steiner, commanding the military forces, 
was included in the resolutions. This order was as follows: 

1. Effective at once — no more meetings of the local unions 
of the United Mine Workers of America will be allowed until 
further advice from headquarters. 

2. 'This will not affect the issue of rations or clothing once 
a week, nor the distribution of ready gifts to the children, but 
no regular business meetings will be permitted at such times. 

3. You will show this communication to the president of 
every local in your district. 

In his decision Governor Kilby observes that arbitrators or- 
dinarily yield to the desire to please all contending factions 
which, he says, often eventuates in a compromised verdict. 
The governor states that he "made an effort to resist this al- 
most overwhelming impulse." The terms of his award would 
indicate that in his case, at any rate, the impulse was not 
overpowering, and that his effort at resistance to compromise 
was completely successful. Governor Kilby found that the 
miners had no grievances as to living conditions, hours of 
work or wages. There were, however, he admits, five de- 
mands. These were, in the governor's phrases, as follows: 

1. Recognition of the union 

2. Abolishment of sub-contract system 

3. Employment of strikers 

4. Readjustment of the day wage rate 

5. Setting up of machinery to adjust industrial disputes to 
avoid future strikes 

Governor Kilby was sternly against the recognition of the 
union. He said in part : 

This strike being called without just cause or for the pur- 
pose of remedying any grievance, and in deliberate violation 
of an agreement, was "illegal and immoral." It proves be- 
yond cavil that the written contract or obligation of the United 
Mine Workers of America cannot be relied upon, and that 
recognition would give no assurance of industrial peace. It 
is rather difficult to understand how such a large number of 
men could be induced so deliberately to disregard such an obli- 
gation of honor. The only explanation, perhaps, lies in the 
fact that from 70 per cent to 80 per cent of the miners are 

Negroes. The southern Negro is easily misled, especially when 
given a permanent and official place in an organization in 
which both races are members. . . . There are other reasons 
shown by the facts, why the operators should not be com- 
pelled to recognize this organization. It counselled and directed 
the violation of the laws of Alabama by the adoption of reso- 
lutions directing picketing, which is prohibited by a statute. 
Its leaders have striven to break down the confidence men have 
in their employers instead of cementing it, and they have 
opposed all welfare work instituted by the employers for the 
benefit of the employes because it tended to draw the employer 
and employe into closer relations. No permanent industrial 
relation can be built on an increasing suspicion between em- 
ployer and employe, and any person or organization that seeks 
to create such hostilities is engaged in an illegal and immoral 
work and is a menace to industrial peace. 

Concerning the reemployment of men on strike, Governor 
Kilby said : 

The operators have replaced these men. Coal production is 
greater than the demand. There are no jobs for the great 
majority of the strikers. Only one suggestion for securing jobs 
for them has been made, and that is that all men who were 
employed to fill the places of strikers be discharged and the 
strikers given their old positions. The men who it is recom- 
mended should be discharged are the men who entered the 
service of the operators when it was dangerous to life and 
body to do so. To these men the operators are indebted for 
reestablishing their business which an unjustified, illegal and 
immoral strike had seriously damaged, and largely to these men 
is the public indebted for the limited supply of coal available 
during the winter months. To discharge them to make room 
for the strikers would be to penalize loyalty that wrong might 
be rewarded. ... It is my opinion that since this strike was 
wrongfully, and without the slightest justification called, the 
organization of the United Mine Workers of America is re- 
sponsible for the present strikers being out of employment, 
and that, therefore, the United Mine Workers of America should 
support the present strikers until they are able to secure em- 

Governor Kilby summarized his findings as follows: 

It is found and I also declare: 

1. Recognition of the United Mine Workers of America is 
not to be compelled. 

2. The day wage scale and sub-contract system are to re- 
main unchanged. 

3. The existing methods of adjusting grievances are found 
to be fair and equitable. 

4. The operators are under no obligation to reemploy the 
striking miners. 

5. The freedom of contract shall be inviolate, and therefore 
any of the above mentioned things may be done by mutual 
agreement of the parties, and I recommend: (a) that the opera- 
tors as a means to promote peace and harmony, reemploy the 
unemployed men who struck as fast as places may be found 
for them without displacing the men who are now at work ; 
(b) that the organization of the United Mine Workers of 
America support the unemployed men who struck until they can 
find employment. 

Governor Kilby added that compliance with these regula- 
tions would be "a gracious act on the part of the employers." 
Grace, he did not impute, to the miners. 

It is interesting to compare the recommendations for strike 
settlement previously made by Victor H. Hanson, who was 
considered so fair an outsider by both parties to the conflict 
that his arrangement for arbitration was jointly accepted. He 
says in part: 

It seems to me that any effective settlement must provide 
three things: first, reemployment for the men who have been 
on strike; second, a fair, open shop arrangement which shall 
not obligate the employer to employ union labor but which 
shall provide there shall be no discrimination against a man 
because he belongs to a union; third, the setting up of some 
permanent arrangement for the settlement of coal disputes and 
grievances. Both the second and the third provision prevailed 



under the Garfield agreement up to April 30, 1920, and the 
district remained at peace with satisfactory coal production. 

Mr. Hanson is illuminating concerning the reemployment 
of strikers. As to this he says: 

The coal operators have employed a large number of men 
who might, in the ordinary sense of the term, be called non- 
miners.' Many of these doubtless are farmers from other 
counties and laborers from other states. It seems to me that 
all of their old working forces that stayed by them during the 
course of the strike should be protected to the last degree, but 
that imported labor could readily give place to the strikers. 

The United Mine Workers' Journal which, however, went 
to press before the award of Governor Kilby was made pub- 
lic, announced that provisions were being made to support 
the Alabama tent colony throughout the spring and summer. 
The strike, however, was officially called off, and the union 
is obliged to accept the decision of Governor Kilby. Whether 
permanent peace can be built in an American state on such 
a foundation as that planned by Governor Kilby remains 
to be seen. William L. Chenery. 

Scrub Women 

SCRUB women in Massachusetts will have higher wages 
this year than many of them have ever received in the 
past; A minimum rate of $15.40 a week, or thirty-seven 
cents an hour has been awarded to office and other building 
cleaners under a decree just entered by the Minimum Wage 
Commission. This decree, which became effective February 
1 of this year, takes the place of the decree which had been 
in operation since April 1, 1919. The old decree provided 
two hourly rates, one for the day shift, one for the night 
shift. For work performed between 8 A. M. and 7 P. M. the 
minimum rate was twenty-six cents an hour; while for work 
performed between 7 p. m. and 6 a. m. the rate was thirty 
cents an hour. 

The changes effected by the new decree are the substitution 
of a single hourly rate of thirty-seven cents, in place of the 
two existing hourly rates; the addition of a weekly minimum, 
and the establishing of forty-two hours as the basis for full- 
time employment in the office cleaning occupation. 

This decree is of interest for several reasons. The wage 
board on whose determinations it is based was the first to be 
reconvened under an amendment enacted in 1920 authorizing 
the commission to reconvene a wage board or establish a new 
wage board when in its opinion such action was necessary to 
meet changes in the cost of living. This amendment in it- 
self has an interesting history. It was reported by the Com- 
mittee on Labor to the Massachusetts Legislature in place 
,of a bill fixing a statutory minimum for scrub women. It 
is therefore poetic justice that the scrub women should be 
the first to benefit. The rate established by the board, $15.40 
a week, is the second highest to be fixed for any occupation in 
the state, the $15.50 rate for the paper box occupation com- 
ing first. Actually, the rate for scrub women is the higher 
as this rate is fixed irrespective of age or experience. Under 
the paper box decree, a woman must have worked at least 
nine months before she is eligible for the $15.50 rate; while 
some of the other decrees fix a much longer period and an 
age qualification as well. 

The minimum for office cleaners is based upon the cost of 
living budget adopted by the wage board and represents an 
increase of 33 r /3 per cent over the budget of $11.54 adopted 
by the first board in the spring of 191 8, this being approxi- 
mately the percentage increase in the cost of living in Massa- 
chusetts as indicated by figures from the United States Bureau 
of Labor Statistics and from the Massachusetts Commission 
on the Necessaries of Life. In this connection, the following 
citations from the report of the wage board are pertinent: 
It was admitted that when normal conditions are again 
reached, the cost of living will be probably at a somewhat lower 

level than at present, but owing to the impossibility of deter- 
mining the rate of future decline, or the prices which will pre- 
vail when conditions are normal, no very great weight was at- 
tached to the apparent downward tendency. 

It was mentioned also that when the former report was made 
it was based on the prices then prevailing, although it was rec- 
ognized that there would probably be an upward tendency in 
living costs for some time. If prices should hereafter fall it . 
would no more than equalize the disparagement that has existed 
hitherto under the decree now in force. 

In fixing forty-two hours as the basis for full time employ- 
ment in the occupation, the wage board establishes a precedent. 
This recommendation was made because of the nature of the 
work, all the members of the board agreeing that forty-eight 
hours a week was too long for a woman in this kind of em- 
ployment. The decision of forty-two hours represents a com- 
promise between the thirty-six hours desired by the employes, 
and forty-six and two-thirds hours suggested by some of the 
employers. The following extract from the board's report 
explains the reason for this decision: 

It seems to be quite generally recognized that for ordinary 
work in daytime occupations a total of forty-eight hours is as 
much as a woman can safely work week after week. 

In this occupation the work almost universally must be done 
at night, and night work is known to be more wearing on the 
worker than the same work done during the day. 

This work is more tiring than that of the ordinary working 
woman, another reason for a shorter working week. 

No evidence could be obtained to show how many hours at this 
occupation are the equivalent of forty-eight hours for other oc- 
cupations. Various estimates were advanced by members of 
the board ranging from thirty-six to forty-six and two-thirds. 
It seemed to be generally felt that forty-eight hours a week were 
too long for this industry. 

From the foregoing it is evident that forty-two hours is stated 
merely as a compromise estimate, and cannot be taken as a 
criterion for future boards if real evidence on the subject can be 
discovered by them. 

The occupation of building cleaning is one that does not 
to any extent offer full-time employment. The majority of 
women work less than forty-two hours a week, the average 
being about thirty-six hours. In office buildings in Boston 
the women usually work five and one-half hours a day for 
six days a week, making a total of thirty-three hours. The 
prevailing rate for these buildings is about $10.00 a week; 
for about the same number of hours under the new rate the 
women would receive $12.21, an increase of 22 per cent or 
from $2 to $3 a week. 

The short hours which characterize the occupation are for 
the convenience of both the employers and the employes. 
Owing to the nature of the work it is generally necessary to 
have it performed before or after regular office hours, and 
it is usually confined to five or six hours a day. The women 
employed in the occupation are practically all married, and 
many are widows with small children to support. Because 
of their household cares they are unable to enter full-time 

The type of establishment covered by the occupation in- 
cludes office buildings, dormitories, apartment hotels, theaters, 
factories and similar establishments. The prevailing rate of 
wages, in 1920 as shown by the inspections made by the 
Minimum Wage Commission was $9 and under $10 a week; 
the prevailing hourly rate, thirty cents and under thirty-two 
cents ; and the average number of hours worked durfng a 
week, thirty-four and under thirty-eight. According to the 
191 5 census, there were in Massachusetts at that time ap- 
proximately ten thousand women employed as building clean- 
ers. The number has probably increased somewhat since 
that time, although the effect of prohibition was to reduce 
the number of women employed at this work in some of the 
larger cities. The closing of factories and the attending 
unemployment this year, however, have caused many women to 
enter this work recently. Ethel M. Johnson. 

Assistant Commissioner, 

I\lass. Dept. of Labor and Industries. 



The Labor Press 

LABOR papers are devoting increasing attention to indus- 
trial espionage following the report of Sidney Howard to 
the Cabot Fund of Boston published, by the New Republic. 
The Commercial Telegraphers' Journal, taking up recent ex- 
posures made at Akron, O., prints a confession from a union 
bricklayer, said to have been made before a committee of 
Bricklayers' Local Union No. 3 : 

On or about seven months ago I was approached by a man 
named Wallace who put up a proposal to me. After thinking 
the thing over for a couple of days, and thinking I could get the 
stuff to the bosses that would benefit the association, I took on 
the proposition. The duties were to send in reports of things 
that happened in the bricklayers' union to the Contractors' Serv- 
ice Corporation. The mail was directed to Post Office Box 294 
at Akron, O., and from there I do not know where the reports 
went. My services were disposed of on October 30, 1920, due 
to the stoppage of work. Mail was sent through Cleveland, O., 
post-office to Akron, O. Salary connected with this was $110 
per month, and when paid, the paymaster would meet the man 
on the street or some appointed place. No checks were used, and 
the employes never visited the office as the companies seldom 
used the same name any length of time. In fact, the man em- 
ployed seldom if ever saw men at the head of the company. . . . 
Wages are on a $3 a day basis. If same is earned, man gets the 
difference. All employes are numbered as no names are used. 
While I was in the employ my number was 2018. 

The man who signed this confession had been elected treas- 
urer of the Akron labor movement and was also a candidate 
for the City Council at the last municipal election. Accord- 
ing to the same source, B , another labor spy, was elected 

business agent of the Steamfitters' Local; S was presi- 
dent of the Carpenters' Local for two years, and was a dele- 
gate to numerous labor conventions; G was made re- 
cruiting secretary of one of the carpenters' locals, treasurer 
of the carpenters' district council, officer of the building trades 
council, and president of the central labor body. Four de- 
tectives were placed in the machinists' union. H was 

made a member of a local executive board. R , classed 

as an intellectual; he was said to have written articles for 
labor publications and he also served as secretary of the local 
I. W. W. M is alleged to have been an agitator, skil- 
ful in fomenting strikes when employers desired them, and 

C was a delegate to the convention of International 

Association of Machinists. 

LIFE AND LABOR, the organ of the National Women's 
Trade Union League of America, prints the result of an in- 
vestigation made by the Labor Bureau, Inc., into the condi- 
tions now obtaining in the textile industry in Philadelphia. 
The inquiry was made under the direction of the Philadelphia 
branch of the Women's Trade Union League, and of the 
Central Labor Union. The problem which the Philadelphia 
textile industry faces, centers, according to this report, in the 
question of which party, capital or labor, should bear the 
burdens of this period of transition. The large profits made 
during the years 1915-1919 inclusive are pointed out, and 
wages are contrasted with profits. Twenty hosiery and knit 
goods manufacturers in Philadelphia made net profits of 260 
per cent on their invested capital, and 131 per cent on their 
cost production in 191 8, according to the investigators. In 
some branches of the industry the profits were still higher, 
although the average profits for all were lower. The aver- 
age annual wage received by the Philadelphia textile worker 
in 1915 is said to have been $411, while the least possible 
amount upon which a working man's family could then live 
in health and decency was $950. During 191 9 the average 
Philadelphia textile worker received a yearly wage of $934, 
but the living wage level had become $1,803. Both in 191 5 
when wages and prices were relatively low, and in 191 9 when 
both levels were high, the Philadelphia textile workers ac- 
cordingly were paid less than the cost of family support. The 
investigators urged that the industry was fortified by five 
years of large profits to endure the burdens of transition 

while the textile workers on the other hand have entered the 
present period of hard times depleted by five years during 
which their wages have continued to be below the minimum 
of health and decency. Sixty thousand workers are involved 
in the struggle. The investigators insist that the cost of liv- 
ing will have to fall 52 per cent to make the present average 
wage adequate to maintain a worker's family in health and 
decency. , 

JOHN T. FREY, editor of the International Molders' 
Journal, is one of the intellectual group in the labor move- 
ment most in sympathy with President Gompers and the 
American Federation of Labor administration. In a discus- 
sion of the conditions now effecting unionism he sums up 
what is perhaps the official view of the A. F. of L. 

Labor has, to a great degree, lost public support. In lieu of 
this we get the "open shop" propaganda on the part of many 
employers to compel their employes to sign individual contracts. 
The wage-earners are experiencing a degree of idleness of al- 
most unprecedented severity, and while hundreds of thousands 
are being thrown out of employment, immigrants are being per- 
mitted to enter our country in larger numbers than ever before. 
A well planned and systematically carried on campaign has been 
planned for some time which aims to destroy collective bargain- 
ing between unions and employers, and to substitute industrial 
courts with their compulsory features molded after the plans of 
the Kansas Industrial Court. The issuance of injunctions in 
connection with industrial disputes are being rapidly multiplied, 
and their provisions made more drastic. Unions tie being en- 
joined from paying strike benefits to the members. They are 
being enjoined from collectively refusing to work. They are 
being enjoined from mentioning the fact that they have a dis- 
pute with an employer, or that they are or have been on strike. 
The principles established in the Declaration of Independence 
and the Bill of Rights contained in the Constitution of the United 
States are being deliberately set aside and declared null and 
void so far as wage-earners are concerned. During industrial 
disputes these same injunctions are establishing class distinc- 
tions by guaranteeing to employers the right to do as a member 
of an employers' association what the workers are denied the 
right to do as members of a trade union. 

Mr. Frey has no specific remedy other than to say that the 
situation calls for loyalty, courage, clear thinking and the 
avoidance of haste. , 

ONE of the few organizations of any kind in the United 
States to give constructive attention to the problem of the 
unemployed is the International Association of Machinists. 
In its journal for March an appeal is made for the stimu- 
lation of road building and other improvements. The journal 

Hundreds of millions of dollars have been appropriated or 
raised by bond issues the past three years to be used for road 
building and road improvements. Comparatively little of the 
money has been spent. The shortage of labor and material has 
been the reason assigned for the delay in getting under way 
more extensively. Now the kind of labor mostly employed to 
produce road building material — stone, lime, cement, gravel, tar 
and so forth — is far from being fully employed. Men in this 
line seek employment, and it would be for the public interest as 
well as for their individual interests if these men were working 
and earning. Their earnings and expenditures would swell the 
turn-over in many lines of trade; operatives producing the goods 
sold to them would escape lay-off or short-time employment. 

THE possibility of a struggle between the seamen's unions 
and the American Steamship Owners' Association in the near 
future is indicated by the Seamen's Journal. The Steamship 
Owners' Association, it is stated, has announced its intention 
to reduce seamen's wages, eliminate over-time pay and dis- 
continue all agreements with the seamen's unions after May 
1 next. The union journal states that the ship owners threaten 
to lock out organized American seamen and to replace them 
with foreign sailors, and to cut shipping rates, as well as 
wages to European levels. The possibility of this struggle 
eventuating will depend largely on the policy of the govern- 
ment toward the United States Shipping Board. This has, 
so far, not been determined. 




Conducted by 

Illiteracy Entailed 

A HANDSOME lad stood, uncertain, before the in- 
formation desk in a "Y" hut in the American area. 
Suddenly he stepped forward, leaned over the desk and 
said: "Will you write a letter for me, Miss?" "Certainly," 
I replied. And this is the letter he dictated: 

Dear Mother: How are you and how is father coming on? 
Is his arm any better after falling off the ship's ladder? I 
am glad he is able to go, on another whaling cruise. Has he 
bought the farm, paid for it outright? Has Hugh been dis- 
charged from the Black Watch? The last time I saw him 
was in Cologne. 

I am getting on pretty well in the American army and am 
thinking of quitting drink, as it isn't doing me any good. 
Love to you, Mother, from your son, 


It was inconceivable that this youth, born and reared in 
Scotland, should go through life an illiterate. To be sure a 
fisherman's family can expect little beyond the necessities, but 
I had always supposed Scotchmen regarded education very 
highly. This little episode vividly recalled my experience 
back home among my own people in Georgia. 

Education has made marvelous progress in the South; per- 
haps it would be more accurate to say higher education. 
Southern colleges have imposed a standard that assures schol- 
arship. Every congressional district, in many states, provides 
an agricultural college or rather, high school, where boys and 
girls of limited means may, through cooperative living, secure 
instruction along lines that will mean much for the future 
development of the states' resources. But in the matter of 
elementary education, we are still laggards. We provide the 
schools — often poor makeshifts — and let those who would 
attend. To be sure we are beginning to pass laws requiring 
school attendance, but in many communities there is no ma- 
chinery for the enforcement of these laws. Recognizing our 
status among the states in this matter, many interested citizens 
joined in a movement last year which has for its object the 
eradication of illiteracy in the South. The moonlight schools 
of Kentucky were, I believe, our inspiration. 

Counties formed the units and it fell to my lot to organize 
my own — a very prosperous, old community. All teachers 
were volunteers; the state provides a primer edited by our 
state superintendent of education. Behind this movement the 
Chamber of Commerce, the churches, the school authorities 
and women's clubs were lined up. A preliminary survey 
showed about thirty school districts. These were visited in 
turn and an effort made to enlist the interest of the leading 
people and through them to secure teachers. Then came the 
more delicate task of interviewing the adult illiterates, ex- 
plaining our object and enrolling them as pupils in our school. 

The method of approach reveals the sturdy, self-respecting 
independence of the illiterate. It was not unusual to find 
the head of the family, in some instances the owner of a 
prosperous farm — perhaps the chairman of the local board of 
school trustees — an illiterate. To each we would very care- 
fully explain that the state was offering this opportunity to 
all those who could not read or write, that enrollment was 
absolutely free rnd purely voluntary. They were free to 
accept or decline the offer. Our failure to get this across 
would foil our best efforts:. In no instance do I recall that 
we met with discourtesy. At first we were inclined to dis- 
courage the literate neighbors who wanted to attend the 
classes. It was soon apparent that their interest was genuine, 
that they wanted to stand by and give assistance to father, 
mother, brother or sister as the case might be. There were 
no apologies; no embarrassment, no stigma attached to their 
unlettered state. 

Although better results could be accomplished when each 
illiterate person had a teacher, this was not possible in the 
rural districts. Experience also soon proved that we might 
not hope to hold classes oftener than once a week — on Sunday 
afternoon, either before or after church. As one can well 
understand, there were many discouraging features about this 
work among grown people. Many were interested and came 
out for several lessons, but became discouraged and unwilling 
to make a sustained effort. In some instances teachers failed 
us, their zeal flagged and the result was always disastrous. 
Teaching the illiterate seemed a noble work, but not all of 
us have our feeling of moral responsibility so developed that 
we are willing to forego the pleasure of, say, a motor trip, 
when all outdoors is alluring. But thanks to the patient, per- 
sistent effort of the faithful, our county has sixty less who 
make their mark. 

One of our prize pupils was a man of forty, the father of a 
family. When first approached his reply was: 

I was jes aimin' to put my foot in the road and go to see 

the board of eddication, if they couldn't do narthing for me. 

I has to rigger right smart. I can't alius take my wife with 

me and I gets cheated. What's more if I had a eddication I 

wouldn't have to muscle so hard. 

There are still about two hundred illiterates in our midst, 
present but unaccounted for. The campaign waged against 
illiteracy, however, accomplished more than these figures 
would indicate. It stimulated a profound interest in pre- 
ventive work, in the work of our truancy officer whose busi- 
ness it is to see that children are in school. Through her 
office every child in the county should be reached. It should 
be no longer possible to evade the law as did the father of 
thirteen children, living within five miles of our county seat, 
within three hundred yards of a good school. The oldest 
child, a boy of seventeen, can spell his way through the second 
reader ; the other children have never attended school. 

In another and more remote community a little girl of five 
led me through the fields to where one prospective illiterate 
pupil was at work. She was a bright, attractive, talkative 
little creature. Inevitably we fell into conversation and, in 
order to ascertain if the new law as to school attendance had 
penetrated to this section, I said : 

"Are you going to school next year?" 

"Yes," she replied, "and I am glad of it, cause I jes minds 
the youngerns. I hates to mind youngerns. Ma says I ken 
pick cotton, this summer," she further volunteered. 
"Do you go to Sunday school?" I asked. 
She didn't know what I meant. 

"O, you know about God, you" have been to school where they 
tell you about God?" 

"Yes," she replied, "Pa, he cusses. Ma she cusses, and 
Lorene (that is the twelve-year old sister, I subsequently 
learned), Lorene jes pours the cusses into you." 

Another family, I recall — a father and three sons were all 
illiterate. The father alone was at the homestead, ploughing 
with an ox, scratching the surface just enough to grow cotton 
and corn to keep body and soul together. The boys were 
farmed out to more prosperous neighbors for their keep, and 
all within sight of the district school. 

These cases are unusual. Often we found parents anxious 
to see that their children were given advantages they were 
denied. But every section has its backward group — people 
who by reason of their handicap lack energy and ambition. 
Twenty years ago our farmers understood little about crop 
rotation, about the advantage of well-bred live stock. To- 
day their crops yield many fold. One would have far to go 
to see tick-infested cattle or razor-back hogs, "piney woods 



rooters." It is for us to see that illiteracy is not entailed ; it is 
time our boys and girls were given a chance. Unlike the 
North and East we do not have the hordes of illiterates 
descending upon us every year ; therefore the task should not 
be such a difficult one. Within a generation there should be 
no white illiterates in the South. The Negro, too, is not un- 
mindful of his handicap and, aided by the white people, his 
best friends, he too will throw off the bondage of ignorance. 

The South has set itself to the task. Perhaps the whole 
world understands better now why our own South has been 
slow to recover since the sixties. The great war has brought 
home to all of us who, directly or indirectly, have been 
privileged to aid in reconstruction, the dispiriting, devastating 
effects of war. A Southerner. 

Festhalle, Coblentz, Germany. 

School and the Flannel Shirt 

CHEESE factories, creameries, town halls and kitchens — 
strange halls of learning. Perhaps. But in Wisconsin, 
where two or three are gathered together, there is a school, 
or four to be exact, for there were four pupils last winter in 
regular attendance upon the smallest of the part-time agricul- 
tural schools which are Wisconsin's latest educational project. 

These part-time agricultural schools come under the Smith- 
Hughes provision. The state legislature in 1917 passed a 
Part-Time Education law, carrying an appropriation of $25,- 
OOO for operating funds, which permits the State Department 
of Vocational Agricultural Education to pay one-third of 
the salaries of those who conduct part-time schools through- 
out the state. So far this sum has not been expended an- 
nually, because of the paucity of the right kind of teachers. 

For the teacher is the school here. Equipment is practi- 
cally nothing, books are secondary, buildings are lacking, for 
classes are held in the nearest, vacant, warmable room. The 
school spirit is the relationship which the teacher is able to 
build between himself and his pupils who sit not at his feet 
but in chairs beside him in a complete equality of friendliness. 
He is asked by his directors to wear a soft flannel shirt, clean 
overalls, mackinaw, cap and mittens so that there will be no 
barrier between himself and his boys who come in straight 
from the chores with their lunch to spend the few hours until 
chores roll around again. 

G. W. Gehrand, state supervisor of vocational agricultural 
education, states the relation of the school and the soft shirt 
as follows: 

It is only through contact with men that an educated life 
gives a proper helpful and growing account of itself. By means 
of a functioning and organized contact, men become more con- 
vinced of and sensitive to the value of association with men. 
Motives in the work constitute the prime value in organized 
effort to serve men — to render public service. The satisfaction 
in service rendered developes community service men and 
unites individual effort into community strength. 

Such valuable words might or might not mean anything. 


But Mr. Gehrand can back them up with a record for the 
winter of 1919-20, of sixty-three short courses. The attend- 
ance in these short courses varied from four bona fide students 
who came regularly, to twenty-six bona fide students who 
came regularly. The "bona fide" being in contradistinction 
to those people who simply looked in for a day or so because 
they were interested in the particular subject under discussion, 
such as pure-bred stock, poultry work or forage crops. The 
latter were not counted in the enrollment, because regularity 
and organization are encouraged, and attitude and efforts 

The following courses are pursued in the schools, the choice 
of topics being dependent largely upon the local interests: 

1. Betterment of soils — keeping up fertility. 

2. Better forage crops — to grow alfalfa and clover for dairy 
cattle in place of timothy. 

3. Better grain crops (pure-bred corn, oats, barley, wheat 
bring a better yield than scrub grains). 

4. How to treat oats for smut, rye for ergot, etc. 

5. Better live stock, pure-bred, how to grow into pure-bred 
rather than go into it at a heavy expense. Back of this idea 
rests the thought that too many go into a thing before they 
grow into knowing how to manage it. 

6. Better care in feeding of stock. 

7. Marketing farm produce — keeping informed of what the 
world needs — better type of food stuff. 

8. Farm accounting. 

9. How to make the home surroundings more pleasant, in- 
stalling electric lights, inside toilets, and baths, providing run- 
ning water, electric flat irons, and other electric equipment. 

These subjects are taught by the laboratory method. The 
teachers who hold the schools in the various counties first 
ascertain the farm conditions of each farm represented in the 
school, go over the local farm conditions with the farmer, and 
then plan an up-to-date modern home project which is run 
as a practice project over which the school exercises super- 
vision. This home project, says Mr. Gehrand, displaces the 
book, and the relationship fostered thereby between the teach- 
er and pupil is real and vital. 

The schools are interesting to the pupils because of the 
practical and commercial value of the instruction which they 
receive. The more immediate and tangible the returns, the 
more acceptable the teaching. In the township of Weston, 
in Dunn County, there were nineteen young farmers in at- 
tendance upon the two weeks' short course. They chose as 
their topic the improvement of breeding stock, and as a result 
of the short course there was introduced pure-bred stock into 
seventeen of the nineteen farms represented. With this pure- 
bred stock comes the knowledge of how to take care of it 
and how to market it. In the village of Pittsville, Wood 
County, nine farmer boys and men were regular in attendance. 
They decided to make a special study of their soil. As a 
result seven car loads of crushed lime rock were brought into 
the country to sweeten the soil, and the growing capacity of 
the acreage about the village was greatly increased. The ex- 
periment alone paid for itself many times over in crops, and 
in addition gave those farmers who fol- 
lowed the project for the entire year a 
hearty respect for science in agriculture. 
Last winter there were also a few 
evening school short courses. A similar 
program was attempted in these, but be- 
cause of the character of farm work 
the pupils were unable to attend five 
sessions a week and were not as fresh 
when they did come as the day pupils. 
The courses mOre than paid for them- 
selves, Mr. Gehrand thinks, but the 
work did not attain as high a standard 
as in the day schools. 

These part-time rural schools do for 





the boys of the community under Smith-Hughes 
what is done for the men of the community under 
Smith-Lever. The county agent works with the 
adult, and the part-time teacher with the boy, 
perhaps on the same kind of experiment or even 
on the same farm. This fraternity between father 
and son in a new open-mindedness is one of the 
results of the schools. Father and son use the 
same methods and compete for the same goals. 
Spring has come, and is, for such a sowing, the 
harvest time. In these depressing days when 
the farmer is apt to think that harvests are of 
small account, this may be the most exhilarat- 
ing of his crops, a new love of the farm, in his 
son and in himself. If he has to wait until sofne- 
time after it is gathered for it to ripen into the 
substantial bank account that proves it was a 
paying proposition, nevertheless it was a pleas- 
ant crop to work with. M. C. C. 

Schools and Rural Life 

OUR modern world is, in practice, largely departmental- 
ized. The position of the child illustrates this. The- 
oretically, the child is a single, integral personality. But 
practically, most children, whatever their social status, and 
all children who are objects of any sort of special social care 
are, sooner or later, likely to be divided up among a number 
of "interests" and parcelled out among the "workers" in the 
various "fields" of those interests. Not infrequently those 
"interests" come into conflict. "Child labor" groups; "child 
welfare" groups; "vocational guidance" groups; "industrial 
education" groups; parents who want their children to learn 
to work, or to help support the family — all these are keen 
in their advocacy of the proper program for the children of 
the community and in their efforts to seoire the attention and 
the favor of the public. 

When we succeed in carrying these divisions of "interests" 
over into the organization of our community life, we some- 
times reach rather disastrous results. For example, we hear 
that "the school has a right to the children" so many hours 
of the day, so many days of the year. It is true, of course, 
that the school could not well run without the children (in 
spite of the fact that some teachers claim that if it were not 
for the pupils teaching would not be so bad), and therefore, 
since the school must run (we are paying good money for it, 
and the plant must not stand idle certain months in the year, 
at any rate), the children must attend. 

Again, in some communities, at least, the church sets up a 
claim of the same sort ; it, too, has a right to the children for 
a certain number of hours each week. In other localities, 
parents claim their right to the use of the children's time for 
a longer or shorter period each day, or by the week or sea- 
son. Elsewhere local industries assert their right to the labor 
power of the children. Some of these "rights" are subject to 
severe social dispute. In some cases they are institutionalized 
and intrenched. One faction of the community having an 
institutionalized advantage over other factions does not readi- 
ly surrender its so-called "rights." What happens to the child 
does not seem always to be considered important. Institu- 
tional domination seems much more important. After all, 
children are very ephemeral, but institutions are eternal. See 

The problem of the rural child is not particularly simple, 
although the number of interests that compete for its time and 
attention is smaller than in the city. But in some measure, 
this is compensated for by the fact that these interests are 
more completely institutionalized and fixed. The relation- 
ships between rural education and rural work will tend to 
illustrate this problem admirably. 

Farm and household work, contact with growing plants and 


animals, the care of pets, chores, acquaintance with the prin- 
ciples of growth in nature, play and the social experiences of 
the community, occasional visits to the village or town or to 
relatives, like visits from friends, and an occasional book 
handed down through the generations: These were the whole 
array of educational instrumentalia, once upon a time. When 
schools were at last organized, their work was supplementing 
this earlier education. Hence, they ran during the cold win- 
ter months when they would least interfere with the work of 
the farm. At first the terms were a few weeks to perhaps 
four months long. Later, as the taste for more schooling 
grew, a "spring term" running up to ten or twelve weeks was 
added. When, however, it was seen that this interfered with 
the "spring work," that term was transferred to the fall; or 
the combined term was shifted somewhat to fit more nearly 
into the work programs of the community. That is to say, in 
its origins, the country school was supplementary to the edu- 
cational agencies already at work in the community, and it 
was so organized as to dislocate the other aspects of com- 
munity activity as little as possible. In other words, the rural 
school was organized as a part of the rural community. 

But, rural communities across the broad stretches of the 
continent differ greatly in the ranges of their interests and 
activities. Hence, a fixed school term of, let us say, seven 
months, running from September 15 to April 15, may not 
accurately fit into the, life of every community. There will 
be some over-lapping of time; some conflict between school 
and work; some chance for argument, partisanship and per- 
haps bitterness. 

Under circumstances such as these the school may even 
appear as a sort of foreign aggressor; an imported institu- 
tion ; no real part of the actual community life. Under the 
industrial conditions prevailing in some localities, the ques- 
tion has been raised whether the rural school would consent 
to become a part of the rural community, or whether it would 
insist upon certain institutional "rights," and without regard 
to the rest of the community claim the children for a fixed 
period of the year. In the sugar-beet-growing districts of 
Colorado we find an excellent illustration of the problem. 

In Weld County the question has been acute at times in 
the last few years. In the raising of sugar-beets, there is a 
slack season of several weeks in the early fall when the fully 
cultivated beet is maturing. Later in the fall, in October 
especially, the harvest is on, and it must be rushed forbear 
of destructive freezes. After the harvest is over, the winter 
is again a slack season. The important question raised by 
such a situation is this: Shall the school insist upon retaining 
its fixed continuous term, paying no attention to the industrial 
needs of the community? Or shall it reorganize itself adapt- 
ing itself to the industrial situation, and fitting its terms be- 
tween the industrial periods? In other words, shall the rural 



school in Weld County, Colorado, become a part of the whole 
organized life of the community, or shall it stand upon its 
institutional "rights" and remain aloof from the rest of the 
life of the community? 

The answer is not simple. One contrast will show its 
complications. If on the one hand, the school term is rear- 
ranged to fit in with the work periods of the community, will 
not the whole community, including the school leaders, be 
surrendering to the demands of those who, in spite of the pro- 
gress of the world, still insist upon making money out of the 
labor of children? That is to say, if the rural school should 
thus become a part of the rural community, would not child 
labor become fixed upon the community in a very undesirable 
form? On the other hand, if the school refuses to readjust 
its terms to meet, these industrial needs of the community, it 
antagonizes the people of the community, and must fall back 
upon the activities of truant officers and compulsory laws to 
secure attendance, even of some children who are not at work, 
since the aloofness of the schools tends to make the parents 
keep even their small children at home. 

People who are able to settle everything by "the enforce- 
ment of the laws" will see no particular difficulty in the 
latter situation. "Make 'em go to school!" But making 
children go to school against their own wills is now seen to 
be not wholly advantageous ; making them go against the wills 
of their parents, also, may turn out to be distinctly disastrous, 
not merely to the children's schooling, but to the whole morale 
of the community and to the respect in which law is held. 
A law imposed upon a people does not long remain a law. 
It becomes a scoffing and a jest. Certainly the world has 
learned something about the reality of law, and how easily it 
becomes unreal, in these last few years. 

"But," says one, "would you shut your eyes to the evils 
of child labor, and turn these children over to the industries 
of the community for the harvest term? Would not that be 
ignoring and denying all the progress and the gains of the 
last three or four hard-fought decades?" 

Here there are at least two important things to be said. 
First, that work is an essential element in the education of 
all boys and girls. And this means not merely skill in work, 
but interest in the economic life of the community. No cam- 
paign for the abolition of child labor may dare to ignore that 
fact. It is true, without doubt, that these common local in- 
dustries cannot be depended upon to give country boys and 
girls all the education for, in, and by work that they need. 
And they can and do give them some things they do not need 
and should not have, such as cruelly long hours and monot- 
onous repetitions of movements. [See the Survey, March 
4, 1916, p. 655.] But the industries can do some things 
much better than the present schools can, or at least than 
they do. Second, taking the boys and girls out of work that 
means something and putting them into formal schools that 
in so many cases mean nothing at all solves no problem, of 
any real sort, but only the problem of satisfying the "rights" 
of the school. In the mean time, such a development cer- 
tainly makes two big future problems inescapable. These 
are the problems of productive industry and of social intel- 
ligence. The school that resolutely stands upon its institu- 
tional "rights," holding itself aloof from the other vital in- 
terests of the community, even to the extent of invoking the 
laws to compel a majority of the children to come to its 
ministrations, has little to contribute to the vital enlargement 
of the community in either of those directions. Such a school 
does nothing whatever for the industrial equipment of the 
pupils, with perhaps a very few exceptions; and it is not cer- 
tain that it does anything essential for the intellectual equip- 
ment. It has yet to be proved that a forced, and sometimes 
hostile, school regime, or any educational regime not deeply 
rooted in the actualities of community life, does anything 
worth while for the intellectual advancement of the common 

life. If it helps an occasional individual a little, at times, it 
does so distinctly at the expense of the community, making 
it impossible for the individual to live in his own community. 
It is not certain that such a school is more desirable than is 
an equally unintelligent industry. 

No effort is here made to solve the problem. And nothing 
set forth herein is to be construed as justifying "child labor," 
or the blatant "rights" of industry to the child. It is just 
one of the problems that our American education must face 
in the coming years. It cannot now be solved, primarily 
because it is not yet a problem to most people. The "child 
labor" people and the education people are pretty generally 
agreed that the school should have the children, and that the 
beet harvest should sift for itself, because the children must 
not labor and they must be educated. 

But problems are not solved by ignoring them. And chil- 
dren are not educated by making the work of the community 
contemptuous in their eyes. The problem is one of many in 
our educational future, most of which have not risen into the 
general consciousness as yet. The child, not as the disputable 
property of certain "interests," but as an integral personality 
and as a future constructive citizen, is here at issue. The. 
average child becomes a well-rounded personality and intel- 
ligent adult, not by the ministrations of particular "interests" 
or institutions, nor by the quarreling of many such, but by 
feeling the vital impulsions of life from every aspect of the 
community. In the long run, such questions will have to be 
solved by the sound social intelligence of the whole commu- 
nity. And, if our children are to escape the devastating ef- 
fects of modern community specializations of "interests," all 
our social institutions, including the school, both urban and 
rural, will have to become integral parts of the community. 
This will mean that many of our teachers and "workers" 
will have to enlarge their "interests" and enrich their "fields," 
until they can, at least, see the whole community, occasionally, 
even though they find it impossible to accept the whole com- 
munity. For the sake of the children, this is absolutely im- 
perative. However it is to be accomplished, the rural school 
must become an integral part of the rural community. J. K. H. 

Kindergarten Legislation 

THE National Kindergarten Association is at present en- 
gaged in pushing kindergarten legislation in many of the 
states, working in cooperation with the local kindergarten 
forces, in the effort to secure enabling laws from the various 
state legislatures. The general plan of procedure is to ask 
for the enactment of a statute similar to the one already in 
existence in California. This was secured the first year the 
women of that state had the franchise, and kindergartners of 
the country are hopeful that the recent enfranchisement of 
the women of the whole country may result in a general ad- 
vance in such legislation. The model statute, based on the 
California law, is as follows: 

The board of education of each school district may maintain 
kindergartens which shall be free to resident children between 
the ages of four and six years. Upon petition of the parents 
or guardians of not less than twenty-five children between 
the ages of four and six, the board of education shall establish 
and maintain such a kindergarten provided that the school in 
connection with which such kindergarten is desired is named 
in the petition: and provided further, that the petitioners re- 
side within the section or neighborhood ordinarily served by 
the school in connection with which such kindergarten is de- 
sired: and provided further, that no person shall be allowed 
to teach in any kindergarten maintained under the provisions 
of this section who has not completed at least a two-years' 
course in kindergarten training and received a certificate or 
diploma from a recognized kindergarten training school. 
This act shall take effect sixty days after its enactment. 

Active support of the movement is going forward in Con- 
necticut, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, New 
Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee and Wisconsin. Porto 
Rico is also moving in the same direction. 






By Robert Mitchel Henry. B. W. Huebsch. 318 pp. Price, 
$2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

By R. C. Escouflaire. E. P. Dutton & Co. 268 pp. Price, $2.50; 
by mail of the Survey, $2.70. 

By Richard Dawson. E. P. Dutton 
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& Co. 272 pp. Price, 


By W. P. Ryan. B. W. Huebsch. 295 pp.. Price, $2.00; by 

mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

The whole Irish issue of today is illuminated in such a masterly 
fashion in the firtt named book that anyone who becomes acquainted 
with its contents will no longer be mystified by the apparently con- 
tradictory stories pouring into the country now. The heart of Ire- 
land has never changed in its ultimate aim — complete independence. 
What has changed, and that rapidly, has been the medium through 
which it has attempted to express itself. It has tried agrarian 
agitation as an economic expedient toward freedom; it has fa- 
rored parliamentarianism as a political agency and now, having 
abandoned that expedient as of proved worthlessness, it aims to 
secure the complete political, complete economic, complete moral and 
intellectual independence of Ireland through the medium of Sinn 
Fein. Sinn Fein itself began as a perfectly constitutional movement, 
relying on the Renunciation Act of 1783 which stated that the right 
of Ireland to make its own laws "is unquestioned and unquestion- 
able." But England confiscated the organ that preached this doc- 
trine so frequently that it was forced to discontinue. 

The author, who is a professor in Queen's University, Belfast, 
neatly disposes of the religious question by quoting Bishop Boulter 
who deplored the tendency to unite Catholic and Protestant because, 
as he said, "whenever that happens, good-bye to English interests 
in Ireland." Though Sinn Fein has offered most liberal guarantees 
to Ulster, it has failed because it can never provide Ulster with 
what Ulster at present enjoys, minority rule, special privilege and 
a dominance backed by English force. 

English policy for the subjection of Ireland demands periodic 
famine, religious division, recurrent rebellion and rigorous suppres- 
sion, but the whole question is so befogged by propaganda, sup- 
pression of truth and by special pleading that few understand why 
Ireland is always in a ferment; and this is what makes many out- 
siders believe that the Irish are incurably fractious and discontented. 
The repudiation of Redmond, the efforts to conscript Irishmen to 
fight for freedom in France while still in chains in Ireland, the 
arming of Ulster and the disarming of Sinn Fein, all under the 
same law, are all so lucidly explained that to know this book is to 
understand the whole Irish problem without difficulty. 

Ireland, an Enemy of the Allies? is the, product of a man with 
a French name but a Tory heart. Every English liberal is roundly 
abused. Gladstone "encouraged too many insurrections by his ill 
disguised sympathies," and was "more indulgent toward demagogy 
than toward established right and tradition," and he proposed 
"a perfectly iniquitous scheme for agrarian spoliation." Mr. Birrell 
"was a fool," "the radical minister and crony of Irish demagogues." 
Mr. Asquith, too, comes in for his share. He and his radicals 
ventured to "parley with terrorism." The electors of 1910 gave 
him "a general mandate to destroy anything he chose, including 
imperial security." But the English are not all bad, particularly 
if they are Tories. Balfour is "one of the finest figures among 
modern statesmen." "Ireland owes to him the foundations of her 
present prosperity." Sir Edward Carson, "endowed with some of 
the best brains in the kingdom," talks of the radical government 
which, "by an act of unparalleled treachery and betrayal . . . have 
announced their intention of passing into law ... the detestable 
Home Rule bill." But although he said in 1914, "We will not have 
Home Rule — never," he has now changed his mind. 

The author, while denying nationhood to Ireland, declares that 
Ulster, the gem of Ireland, "forms a complete nation." Neverthe- 

less, "Ireland free would be an intolerable menace to the neighbor- 
ing island." There is, of course, not one word in this book about 
the aims for which the Allies went to war with Germany. It is 
just as well. Any statement of them would invalidate the whole 

People who believe the Irish have no right to freedom will enjoy 
Mr. Dawson's book because it seems to link them up with pro-Ger- 
manism and bolshevism and their respective terrors. Sinn Fein is in 
cahoots with bolshevism; "these allies have an understanding or com- 
pact, the exact word is immaterial." This is characteristic. The exact 
word is immaterial — even in proper names. Thus Robert Emmet 
it known as Thomas Emmett, Mitchel is known as Mitchell, Mac- 
Donagh as Macdonough and De Leon as Leon. A writer who 
ventures to interpret American history and mentions Aaron Bur 
and Nathan Hall may rightly be looked on with suspicion. 

In so persistently saddling the Irish with pro-Germanism and 
bolshevism the author demonstrates their utter antipathy to Eng- 
lish rule. He forgets that these very accusations are possibly the 
most forcible condemnation of English government that can be ad- 
vanced. It is true the Irish sought help wherever they could get 
it "whether from dog or devil." The Allies themselves used black, 
brown and yellow in repelling the Germans. But the bolshevist 
connection is largely a mare's nest. Connolly believed that geogra- 
phical representation was a feudal survival and modern conditions 
demanded representation on an occupational basis. This view has 
been adopted in Russia. The labored efforts to associate Ireland 
with "German plots" may now be appraised by reading a "white 
paper" recently issued by the English government. A cable from 
London published in the New York Times, January 4, states "there 
has been difference of opinion among government officials as to 
whether they were convincing enough to make out a definite case 
for the government." This is the sort of evidence upon which the 
author seeks to build a case. 

In the stormy history of the last few years in Ireland, labor has 
played a prominent part. It became apparent to James Connolly 
and other Irish labor leaders that the capitalistic system, as im- 
ported from England, was foreign to the Irish nature and tended 
to jeopardize its economic as well as its political existence. Thus a 
fusion between Sinn Fein and labor became an, accomplished fact 
although, at first, there was slight identity of aim as regards their 
ultimate objective. Under the able leadership of Connolly, a con- 
vinced Socialist, the labor movement instead of taking on an inter- 
nationalist flavor has developed a strong nationalistic aspect, and 
thus labor became wholly identified with the Irish fight for freedom. 

Mr. Ryan, who is one of the editors of the London Daily Herald, 
gives a very interesting account of the early history cf Irish labor 
and its gradual development to date. He tells much of Connolly's 
life, of his visits to the United States and of his death. Connolly, 
who signed the Declaration of Irish Independence, was among those 
executed by the British government in 1916 and, since his leg was 
broken in the rising, he had to be shot while seated. A great deal 
that is new is told about the remarkable career of James Larkin, 
now undergoing a prison term in America. No man of his genera- 
tion has done so much for the under dog of labor in Dublin; a 
temperance advocate, an apostle of nationality, earnest to a fault 

J. D. Hackett. 


By Benjamin Harrow. E. P. Dutton & Co. 219 pp. Price, 

$2.50; by mail of the Survey, $2.60. 
~ The title is somewhat of a misnomer ; for this book is a pains- 
taking attempt to explain to the popular mind the whole question 
of nutrition from a quasi-chemical standpoint. Of over two hun- 
dred pages, ninety are devoted to introduction. What the general 
reader most wants to know just now is what are vitamines and 
what is the latest knowledge about them? While a general knowl- 
edge of nutrition is essential to an understanding of the part played 
by them, it is doubtful whether the average reader will have the 
patience first to delve through eight chapters on fuel values, 



carbohydrates, fats, proteins, mineral matter, water and oxygen, 
the amino-acids, and the like. 

Rather the average mind will swallow with avidity such fiction 
about vitamines as appears tastily garnished in prominent columns 
of daily papers, or exaggerating advertisements about the value of 

The history of the deficiency diseases— scurvy, beri-beri, rickets 

which led to the discovery of vitamines is of interest; for these 

were found to be curable by nothing more than an addition to the 
dietary. The methods used, so far, in testing for the presence of 
these food factors is also of interest. • By feeding them to young 
rats which have for some little time been living on a diet known 
to be well balanced in everything except vitamines, but lacking 
these, a distinct improvement in the growth of the rats is shown; 
if the added diet does not contain adequate vitamines, their condition 
gradually declines. White rats are accommodating little creatures 
that will eat almost anything; but it is a sad come-down for 
science that it has so far discovered no chemical test for the 
presence of what are, no doubt, chemical compounds. To this, 
more than to anything else, is due the fact that all attempts at 
isolation have, up to now, failed. From chemical analyses of 
foods it is evident that vitamines exist only in minute quantities, 
their weight being inappreciable; but it is a case of a little going 
a long way, and the ordinary, healthy person need not fear that in 
his general diet there is a deficiency of vitamines. It is only in 
unusual cases of famine or isolation, or where large masses of 
people are being fed on a restricted diet, that diseases due to lack 
of vitamines are likely to ensue. 

Not so with young children whose ,total intake of food is small 
and unvaried. It is here that a knowledge of vitamines might be 
of value to the general public. The good old remedy of codliver 
oil as a cure for rickets still retains its high repute— with an added 
glamor. Milk from cows fed on dry fodder may not be nearly so 
perfect a food as one supposes just because it is milk; a child 
might contract rickets when fed on an adequate milk diet due to 
lack of vitamines from such a source. Codliver oil at once supplies 
the deficiency with excellent results, due no doubt to the presence 
of the necessary vitamine. 

These facts, and others of equal importance, are set forth by 
Professor Harrow in an accurate, well arranged and fairly interest- 
ing way. The more important recent investigations are drawn 
upon for their results, and a good bibliography invites to further 
reading. Margaret Lasker. 


H. W. Wilson Co. 372 pp. Price, $2.25; by mail of the 
Survey, $2.40. 

Students of current events have got into the habit of looking 
forward to the appearance of this annual as a valuable contribution 
to the discussion of controversial topics. Though the contents are 
not authoritative, in the sense that they are composed for the most 
part of constructive and rebuttal speeches in American college and 
university debates, they are nearly always along the main lines of 
argument on both sides. Moreover, excellent bibliographies and 
references make up for the lack of authority; and the systematic 
statement of each "brief" gives a clear analysis of the matter under 
discussion. The subjects here debated are government ownership 
and operation of coal mines, the Cummins plan for the control of 
railroads, affiliation of teachers with the A. F. of L., compulsory 
arbitration of labor disputes, the closed shop, suppression of 
anarchist propaganda. 


By G. T. W. Patrick. Houghton Mifflin Co. 273 pp. Price, 

$2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

In an exceptionally clear and interesting manner, the author de- 
monstrates the futility of social reconstruction schemes which are not 
based upon a real appreciation of man's native equipment. This 
part of the book deserves the serious attention of all students of 
social phenomena and constitutes, incidentally, a worthwhile resume 
of the more important facts concerning human tendencies. 

Not so convincing, and much less dependable, are the author's pro- 
posed solutions. In common with other admirers and followers of 
the late Carleton H. Parker, the author has missed what seems to 
the reviewer to be the really vital element in the late economist's 
contribution. Carleton H. Parker, whatever else he was, was essen- 
tially a marvelous technician in human relationships. In the cultiva- 

tion of this technique he had a full appreciation of the valuable 
contribution which the psycho-pathological clinic might make to this, 
and found opportunity to watch the psycho-pathologists apply psy- 
chological principles in the management of human relations. 

There is a far cry from a mere recognition of psychological prin- 
ciples in industry to the actual technique of carrying over these 
principles into the business of industrial relations, and quite a sig- 
nificant difference between the social philosopher, even with a full 
conception of psychological principles, and the social technician who 
is able to carry these principles over into daily practice. Those who 
would give permanence to the remarkable contribution of the late 
Carleton H. Parker will have to pay more attention than they have 
heretofore to this phase of their task. Bernard Glueck, M. D. 


By J. Edmund Buttree. Christopher Publishing House. 314 

pp. Price, $2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.20. 

North Dakota is very much in the public eye. But, as Mr. Buttree 
says in his introduction to this recital of personal experiences in 
the grain fields of that state, "often times things are not what 
they seem." Whether his disjointed and admittedly redundant 
recital will add to a clearer understanding of the radical farmers' 
movement, however, is decidedly doubtful. His bias is strongly in 
opposition to the Nonpartisan League. The incidents which he re- 
lates may be fairly selected, but it can hardly be said that Mr. 
Buttree approached his task of explaining the farmers' movement 
in any sympathetic spirit, though as a tactician he deplores the at- 
tempts made during the war to defeat it by fastening the charge 
of disloyalty on its leaders. The tone of the book becomes more 
violent as it proceeds; denunciation of farmers as a class — and 
incidentally, of opponents of the league for too much sympathy with 
farming interests — concludes a mass of unassorted data and un- 
assimilated impressions. B. L. 


By Harry Lee. Frederick A. Stokes Co. 180 pp. Price, $1.50; 

by mail of the Survey, $1.65. , 

Harry Lee, who has been a settlement worker, a Red Cross worker 
and was long connected with William H. Matthews — to whom this 
book of verse is dedicated — in the Association for Improving the 
Condition of the Poor of New York, combines his interest in human 
problems with singing lines. These sketches in free verse grew 
out of his hospital work with crippled soldiers; they are his 
obeisance to the spirit of courage and comradeship and the lovable- 
ness he found among those boys of many nationalities. 

Masood, the Syrian, who had not walked for ten months, is only 
one of many who "bear the burden blithely": 

I say to God: 

"You make me — you take me. 

"If my time now — all right, 

"I make the fight." 

The good soldier make the good fight, 

He keep the smile. 

So — I smile. 
If the quality of the men of whom he writes sometimes outshines 
the quality of the verse, Mr. Lee himself would be the first to point 
out that if the quality of the men were comprehended, his verse 
had served its purpose. Florence Fleisher. 


By Francis Hackett. B. E. Huebsch. 167 pp. Price, $2.00; 

by mail of the Survey, $2.10. 

Since this collection is not of Mr. Hackett's literary criticisms 
but rather of essays written from time to time on personal ex- 
periences or questions of the hour, they have a direct appeal- to 
the student of contemporary society and, incidentally, give the 
present reviewer an opportunity of acknowledging a debt of grati- 
tude for the sincerity and singular charm of all Mr. Hackett's 
writings in the New Republic. From the horror of Scientific Man- 
agement carried to its logical conclusion in the life of the individual 
to the democracy of American Society as displayed to an oriental 
visitor (Okura Sees Newport) ; from the sympathetic sketch of 
the blinded strikebreaker (Blind) to the description of the moods 
of Fifth Avenue, the essays cover a wide field of observation. 
Romantic, satirical, debative, discursive or merely jollying, they 
share a fine sense of human values and grasp of realities. B. L. 
{Continued on page 61) 




Conducted by 


Americans, in common with the rest of humanity, have a 
tendency to visit all their wrath on conspicuous examples of 
wrong-doing, rather than saving some of it to apply as mo- 
tive and energy in the direction of reform. The situation in 
Georgia should serve to direct critical study to every dark 
corner of the country. 

IThe situation in Georgia. 
♦ The existence of a virtual "peonage" is admitted by officials 
and intelligent citizens. What is this "peonage?" How can it be 
legally maintained? Or how can it be given enough of a show of 
legality to maintain itself? What are the economic bases of it? 
What is its educational basis? What its moral effect? 



The situation in other states. 

Does Georgia stand alone in these matters? What is the 
condition of Negro employment in each of the other southern states? 
In the border states? In northern states? And in the large cities 
of the North? Have the racial frictions of recent years in many 
northern cities any relationships to these peonage conditions? 
What of the conditions under which Mexican laborers work in 
e Southwest? Is there any "peonage" in Texas, New Mexico, 
rizona, California or Colorado, among the "greasers?" 
What of the conditions among the Japs and Chinese in California, 
Washington and Oregon? Or among the Indian laborers? Or 
among the southeastern Europeans in mining camps in Colorado, 
Nevada and Utah? Or in the steel and iron and coal industries 
of Pennsylvania and West Virginia? Or among Greek shoe-blacks 
in Chicago and New York city? Or among the innumerable other 
submerged small industrial groups of our large cities? Or among 
the "white slaves?" 

3 The need of knowledge of the facts. 
♦ The facts from Georgia will serve one very bad purpose 
if they tend to cover up undesirable conditions elsewhere. What 
are the facts at home, locally, in your own community, about the 
boasted "free labor" of Americans? Are the men free? The women? 
The children? Is your community a community of free labor, or do 
you also harbor elements of insidious industrial peonage? 


Hillaire Belloc: The Servile State. Leroy Phillips, Boston. 
Price, $1.25; postpaid, $1.40. 

Chapter 13, the Gospel of Luke. 

The Survey, this issue, pages 43 and 45. 

;* mentioned above may be obtained through the Survey Cook 

Table Linens 

at Adjusted Prices 

, 1X7'E have listed below a few spec- 
* » imen prices of Damask Table 
Cloths and Napkins which should 
interest every Housewife. 

These prices, based on our recently 
adjusted list, accurately represent 
the decided saving possible on pur- 
chases throughout our whole stock. 

We wish to add also, that our as- 
sortments of sizes and designs are 

Table Cloths 

2x2 yards, $11.00, 12.50, 15.00 each. 
2x2^ yards, $13-75, 16.50, 20.50 each. 
2x3 yards, $15.75, 16.50, 22.50 each. 


22X22 ins., $12.00, 
24x25 ins., $14.75, 

I 3-50. 17.00 dozen. 
19.50, 26.OO dozen. 

Orders by mail receive our prompt 
and carefull attention 

James McCutcheon & Co. 

Fifth Ave,, 34th and 33rd Streets 

Dirmiri!inir;r?iiii i ,iLCTiiiii miLmiiiiiiiBii 



By W. M. Feldman. Longmans, Green & Co. 694 pp. Price, 

$2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

The author of The Jewish Child has rendered an exceptionally 
valuable service in bringing together in one volume the known facts 
concerning the physiology of the child. Never before has this rich 
store of information been available in such accessible form, and 
students of child life in health and disease will find the book indis- 
pensable. Of particular importance and interest are the chapters on 
genetics and heredity, and the chapter dealing with the nervous 
system of the child. The book can be recommended unhesitatingly 
to all of those who are interested in child life. 

Bernard Glueck, M. D. 

from page 60) 


By David E. Berg. Institute for Public Service, New York. 127 

pp. Price, $1.50; by mail of the Survey, $1.60. 

Here are seventy-two pen portraits of college instructors at work, 
in summer school classes. The author saw these instructors at work 
and drew these portraits from life. They cover teachers in twenty- 
five subjects and a very wide range of teacher personalities. Out of 
the seventy-two, four stand out as possessing "personality plus." 
The others grade through various distinctions to type 10, whose 
"futility was something to marvel at, their crass stupidity some- 
thing to bewilder the imagination." While this book is rather loosely 
jointed and based on too few data to present any final conclusions, 
it presents some portraits to the life; most teachers could probably 
find herein some portrait of a colleague to abhor. J. K. H. 





GOVERNOR MILLER of New York, in a 
special message to the legislature, recom- 
mends immediate legislation authorizing the 
making of a compact with New Jersey to 
establish a joint port of New York district 
with three commissioners from New York 
and three from New Jersey, empowered to 
make comprehensive plans in line with the 
recommendations of the joint Port and 
Harbor Development Commission [see the 
Survey for March 12]. In accordance with 
this recommendation, a bill has been intro- 
duced designating William R. Wilcox, E. 
H. Outerbridge, Murray Hulbert and the 
attorney-general as commissioners to nego- 
tiate an agreement with New Jersey. Op- 
position to the plans of the commission has 
been voiced by the chambers of commerce 
of Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx and 
a citizens' committee of Staten Island ; 
agreeing with the general principles under- 
lying the scheme, they feel that the needs 
of their respective boroughs have been in- 
sufficiently considered. A protest has also 
been raised by the Board of Commissioners 
and the Chamber of Commerce of Jersey 
City, N. J., on the grounds, mainly, that the 
plan would injure the development of 
Newark Bay as an ocean port; that the 
physical plan involves the expenditure of 
$230,000,000 in New York and only $10,- 
000,000 in New Jersey; and that this state 
is vitally interested in securing a separate 
freight rate on railroads which would be 
impossible if it entered into this partnership 
with New York. 

SENATE BILL 599, of the State of New 
York, passed on March 16, amends the 
present law requiring the licensing of dance 
halls to include not only commercial places 
but also all other dances to which the pub- 
lic may gain admission with or without a 
fee, whether given by an association or by 
an individual. 

ALIDA BIGELOW, who recently spent two 
years in Europe in civilian relief work, has 
been appointed by the National Board of 
the Young Women's Christian Association 
special immigration secretary for the French 
ports to interpret to girls taking passage for 
America the exact qualifications necessary to 
pass through Ellis Island. Havre and Cher- 
bourg have become two of the most impor- 
tant starting points for immigrants. Sta- 
tioned there to turn back girls ineligible for 
admission to the United States, it is be- 
lieved Miss Bigelow will be able to prevent 
much unnecessary expense and hardship. 

THE National Child Health Council has 
announced that Clarence King, formerly 
associate manager of the Atlantic Division 
of the American Red /Cross, has been ap- 
pointed director of the child health demon- 
stration to be made in a typical American 
city. Already a number of communities 
have asked for consideration. The selec- 
tion of the community will rest with a 
committee consisting of Ella Phillips Cran- 
dall; Richard A. Bolt, M. D.; Charles J. 
Hatfield, M. D.; Owen R. Lovejoy; Sally 
Lucas Jean; Haven Emerson, M. D. ; and 
Donald B. Armstrong, M. D. Competition is 
open to any city of 20,000 to 30,000 popula- 
tion which is situated in a county of from 
50,000 to 60.000 population, and which is in 
a birth registration state fairly accessible to 
members of the council. Since the effective- 
ness of the demonstration will rest upon the 

permanency of the results in the life of the 
community, the attitude of the citizens and 
officials toward it will be one of the deter- 
mining factors. 

AN occasional reminder that the United 
States is not the only country that is giving 
first aid to the war-devastated regions comes 
not amiss. A recent report of the Central 
Committee of the British League of Help 
shows that millions of dollars have been 
donated in that country to repair, rebuild 
and restore public utilities, houses and whole 
towns and villages in France. The city and 
county of London, between them, have 
adopted Verdun, and several boroughs of 
the metropolis have independently adopted 
other French communities which they intend 
to restore. Manchester, Newcastle, Oxford, 
Sheffield, Exeter, Evesham, Birmingham and 
other cities are sending a constant stream 
of money to help in the physical reconstruc- 
tion of, altogether, fifty different adopted 
localities. A special English fund has been 
established for the restoration of Rheims 
cathedral and the Royal Agricultural Society 
is organizing the supply of cattle to the 
raided farms of France, an object for which 
more than $350,000 has already been sub- 

ACCORDING to the Canadian Municipal 
Journal, the federal Commission of Conser- 
vation of Canada is threatened with ex- 
tinction by a sweeping "economy" campaign 
of the government. As a matter of fact, the 
cost of this commission to the government is 
exceedingly small; by far the greater part 
of its work during twelve years of activity 
was voluntarily performed by twenty of the 
dominion's foremost scientists and business 
men. Abolition of this commission would 
sweep away the town planning department 
which under Thomas Adams has become one 
of the most valuable organs of the state's 
activity for the public welfare and a world 
pioneer in the practical application of the 
most modern ideas on city and inter-city 
planning. Other departments of the com- 
mission, likewise, have contributed not a 
little to the best economic interests of the 
people of Canada; and many citizens be- 
lieve that their administrative cost weighs 
very lightly in the balance against the value 
of natural retources saved by their work. 

THE Women's Educational and Industrial 
Union of Boston offers three fellowships of 
$500 each in social and economic research to 
women who wish to prepare thoroughly for 
such work. Applications must be filed be- 
fore May 1 with the Department of Re- 
search, Women's Educational and Industrial 
Union, 264 Boylston street, Boston 17, Mass. 

THE Austrian Minister of Social Welfare 
has prepared a program aiming to reduce 
the terrible suffering among children. This 
program includes measures to obtain cloth- 
ing, medical aid, the maintaining of chil- 
dren in country places in Austria and 
abroad, and assistance to existing child re- 
lief agencies. Since the consummation of even 
a part of this program will require a large 
amount of money, an appeal has been issued 
to the well-to-do classes for funds. The 
director of the Public Health Bureau has 
supplemented this appeal with a statement 
calling attention to the serious condition of 
the children's health. It was shown that 
65,000 are badly undernourished ; 85,000 
children are in a bad condition, and 72 per 
cent of the entire school population of Vien- 
na need some assistance. It is stated fur- 
ther that only some 20,000 children, or 
about 10 per cent of the school population 
of Vienna, are considered well nourished. 

The tuberculosis death rate of children be- 
tween five and ten years of age has also 
assumed alarming proportions, being three 
times that of 1912-1914. Under-feeding has 
been a serious factor in this increase of 
tuberculosis among the child population. 

JOHN J. WALTERS, Box 28,830, San 
Quentin, Cal, a prisoner in the San 
Quentin Prison, is making hand painted 
cards, folders, calendars, etc., and desires 
to get greetings and verses suitable for all 
occasions and seasons, that he can use on 
cards. He prefers short, pithy material, 
humorous or serious, adapted to hand illus- 
tration. He offers to pay twenty-five cents 
a line or more for material. Any writers 
interested may address Mr. Walters; en- 
close a stamped, addressed, return envelope. 

ATTENTION is called to the change in 
place of meeting of the Conference of Na- 
tional Social Agencies planned originally for 
April 14 at Atlantic City. The conference 
will be held on the same date, but at the 
New Willard Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

AUGUST 24, 1912, of the Survey, published 
weekly at New York, N. Y., for April 1, 1921. 

State of New York, County of New York, 

Before me, a Commissioner of Deeds, in and 
for the State and county aforesaid, personally 
appeared Arthur P. Kellogg, who, haying been 
duly sworn according to law, deposes and says 
that he is the business manager of The Suk- 
vey, and that the following is, to the best of 
his knowledge and belief, a true statement of 
the ownership, management (and if a daily 
paper, the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid 
publication for the date shown in the above 
caption, required by the Act of August 24, 
1912, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and 
Regulations, printed on the reverse of this form, 
to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the pub- 
lisher, editor, managing editor, and business 
managers are: Publisher, Survey Associates, Inc., 
112 East 19 Street, New York City; Editor, Paul 
U. Kellogg, 112 East 19 Street, New York City; 
Managing Editor, S. Adele Shaw, 112 East 19 
Street, New York City; Business Manager, Arthur 
P. Kellogg, 112 East 19 Street, New York City. 

2. That the owners are: (Give names and 
addresses of individual owners, or, if a corpora- 
tion, give its name and the names and addresses 
of stockholders owning or holding 1 per cent or 
more of the total amount of stock.) Surrey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 Street, New York 
City, a non-commercial corporation under the laws 
of the State of New York with over 1,600 mem- 
bers. It has no stocks or bonds. President, Robert 
W. de Forest, 30 Broad Street, New York, N. Y.; 
Vice-Presidents, John M. Glenn, 130 East 22 
Street, New York, N. Y.; Henry R. Seager, 
Columbia University, New York, N. Y.; V. Everit 
Macy, "Chilmark," Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y.; 
Secretary-Treasurer, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 
19 Street, New York, N. Y. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders owning or holding 1 
per cent or more of total amount of bonds, mort- 
gages, or other securities are: |If there are none, 
so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving 
the names of the owners, stockholders, and 
security holders, if any, contain not only the 
list of stockholders and security holders as they 
appear upon the books of the company but also, 
in cases where the stockholder or security holder 
appears upon the books of the company as trustee 
or in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the 
person or corporation for whom such trustee i9 
acting, is given; also that the said two paragraphs 
contain statements embracing affiant's full knowl- 
edge and belief, as to the circumstances and con- 
ditions under which stockholders and security 
holders who do not appear upon the books of the 
company as trustees, hold stock and securities in 
a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner; 
and this affiant has no reason to believe that any 
other person, association, or corporation has any 
interest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, 
or other securities than as so stated by him. 


Business Manager. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 28tb 
day of March, 1921. 

Commissioner of Deeds, City of New York, 
New York County Clerk's No. 144; New 
York County Register's No. 22056. 
Commission Expires April 27, 1922. 





RATES: Display advertisements, 25 
cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 
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Discounts on 4 or more consecutive 

Address Advertising Department 


in East 19th Street New York City 


STATISTICIAN acquainted with social 
work, wanted by a Federation of Jewish 
Charities. Good opportunity, satisfactory 
salary. Address Statistician, 3801 Survey. 

WANTED: Local representatives, men 
and women, spare time work, to take orders 
for books of all kinds in their community; 
generous commjssions paid. 3800 Survey. 

SUPERINTENDENT for a custodial home 
for delinquent girls committed through the 
Children's Court. Must have institutional 
experience. For further information write 
to Mrs. Sidney C. Borg, Hotel Chatham, 48 
Street and Vanderbilt Ave., New York city. 

SOCIAL WORKERS, dietitians, industrial 
nurses, secretaries. Miss Richards, Provi- 
dence, R. I., Box 5 East Side; Boston, 16 
Jackson Hall, Trinity Court, Fridays, utoi. 

WANTED: A Secretary for Organized 
Charities, Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
Training required. 3806 Survey. 


EXECUTIVE and Field Secretary for 
National Organization. College graduate 
preferred, with gift for organizing. An in- 
terest in flowers and gardens is desirable. 
3810 Survey. 

MAN thoroughly familiar with Boys' Club 
work. Hours three to eleven p. m. Good 
salary. Give age, experience, religion and 
references. 3812 Survey. 

desires family case worker with C.O.S. ex- 
perience. Interesting Community, expert 
supervision, opportunity for initiative. 
Salary $100. 3813 Survey. 

An intensive two weeks' course in 


Boston, April 25-May 7, 1921. Open 
to social workers, nurses and others in- 
terested in the care of underweight 
and malnourished children, Director 
William R. P. Emerson, M.D. Fee 
$50.00, including all materials. Lim- 
ited number partial scholarships. Ad- 
dress Mabel Skilton, Secretary Nutri- 
tion Clinics for Delicate Children, 44 
Dwight Street, Boston. 


WOMAN with sixteen years' institutional 
experience preceded by several years' teach- 
ing, desires position as superintendent of 
small Protestant institution, preferably for 
girls or young children. 3790 Survey. 

SECRETARY: Executive or private. New 
York City position. Organizer, private case 
work, research, stenography. Will do some 
travelling. 3807 Survey. ' 

MAN with successful executive experience 
in social work, social research and business 
administration, desires change. 3809 Survey. 

COLLEGE graduate (woman), executive 
and organizing ability, five years experience 
in social settlement, one year in orphanage, 
seeks position in social institution. Good 
references. 3808 Survey. 

MAN AND WIFE, now Superintendent 
and Clerk of home for destitute and delin- 
quent children in heart of large city, desire 
similar positions in institution in country. 
3797 Survey. 

wishes position near New York, where re- 
finement, education, rapid dictation and 
good management are desired. Salary $150 
monthly and full maintenance. 3811 Survey. 

YOUNG WOMAN with two years' ex- 
perience field service with National Organ- 
ization ; one year experience secretary Com- 
munity Organization, and case work, desires 
opening where training and experience offer 
opportunity for development. 3805 Survey. 

MAN AND WIFE, Protestant, open for 
positions as superintendent and matron or 
instructors, child-caring institution. Ex- 
perienced ; enthusiastic. 3814 Survey. 


Adirondacks— Keene Valley, N. Y. 

To Rent: Cottages, fully equipped, very mod- 
ern, baths, toilets, etc. Season $300 to $1,000. 
H. W. Otis. 

Dorset. Vt. For Sale. "Cloverlea." 

7 rooms, fireplace, bath, sleeping-porch, town 
water, garden, 1 acre. Also smaller bungalow, 
2 bedrooms. Picturesque village, pleasant colony, 
golf, library, church. E. Carhart, care Frank 
Suter, Rosslyn, Va. 

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The Cost op Venereal Disease to Industry By 
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Derate on Birth Control. Margaret Sanger, 
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c 1: Soclahsm - Affirmative, Prof. Edwin R A. 
bekgman, Head of the Department of Eco- 
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Scott Neanne, Rand School of Social Science: 
-V^u lrm xT n ' ■ °, s , wald Garrison Villard, Editor 
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Prohirition and Prosperity: What Freedom 
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The Economic Slavery 

of the 

American Office Employees 






The first book of its kind to champion the cause of the men 
and women who stand midway between Labor and Capital 


Latin-American publicist; connected for a number of years 

with W. R. Grace & Co., the largest firm of international 

merchants in the world 

The author of this book, following the recent precedent 
set by the eminent Spanish novelist, Blasco Ibanez, in his 
two months' study of the Mexican situation, has written 
this treatise as the outcome of a special study of social and 
economic conditions in the United States, with particular 
reference to the status of the men and women comprising 
the Office Employee Class. 

Mr. Lara's research covers not only a period of two 
months, but of ten years, which is a significant fact from 
a critical point of view. 

Those who may question the alien's right to criticize the 
institutions of any other country, should bear in mind that 
the foreign observer looks at things from a detached point 
of view and has a perspective that is unaffected by sym- 
pathies or antipathies. 

This book is divided into three parts and the subjects 
discussed are as follows: 

Chapter PART ONE (*) 

I. — Right of foreigners to discuss labor and social issues. 
II. — Modern loafers and a new class of money makers. A crew 

of industry wrecker^. 
III. — The right to strike when welfare of people is at stake. 
. IV. — A dilemma: Will education suffer from high wages to labor- 
r ers or from low salaries to teachers? 
V. — Is the black and yellow peril looming up? 
VI. — Present wages of laborers compared with salaries of office help. 

VII. — Employers baring ideas of the last century. 
VIII. — Signing time-sheet or punching clock, a shop-like system. 
IX. — "Slave drivers" In business offices, an obnoxious type. 

X. — Why blame employees who change positions? 
XI. — Union of employees for protection purposes, a necessity. 
XII. — Profit-sharing system and insurance of employees, eminently 

XII T — Influence of high prices on social unrest. 
XIV. — A few suggestions to employees to reduce the H. C. L. 
XV. — Summing up. The author draws a moral. 
Appendix "A" — Let us start at onco an Employees' Association like 

the "Brain. Workers' Union of France. 
Appendix "B"— Incontrovertible facts showing the uneaual distribu- 
tion of wealth in the United States. 
Appendix "C" — How to dispose of the retired rich. 


9- 1 5 Murray St., Top Floor, NEW YORK CITY 

Price $1.50 prepaid, in stiff board covers. 

Get a copy from your nearest book- 
dealer or send your order direct to us. 

* In the year 1920, when Part I of this book was written, the average Ameri- 
can workingman was enjoying unparalleled prosperity. In the meamime, con- 
ditions have changed considerably, but this altered situation does not affect 
the validity of the author's conclusions as set forth in Parts II, III and 

Are You trained 

for this Demand? 

Numerous industrial units in this 
country, each employing upwards of 
ten thousand men, women and chil- 
dren; and a much greater number of 
smaller units, ranging in size from 
one to three thousand employes, have 
installed Welfare and Personnel De- 
partments. Many other industrial 
organizations are considering such 
installation and are only deterred be- 
cause the right executives to direct the 
work are not forthcoming. These 
business men are asking for something 
more in Social Workers than earnest- 
ness and devotion; they want profi- 
ciency and they want those who can 
cooperate intelligently and efficiently 
with the engineers of a modern in- 
dustrial enterprise. 

Similar rigorous requirements exist 
in the Societies for Case Work with 
Families and Children, Community 
Centers, Public Health Organizations 
and other units all over the country. 

The New York School of Social 
Work supplies the training to meet 
this need. Two years of specialized 
study and field training are deemed 
none too many to fit students profes- 
sionally to assume the responsibilities 
of Welfare Direction in its modern 

In order to enlist those best fitted for ad- 
vanced Social Work the School offers four 
Fellowships of $850 each, for the school year 
1921-1922, which will be awarded to recent 
college graduates including the class of 1921. 

The award will be decided by competitive 
examination, with preference to graduates not 
more than five year ,1 college. 

The examination will be held April 30 at the 
School or, by arrangement, at your own college. 
Application must be made not later than April 
23. A form will be sent on request as per 
coupon below. 


107 East 22 Street, JNew York. 

Please send me application blank for your 






APRIL 16, 1921 


Social Unit Claims Paid— One Roof for Health Agencies— The 
People's Part in Congress— The Women's Bureau— Girls' Clubs 
—Intercollegiate Liberals— The Dawes Report— Women of the 
World— Social Legislation in Japan— Milk and Water— Settlement 

The Open Shop . . . . . . . J. A. F. 

The Shell of the Employment Service William L. Chenery 
The Crime Wave and Probation . Charles L. Chute 
The "Home" Boy in Delaware . Paul L. Benjamin 


The Calder Report— The Small House in Germany— Plans and 


Pnysician and Layman 
Sc -ialized Medicine 
Health Notes 

Michael M. Davis, Jr. 
Raymond Holden 







15 Cents a Copy 

$5.00 a Year 





ERS— Mies Ida M. Cannon, pres.; Social Service Department, Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Miss Ruth V. 
Boaorsec sec'y; National Headquarters, American Red Cross, Wash- 
netoo D C Organization to promote development of social work 
la hospitals and dispensaries. Annual meeting with National Con- 
ference of Social Work. 

Andrews sec^y .\ ; 131 E. 23rd St., New York. For adequate pubic 
employment service; industrial safety and health laws; workmen s 
compensation and rehabilitation of cripples; unemployment, old age 
and health insurance; maternity protection; one day s rest in seven; 
efficient law enforcement. Publishes quarterly, "The American 
Labor Legislation Review." 

TALITY— Gertrude B. Knipp, sec'y.; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Urges prenatal, obstetrical and infant care; birth registration; 
maternal nursing; infant welfare consultations; care of children ©r 
pro-school age and school age. 

AMERICAN CITY BUREAU— An agency for organizing and strength- 
ening Chambers of Commerce, City Clubs, and other civic and com- 
mercial organizations; and for training of men in the profession or 
community leadership. Address our nearest office- 
Tribune Building, New York. 
123 W. Madison Street, Chicago. 
716 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 

field pres., C J. Galpin, ex. sec, E. C. Dindeman, Greensboro, N. C 
field' secretary. Annual conference with annual reports. Emphasizes 
the human aspects of country life. Membership, $3. 
Cooper, sec'y.. Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Or- 
eanized for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions 
and community. Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cath- 
edral St., Baltimore. Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY. Founded 1828, labors for an inter- 
national peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of Peace 
*2 •• a year. Arthur Deerin Call, Secretary and Editor, 612-S14 
Colorado Building, Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency. Maintains 
all-the-yeax-lround Information bureau on all questions of delinquency 
and crfanae. Advice and counsel of specialists throughout the country 
available free of charge through central office Annual proceedings 
published. Next congress. Jacksonville, Fla., November, 1921. Mem- 
bership, including proceedings, $5. C. B. Adams, pres.; O. F. Lewis, 
gen. sec'y., 136 E. 16th St., N. Y. C. 

J Osborne, exec, sec'y.; 85 W. 45th SL, New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and preven- 
tion. Publications free on request. Annual membership dues. 55. 
6t New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression or 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion of 
sound sex education. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon 
request Annual membership dues, $2. Membership includes quarterly 
magazine and monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 
tion Against the Saloon. Rev. P. A. Baker, D.D., General Superin- 
tendent- Rev. Howard H. Russell, D.D., Associate Gen. Superintend.; 
Mr Ernest H. Cherrimgton, General Manager Department of Publish- 
ing Interests and General Secretary World League Against Alcohol- 
ism- and Rev. E. J. Moore, Ph.D., Assistant General Superintendent. 
National Headquarters, Westerville, Ohio. Mr. Wayne B. Wheeler, 
Esquire, Attorney, 30-33 Bliss Building, Washington, D. C. 
New York. Dr. L. Emmett Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, Di- 
rector. To arouse public Interest in the health of school children; to 
encourage the systematic teaching of health in the schools; to develop 
new methods of Interesting children in the forming of health habits; 
to publish and distribute pamphlets for teachers and public health 
workers and health literature for children; to advise in organization 
of local child health programme. 

to secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to Im- 
prove standards and methods in the different fields of work with 
children and to make available in any part of the field the assured 
results of successful effort. The League will be glad to consult 
with any agency, with a view to assisting It in organizing or re- 
organizing its children's work. C. C. Carsteros, Director, 130 E. 
22nd St., New York. 

York. Organized in February, 1919, to help people of all communities 
employ their leisure time to their best advantage for recreation and 
good citizenship. While Community Service (Incorporated) helps in 
organizing the work, In planning the programme and raising the 
funds, and will, if desired, serve in an advisory capacity, the com- 
munity itself, through the community committee representative of 
community interests, determines policies and assumes complete con- 
trol of the local work. Joseph Lee, pres.; H. S. Braucher, sec'y. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y.; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, 
sec'y. A public service for knowledge about human inheritances, 
hereditary Inventory and eugenic possibilities. Literature free. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenlx, vice- 
pres.; F. H. Rogers, treas.; W. H. Scoville. sec'y.; Hampton, Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a Government 
school. Free Illustrated literature. 

ICA — Constituted by 3» Protestant denominations. Rev. Chas. S. 
Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l sec'ys.; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 
Conrmision on the Church and Social Service — Rev. Worth M. 
Tippy, exec, sec'y.; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y-.; 
Agnes H. Campbell, research ass't.; Inez M. Cavert, librarian. 


Headquarters, 146 Henry St., New York; Etta Lasker Rosensohn. 
chm. Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, guides. Interna- 
tional system of safeguarding. Conducts National Americanization 

Culbert Faries, dir., 1»1 E. "23rd St., New York. Maintains free in- 
dustrial training classes and employment bureau; make artificial 
limbs and appliamces; publishes literature on work for the handi- 
capped; gives advice on suitable means for reaabilitation of disabled 
persons and cooperates with other social agencies in plans to put the 
disabled man "back on the payroll." 

secretary, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Object — to promote aa 
intelligent interest In Socialism among college men and women. An- 
nual membership, $3, $5, and $25; includes monthly, "The Socialist 
Review." Special rates for students. 

ORED PEOPLE— Moorfield Storey, pres.; James Weldon Johnson, 
sec'y., 7« Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored Americans the 
common rights of American citizenship. Furnishes information re- 
garding race problems, lynchings, etc. Membership 90,900, with 35* 
branches. Membership, $1 upward. 


Rush Taggart, pres.; Mrs. Robert L. Dickinson, treas.; Virgil V. 
Johnson, sec'y.; 25 West 43rd St., New York. Composed of non-com- 
meircial social agencies which protect and assist travelers, especially 
women and girls. Non-sectanian. 

ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexington Ave., New York. To advance phy- 
sical, social, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young wo- 
men. Student, city, town and country centers; physical and social 
education; camps; rest-rooms, room registries, boarding houses, 
lunchrooms and cafeterias; educational classes; employment; Bible 
study; secretarial training school; foreign and overseas work. 

Body of the Catholic Organizations of the country. 
National Executive Offices, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., 

Washington, D. C. 
General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. 
Department of Education — Acting Director, Right Rev. Mgr. Edvr. 

A. Pace. 
Bureau of Education — A. C. Monahan, Director. 
Department of Laws and Legislation — 
Department of Social Action — Directors, John A. Ryan and John 

A. Lapp. 
Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin MoGrath; 

Ass't. Director, Michael Williams. 
National Council of Catholic Men — President, Richmond Dean; 

Exec. Sec'y., Michael J. Slattery. 
National Council of Catholic Women — President, Mrs. Michael Ga- 
vin; Exec. Sec'y., Miss Agnes G. Regan. 
National Training School for Women, Washington, D. C. — Dean, 

Miss Maud R. Cavanagh. 
Bureau of Immigration — National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. 

105 E. 22nd St., New York; 36 State branches. Industrial and agri- 
cultural investigations; legislation; studies of administration; educa- 
tion; delinquency; health; recreation; children's codes. Publishes 
quarterly, "The American Child." Photographs, slides and exhibits. 

Powlison, gen. sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and pub- 
lishes exhibit material which visualizes the principles and condition* 
affecting the health, well being and education of children. Cooper- 
ates with educators, public health agencies, and all child welfare 
groups in community, city or state-wide service through exhibits, 
child welfare campaigns, etc. 

Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir.; Associate 
Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and Dr. V. V. Ander- 
son; Clifford W. Beers, sec'y.; 50 Union Square, New York City. 
Pamphlets on mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble- 
mindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war neuroses 
and re-education, psychiatric social service, backward children, sur- 
veys, state societies. "Mental Hygiene;" quarterly, $2 a year. 

pres., New York; W. H. Parker, gen. sec'y., 23 East 9th St., Cincin- 
nati. Ohio. General organization to discuss principles of humanitarian 
effort and increase efficiency of agencies. Publishes proceeding* 
annual meetings, monthly bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information 
bureau. Membership, $3. 48th annual meeting, Milwaukee, June 2*- 
29, 1921. Main Divisions and chairmen: 

Children — J. Prentice Murphy, Philadelphia. 

Delinquents and Correction — 'Mrs. Martha P. Falconer, Philadelphia. 

Health— Dr. Richard Bolt, Baltimore. 

Public Agencies and Institutions — R. F. Beasley, Raleigh. 

The Family — Frances Taussig. New York. 

Industrial and Economic Conditions — Sophonlsba P. Breckinrldfe. 

The Local Community — Howard S. Braucher, New York. 

Mental Hygiene — Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, New York. 

Organization of Social Forces — Otto W. Davis, Minneapolis. 

Uniting of Native and Foreign-Born in America— Grace Abb»t ; 






NESS — Edward M. Van Cleve, managing director; George D. Eaton, 
field sec'y.; Mrs. "Winifred Hathaway, sec'y.; 130 E. 22nd St., New 
York. Objects: To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lec- 
tures, publish literature of movement — samples free, quantities at 
cost. Includes New York State Committee. 

sec'y; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of comparative 
■tudy and concerted action in city, state and nation, far meeting the 
fundamental problems disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF GIRLS' CLUBS— Jean Hamilton, gen. sec'y., 
130 E. 59th St., New York. Girls' clubs; recreation and educational 
work in non-sectarian, self-governing groups aiming toward complete 
self-support. Monthly publication, "The Club Worker," 11.50 a year. 

NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE— Publishes monthly the maga- 
zine "National Municipal Review" containing articles and reports 
on politics, administration and city planning. The League is a clear- 
ing house for information on short ballot, city, country and state 
governments. Hon. Charles E. Hughes, pres. ; Mir. H. W. Dodds, 
sec'y.; 261 (A) Broadway, New York. Dues, $5.00 a year. 

Ella Fhillips Crandall, R. N. exec, sec'y.; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of public health nursing; to 
develop standards of technique; to maintain a central bureau of in- 
formation. Official organ, the "Public Health Nurse," subscription 
Included in membership. Dues, $3.00 and upward. Subscription $3.00 
per year. 

King, mgr., 130 E. 22nd St., New York. A cooperative guild of social 
workers organized to supply social organizations with trained per- 
sonnel (no fees) and to work constructively through members for 
professional standards. 

Charles J. Hatfield, M.D., Managing Director. Information about 
organization, education, institutions, nursing problems and other 
phases of tuberculosis work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crusade, publishers "Journal of the Outdoer Life," "American Re- 
view of Tuberculosis" and "Monthly Bulletin." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE— For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y.; 
127 E. 23rd St.. New York. Establishes committees of white and colored 
people to work out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

A. Gordon, president. Headquarters, 1730 Chicago avenue, Evanston, 
Illinois. Tossecure effective enforcement of the Eighteenth Amend- 
ment, to advance the welfare of the American people through the 
departments of Child Welfare, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance 
Instruction, and other allied fields of endeavor. Official publication, 
The Union Signal, published weekly at Headquarters. 

Robins, pres.; 64 W. Randolph St. (Room 1102), Chicago, 111. Stands 
/or self-government in the work shop through organization and also 
for the enactment of protective legislation. Information given. Of- 
ficial organ, "Life and Labor." 

— H. S. Braucher, sec'y.; 1 Madison Ave., New York City. Play- 
ground, neighborhood and community center activities and admini- 
stration. Special attention given to municipal recreation problems. 

sentation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y., 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
Membership, $1, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

S'ot the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race 
Improvement. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Confer- 
ence, the EJugenlcs Registry, and lecture courses and various allied 
activities. J. H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Improvement of Living 
Conditions— John M. Glenn, dir.; 130 E. 22nd St., New York. Depart- 
ments: Charity Organization, Child-Helping. Education. Statistics, 
Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Stu- 
dies, library. Southern Highland Division. The publications of the 
Russell Sage Foundation offer to the public in practical and inex- 
i fnsive form some of the most important results of its work. Cata- 
logue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the training of Negro 
Youth; an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the 
South; furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and 
wd the Tuskegee idea and methods. Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren 
Logan, treas.; A. I. Holsey, acting sec'y.,, Tuskegee, Ala. 

DOOK - RINDINfi wel1 done . with S°°d materials, and gold lettering. 
D VW " UII1I/I11U Survey— Natl. Geographic Magazine and other 

periodicals, $1.65 
EGGELING BOOK-BINDERY, 114 East 13th St., New York City 


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Conducted by 


Legislatures have been in session in many states these 
winter months; and in some states a record for repressive 
legislation, especially with reference to the control of educa- 
tion, seems to have been made. The greatest questions of 
the future are to gather around the control of education : 
What interest, or interests, will control the direction of public 
opinion and social intelligence ? Will men's minds be sub- 
jugated to old traditions, customs and institutional attitudes, 
determined by political enactments, prejudicial in character? 
Will men's minds be torn loose from all contacts with historic 
landmarks, and set adrift on open oceans without sign or 
compass? What is to be the distinguishing characteristic 
of educational control for the future of our democracy? 

1 Repressive Fears. 
♦ What definite legislation has been proposed or enacted in your 
state this winter tending to a more complete centering of the control 
of education and public opinion in some official body? Has this 
legislation been freely accepted by the people, or has it been pro- 
tested? What interests are involved in this move for laws defin- 
ing liberty of teaching? Are they fighting in the open? Is such 
legislation needed? For what purpose? What are the arguments 
for it? Is the argument adequate against these movements? Is 
the whole public alarmed? Or some small part of it? What in- 
terest has "the average individual" in such questions? 

2 The Struggle for Democratic Freedom. 
♦ Is there any organized opposition to these repressive move- 
ments in your community? Is this opposition open and unafraid? 
Or is it, too, fearful and silent? Is there,- any further interest in 
democratic freedom in your community? Or has cynical carelessness 
taken hold on the people? Have you particularly conspicuous ex- 
amples of individuals or groups interested in repression? Have you 
other examples of groups or individuals interested in fighting for 
freedom? Is there any tendency toward loose and irresponsible 
talking? If so what is the public attitude toward it? What atti- 
tudes are being taken by your teachers? Ministers? Public of- 
ficials? Judges? Business men? Lawyers? Leading women? 
Labor leaders? 

3 The Future of cur Public Intelligence. 
♦ Has the present struggle for the control of education and 
public opinion any significance for the future of democracy? Is 
there any parallel here with the developments in Prussia in the 
generation preceding the war? Are the people of your community 
content to see such developments- insinuating themselves into the folk- 
ways of America? Have we grown tired of free discussion and 
the play of ideas? Or has espousal of Utopian theories taken the 
place of considered debate? Is America fatigued, and ready to 
turn over the control of government, education and public informa- 
tion to any interest strong enough to take control? To any gr«up 
that knows what it wants? Does patriotism demand acceptance 
by the individual of autocratic programs of governors and legis- 

James Bryce: Modern Democracies. Macmillan Co. Vol. 2, part 
III. Price, $10.50; postpaid, $11.00. 

F. J. C. Hearnshaw: Democracy at the Crossways. Macmillan 
Co. Price, $6.00; postpaid, $6.30. 

Alleyne Ireland: Democracy and the Human Equation. E. P. 
Dutton Co. Price $3.00; postpaid, $3.25. 

The books mentioned above may be obtained through the Survey Book 

The editor of this department invites interested readers to write the Survey 
along the lines developed in this column. 

Mtter U M«rf| V «' lon^ 1 ;* 1 ^: L.» P * ' ish l? we , e , kl I h l th J Su T ey Associates, Inc., 112 E. 19 St., New York. Price $5.00 yearly. Entered as secend-class 
»srar, Man* «, 190?, at the post-office, New York, N. Y., tinder the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at a special rate of postage provided 

tor in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on June 26, 1918. 


Special 30-Day Offer of Pocket Series at 10 Cents per Volume 
Will Be Closed Positively on May 1, 1921 

The Appeal's 30-Day offer has created a nation-wide 
sensation. Our announcements appeared in a score of 
periodicals and as we write this statement the orders are 
pouring in from every section of the country. Book lovers 
know that the list of titles printed below is an extraordinary 
one, and that the price of 10 cents per copy is the best book 
buy in the world today. Of course, we cannot hold this 
great offer open longer than 30 days. This sale abso- 
lutely closes at midnight of April 30, 1921. No orders 
received after that date will be filled at 10 cents per copy. 
You may mail your order up to midnight of April 30 — 
that is the dead line — and if the postmark on your envelope 
shows a later date we will return you/ money. We have 

already attained our object. We wanted to introduce the 
Appeal's Pocket Series to thousands of new readers, and 
we are glad to be able to say that we are making hundreds 
of new friends every day. As we write this announcement 
our shipping department is sending out about 30,000 books 
each day. Our three book presses are working night and 
day to keep ahead of the rush. You still have time to get 
a supply of these books at only 10 cents per volume. Send 
in your order today — don't wait. We are organized to 
give you 24-hour service — that. is to say, your books will 
be in the mails one day after your order gets on our 
files. On May 1 the price goes back to 25 cents per 




1. Rublayat of Omar 


2. Oscar Wilde's Ballad 

of Reading Jail. 

4. Soviet Constitution 
and Land Laws. 

6. Socialism Versus An- 
archism. De Leon. 

6. Twelve Short Stories. 
De Maupassant. 

9. Great Proletarian 

11. Debate on Religion, 

Between John 
Haynes Holmes 
and George Bowne. 

12. Poe's Tales of Mys- 


13. Is Free Will a Fact 

or a Fallacy? Debate 

14. What Every Girl 

Should Knew. Mar- 
garet Sanger. 

15. Balzac'sShortStorles. 

16. Religion of Capital. 

By Paul La Fargue. 

17. The Emballoted 


18. Idle Thoughts of an 

Idle Fellow. Jerome. 

19. Nietzsche: Who He 

Was and What He 
Stood For. 
2t. Let's Laugh. Nasby. 

21. Carmen. Merlmee. 

22. Money Question. 


23. An Appeal to the 

Young. Kropotkin. 

25. People's Rhyming 


26. On Going to Church. 

Bernard Shaw. 

27. Last Days of a Con- 

demned Man. Vic- 
tor Hugo. 

28. Toleration. Voltaire. 

29. Dreams. Schrelner. 

30. What Life Means to 

Me. Jack London. 

31. Pelleas and Mells- 

ande. Maeterlinck. 

32. Poe's Comp. Poems. 

33. Brann: Smasher of 


34. Carefor Birth Control. 

35. Maxims of La Roche- 


36. Soul of Man Under 

Socialism. Wilde. 

37. Dream of John Ball. 

William Morris. 

38. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. 

Hyde. Stevenson. 

39. Did Jesus Ever Llve7 


40. House and the Brain. 


41. Christmas Carol. 78. 


42. From M » n k e y to 79. 

Man, or ths Rom- 
ance of Evolution. 80. 

43. Marriage and Di- 

vorce. Debate be- 81. 

tween Horace Gree- 82. 

ley and Robert Owen 

44. Aesop's Fables. 83. 

45. Telstoi'sShortStories. 

46. Salome. Wilde. 

47. He Renounced the 84. 

Faith. Jack London. 

48. Bacon's Essay's. 85. 

49. Three Lectures on 

Evolution. Ernst 86. 


50. Common Sense. Tom 87. 


51. Bruno: His Life and 88. 


52. Voltaire, an Oration 89. 

by Victor Hugo. 

53. Insects and Men; In- 

stinct and Reason. 98. 

Clarence Darrow. 

54. Importance of Being 91. 

Earnest. O. Wilde. 

55. Communist Manifesto. 

56. Wisdom of Ingersoll. 92. 

57. Rio Van Winkle. 

58. Boccaccio's Stories. 93. 

59. Epigrams of Wit, 

Wisdom and Wick- 
edness. 98. 

60. Emerson's Essay on 99. 

Love. 100. 

61. Tolstoi's Essays. 

62. Schopenhauer's Es- 101. 

says. 102. 

63. Questions and An- 

swers about Social- 103. 

64. SocialistAppeal. Quo- 104. 

tations from Au- 
thoritative Sources. 105. 

65. Meditations of Mar- 

cus Aurellus. 106. 

66. Kate O' Hare's Prison 

Letters. 107. 

68. Shakespeare's Son- 

nets. 108. 

69. The Life of Debs. 

70. Lamb's Essays. 109. 

71. Poems of Evolution. 

Anthology. 110. 

72. The Color of Life. E. 

Haldeman-Julius. m. 

73. Walt Whitman's 


74. On the Threshold of 112. 

Sex. Gould. 

75. On the Choice of 113. 

Books. Thoma* 114. 
Carlyle. 115. 

76. The Prince of Peace. 116. 

Bryan. 117. 

77. Socialism of Jesus. 118. 

How to be an Ora- 

Enoch Arden. Ten- 
Pillars of Society. 

Care of the Baby. 
Common Faults In 

Writing English. 
Marriage: Its Past, 

Present and Fut- 
ure. Annie Bes*nt. 
Lovo Letters of a 

Portuguese Nun. 
The Attack on the 

Mill. Emile Zola. 
On Reading. Georg 

Love. An Essay. 

Vindication of Tom 

Pajne. Ingersoll. 
Love Letters of Men 

and Women of 

Public Defender: 

Manhood: The Facts 

of Life Presented 

to Men. 
Hypnotism Made 

How to Live One 

Hundred Years. 

How to Love. 
Tartuffe. Mollere. 
The Red Laugh. 

Thoughts of Pascal. 
Tales of Sherlock 

Pocket Theology. 

Battle of Water(o». 

Seven That Were 

Hanged. Andreyev. 
Thoughts andAphor- 

Isms. George Sand. 
How to Strengthen 

Mind and Memory. 
How to Develop a 

Healthy Mind. 
How to Develop a 

Strong Will. 
How to Develop a 
Magnetic Personality. 
How to Attract 

Friends and Friend- 
How to Be a Lead- 
er of Others. 
Proverbs of England. 
Proverbs of France. 
Proverbs of Japan. 
Proverbs of China. 
Proverbs of Italy. 
Proverbs of Russia. 

119. Proverbs of Ireland. 151. 

129. Proverbs of Spain. 

121. Proverbs of Arabia. 152. 

122. Debate on Spiritual- 

ism. Cert an Doyle 

and Joseph McCabe. 153. 

123. Debate on Vegetar- 


124. Kdr Hardle's Social- 154. 

1st Epigrams. 155. 

121. History of Rome. 156. 

127. What Every Expec- 

tant Mother Should 157. 


128. Julius Caesar: Who 

He Was and What 

He Accomplished. '58. 

129. Rome or Roason. De- 159. 

bate Betwoon Inger- 
soll and Manning. 160. 

130. Controversy on Chris- 

tianity, Debate Be- 161. 

twoon Ingersoll and 
Gladstone. 162. 

131. Redemption. Tolstoi. 

132. Foundations of Reli- 163. 


133. Principles of Elec- 164 


134. How to Organize Co- 165. 


135. Soolalism for Million- 166. 

aires. Bernard Shaw. 

136. Training of theChlld. 167. 

137. Home Nursing. 

134, Studios In Pessimism. 1 63. 


139. Fight for Your Life. 170. 

■on Hanford. 

140. Amerlca'9 Prison Hell. 171 

Kate O'Hare. 

141. Would Practice of 

Christ's Teachings 

Make for Social 175. 

Progress? Debate 

Between Scott Near- 176. 

Imp and Dr. Percy 

Ward. 177. 

142. Bismarck and the 

German Empire. 178. 

143. Pope Leo's Encyclical 

on Socialism, and 1S0. 

Blatchford's Reply. 

144. Was Poe Immoral? 1 R1. 

Sarah Helen Whit- 182. 


145. Five Great Ghost 183. 


146. Snow- Bound. Whit- 

tles Pled Piper. 184. 


147. Cromwell and His 187. 


148. Strength of the 190. 

Strong. Jack Lon- 

149. Socialist Ginger-Box. 

150. Socialist Pepper- Box. 

Men Who Would Bo 
King. Kipling. 

Foundations of the 
Labor Movement. 
Wendell Phillips. 

Socialism and How It 
Is Coming. Upton 

Epigrams of Ibsen. 

Maxims of Napoleon. 

Andersen's F a I r v 

Marx Versus Tolstoi. 
Debate between 
Clarence Darrow 
and Lewis. 

Alice in Wonderland. 

Lincoln and the 
Working Class. 

Ingersoll's Lecture on 

Country of the Blind. 
H. G. Wells. 

Karl Marx and the 
American Civil War. 

Sex Life in Greece 
and Rome. 

Michael Angelo'sSon- 

Discovery of the Fu- 
ture. H. G. Wells. 

English as She Is 
Spoke. Mark Twain. 

Rules of Health. Plu- 

Eoiorams of Oscar 

Socialization of Mon- 
ey. Daniel De Leon. 

Has Life Any Mean- 
ing? Debate be- 
tween Frank Harris 
and Percy Ward. 

Science of History. 

Four Essays on Sex. 
Havelock Ellis. 

Subjection of Women. 
John Stuart Mill. 

One of Cleopatra's 
Nights. Gautier. 

Epigrams of Bernard 

Epigrams of Thoreau. 

SteDS Toward Social- 

Realism In Art and 
Literature. Clarence 

Primitive Beliefs. H. 
M. Tlchenor. 

The Humor of 

Psycho - Analysis — 
the Key to Human 
Behavior. William J. 

Kindly bear in mind that this offer holds good only until midnight of April 30, 1921. Hundreds of 1 overs of good 
literature are ordering the entire list. When we get through with this 30-Day sale we will have some interesting announce- 
ments to make about our future publishing plans. During 1920 we sold 2,000,000 books, but we are going to break that 
record during 1921. Take advantage of this 30-Day Offer to get acquainted with the Appeal's Pocket Series. 

Send All Orders to the Appeal to Reason, Girard, Kansas. 


112 E. 10 ST., NEW YORK CITY 

An Invitation 


Not Already a Member of Survey Associates 

"If I didn't share in the faith you people hold in the Survey, 
/ couldn't have kept up my cooperating subscription these last two 
years. Family expenses have been mounting up and I don't have to 
tell you how salaries have limped along behind. But I believe in 
what the Survey is doing for the whole social movement in America 
— in keeping us abreast of what's forward in other parts of the 
country and other fields of work. I can guess something of the pains 
and costs that go into it. It means sacrificing in some other way but 
you can count on me again." 

THE speaker was an executive. He is not yet settled in permanent work after two years' 
service in overseas relief. He had put the better part of a day into compressing a mass 
of material into brief compass — one of the thousand or more gift manuscripts which no 
less than money contributions make possible this cooperative venture in journalism of ours. 

It has been these gifts of time, money and writings which have enabled Survey Associates 
to push forward in spite of difficulties which have strained the resources of the best placed com- 
mercial publications. 

During the first six months of our fiscal year [ended March 31], the Survey has held its 
own in translating regular subscribers from a $4 to a $5 basis to balance the new printing and pa- 
per costs which added $12,000 to our budget. At the same time the Survey has built up a larger 
group of college subscribers (for classroom use and collateral reading) than ever before — a devel- 
opment rich in educational meaning. A year's effort and planning went into our special number of 
March 5 on the 12-hour day in the steel industry — the great human issue which it helped bring up 
for active decision this spring. By swift staff work, the cooperation of scores of readers and 
members, such as the executive quoted, is organized so as to give freshness, originality and practical 
realism to the Survey's news service, its pith of experience and its open columns for discussion. 

Can standards be kept up, growth go on, the year be completed in the face of publishing diffi- 
culties thus far successfully met, but by no means as yet passed ? In normal publishing years, the 
second half has always been the hardest nut to crack. This year it is doubly so. The answer lies, 
we believe, not only in the extent to which old readers of the Survey, like this executive, 
appreciate the strain with which the work has been carried forward ; but in the response which 
comes from new readers and non-members — from, we hope, new friends and new members. If 
they knew, we feel confident that their response would be immediate. 

We invite every Survey reader not already a member of Survey Associates, to join the 
fellowship .which makes the Survey possible, to add $5 to the regular subscription and thus 
become a Cooperating Subscriber and member. May we welcome you? 


Membership Secretary. 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

A membership corporation, chartered November 

4, 1912, without shares or stockholders, under the 

laws of the State of New York. 

Robert W. de Forest, President 


John M. Glenn 

Henry R. Seager 

V. Everit Macy 

Arthur P. Kellogg, Secretary-Treasurer 

Board of Directors 

Jane Addams 
Alexander M. Bing 
Robert W. de 1-orest 
Edward T. Devine 
John M. Glenn 
Agnei B. Leach 

Samuel McCune Lindsay 
Tulian W. Mack 
Helen S. Pratt 
J. Henry Scattergood 
Henry R. Seaeer 
LilUam D. Wald 



{wifufod} dollars, as a contribution to the 

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fiscal year 



A gift of $10 or more to editorial and field work 
of the Survey makes the contributor eligible for 
election as a member of Survey Associates and 
covers, also, the regular $5. 00 weekly subscription. 

112 East 19 Street, New York city 


PPe want 1,400 Cooperating Subscribers 

THE whole venture is indebted to the 885 members of 
Survey Associates whose names are listed on these 
two pages for pledge or opportune remittance of their 
$10 cooperating subscriptions during the first six months 
[ended March 31] of our fiscal and publishing year. In 1919- 
1920 our roster totalled 1,213; our goal for 1 920-1 921 is 1,400. 
Survey Associates invites you to join this fellowship. 
Remittance of a $10 cooperating subscription makes you eligible 
for election as a voting member of this adventure in cooperative 
journalism — a sharer in its service to the social work and move- 
ments of our time. 

Achelis, Frit2 
Acheson, M. W., Jr. 
Actors' Equity Association 
Addams, Miss Jane 
Agnew, George B. 
Ainslie, Miss Maude 
Aitkin, Miss H. Jean 
Allen, Chas. Dexter 
Altschul, C. 
Altschul, Miss Hilda 
American Rolling Mill Co. 
Ames, Mrs. James Barr 
Amigh, Miss Ophelia L. 
Anderson, Judge Geo. W. 
Andrews, Miss Lula O. 
Anthony, Prof. Alfred 

Anthony, Miss Julia B. 
Arndt, Mrs. Rose Louis 
Arnold, Mrs. B. W. 
Arnstein, Leo 
Athey, Mrs. C. N. 
Atkinson, C. J. 
Atwater, Mrs. William C. 
Austin, Mrs. Gertrude B. 
Austin, L° W. 


Bacon, Mrs. George M. 

Baerwald, Mrs. Paul 

Bailey, Edward P. 

Baker, Judge Harvey H. 
(In Memoriam) 

Baker, Ray Stannard 

Baldwin, Mrs. Harry A. 

Baldwin, Dr. Kate W. 

Baldwin, Miss Rachel 

Baldwin, Roger N. 

Baldwin, Mrs. Ruth 

Baldwin, William H. 

Ballard, Edward L. 

Bamberger, Edgar S. 

Bancroft, Mrs. Wm. P. 

Barber, James 

Barker, C. W. Tillinghast 

Barker, Mrs. Ludlow 

Barnes, Fred A. 

Barus, Mrs. Carl 

Battle, George Gordon 

Bayard, J. W. 

Beard, George R. 

Bedal, Dr. Adelheid C. 

Bedinger, George Rust 

Beer, Mrs. George L. 

Beer, Mrs. Julius 

Behrend, Dr. Otto F. 

Bellamy, George A. 

Benjamin, David 

Benjamin, Edward B. 

Benjamin, Miss Fanny 

Bennett, Miss Marion 
•Bentley, Mrs. Cyrus 

Beran, T. 

Bergen, Miss Bertha E. 

Bernheim, Mrs. Henry J. 

Bettman, Alfred 

Bicknell, Ernest P. 

Biddle, Wm. C. 

Big Brother Movement, Inc. 

Bigger, Frederick 

Bijur, Miss Caroline 

Bijur, Judge Nathan 

Bird, Charles Sumner 

Blauvelt, Warren S. 
•Blochman, L. E- 

Boewig, Miss Harriet 

Boggs, Miss M. A. 

Bolen, Miss Grace R. 

Bonbright, James S. 

Bond, Miss Elsie M. 

Bonham, Miss E. M. 

Boomsliter, Mrs. Geo. P. 

Booth, Rev. E. S. 

Borden, Miss Fanny- 
Boston Children's Aid So- 

Boulton, Alfred J. 

Boynton, Rev. Nehemiah 

Bozarth, Miss Maude 

Brackett, George F. 

Brackett, Dr. Jeffrey R. 

Bradley, John (In Me- 

Bradley, Richards M. 

Brandeis, Mrs. Alfred 

Brandt, Mrs. J. B. 

Breckinridge, Mrs. John C. 

Brewer, Franklin N. 

Brewer, Mr. and Mrs. 

Brewington, Miss Julia R. 

Bronson, Miss Margaret 

Bronson, Rev. Oliver Hart 

Brooks, John Graham 

Brotherhood of Painters, 
Decorators & Paper- 

Brown, Burl S. 

Brown, David A. 

Brown, James Crosby 

Brown, Rev. Robert W. 

Brown, Thatcher M. 

Bruce, Miss Jessica 

Bruner, Earle D. 

Buchanan, Miss Etha 

Buck, William Bradford 

Buehler, Dr. John B. 

Bulkley, Robert J. 

Miss Burke's School 

Burleson, F. E. 

Burnham, Mrs. George, Jr. 

Burnham, Mrs. John A. 

Burritt, Bailey B. 

Burt, Henry F. 
*Bush, W. T. 

Buteau, S. H. 

Butler, Mrs. E. B. 

Butler, Mrs. Hermon B. 

Buttenheim, Harold S. 

Butzel, Fred M. 

Byington, Miss Margaret F. 

Callahan, P. H. 

Cammann, Miss I. M. 

Campbell, Miss Elizabeth A. 

Capen, Edward Warren 

Carpenter, Mrs. E. L. 

Carr, W. Russell 

Carret, Mrs. J. R. 

Carstens, C. C. 

Cary, John R. 

Case, Miss Lucy A. 

Castle, Miss H. E. A. 

Catlin, Mrs. D. K. 

Causey, James H. 

Chace, Dr. Fenner A. 

Chamberlain, Miss Ellen S. 

Chapin, Miss Caroline B. 

Chapin, Mrs. R. C. 

Charity Organization So- 
ciety of Buffalo, N. Y. 

Charity Organization So- 
ciety of New York city 

Cheseldine, Miss Martha P. 

Chew, Mrs. Samuel 

Cheyney, Miss Alice S. 

Chickering, Miss Myra S. 

Childs, R. S. 

Chubb, Percival 

Church, Miss Myra H. 

Church Home Society of 
Boston, Mass. 

Church School 

Claghorn, Miss Kate Hol- 

Clark, Miss Anna B. 
Cleaver, Mrs. Albert N. 
Clouser, George L. 
Clowes, F. J. 
Cochran, Miss Fanny T. 
Cole, Edward F. 
Colvin, Mrs. A. R. 
Compton, Mrs. Barnes 
Conklin, Miss Viola 
'Converse, Miss Mary E. 
Conyngton, Miss Mary 
Conyngton, Thomas 
Coolidge, Mrs. Dane 
Coolidge, Miss E. W. 
Cooper, Charles C. 
Cooper, Miss Ruth 
Cope, Mrs. Walter 
Cosgrove, C. J. 
Cram, Mrs. J. Sergeant 
Crane, Mrs. W. Murray 
Crawford, Miss Anne L. 
Criley, Miss Martha L. 
Crocker, Rev. W. T. 
Cummings, Mrs. D. Mark 
Curtis, Mrs. G. S. Jr. 
Curtis, W. E. 
Cushing, Grafton D. 
dishing, O. K. 
Cushman, Mrs. James S. 
Cutler, Prof. J. E. 

Dale, J. A. -ft 

Danforth, Mrs. H. G. 

Daniels, John 

Davis, Abel 

Davis, Miss Betsey B. 

Davis, Mr. and Mrs. 

Michael M., Jr. 
Deardorff, Miss Neva R. 
DeHoratiis, Dr. Joseph 
Dell, Rev. Burnham North 
Dennis, Dr. L. 
•Denny, Miss E. G. • 
Denny, Dr. Francis P. 
de Schweinitz, Karl 
Dickie, H. A. 
Dickinson, Mrs. C. P. 
Dilworth, R. J. 
Dinwiddie, C. 
Dobson, William 
Dole, Rev. Charles F. 
Dolph, John 
Donnelly, Thos. J. 
Dore, Miss C. J. 
Dorrance, Rev. Samuel M. 
Doud, Mrs. L. B. 
Dow, Miss Caroline B. 
Downes, J. M. N. 
Dows, Rev. Henry A. 
Dows, Tracy 
Doyle, J. S. 
Dreier, Miss Dorothea 
Dunlap, Miss Flora 
Durham, Mrs. R. E. 
Dwight, Miss M. L. 
Dwight, Mrs. M. E. 
Dyckman, Miss Mary L. 

Eastman, Miss Lucy P. 
Eastman, Mr. and Mrs. 

L. R., Jr. 
Easton, Wm. O. 
Eavenson, Howard N. 
Eddy, Sherwood 
Edgerton, Charles E. 
Edson, John Joy 
Edwards, Miss L. M. 
Edwards, William 
Ehler, George W. 
Ehmann, John 
Eisner, Monroe 
Eliot, Dr. Charles W. 

Elkinton, J. Passmore 
Elliott, Dr. John L. 
Ells, Mrs. Frederick 
Elsworth, Mrs. Edward 
Ely, Miss Augusta C. 
Ely, Miss Elizabeth B. 
Ely, Miss Mary G. 
Emerson, Miss Helena 

Emmet, Miss L. F. 
English, H. D. W. 
Ennis, Mrs. Robert Berry 
Evans, Charles 
Evans, Edward W. 

Fanning, Mrs. A. L. 
Farnsworth, Charles H. 
Farrand, Dr. Livingston 
Farwell, Mrs. F. C. 
Farwell, Mrs. John O. 
Fassett, Mrs. J. S. 
Feiss, Julius 
Feiss, Paul L. 
Fels, Mrs. Samuel S. 
Ferguson, Miss Mary 

Van E. 
Ficke, Mrs. C. A. 
Fisher, Galen M. 
Fisher, Prof. Irving 
Fisk, Miss M. L. 
Flaherty, Thos. F. 
Fleet, A. S. 
Fleisher, Arthur A. 
Fleisher, Mrs. Florence 
Fleisher, Mrs. H. T. 
Flentye, Miss Mae Irene 
Flower, Mrs. Anson 
Foley, Miss Edna L- 
Folks, Homer 
Foote, Henry Wilder 
Forbes, Mrs. J. Malcolm 
Forstall, Mrs. Nell Loth- 

Foster, Miss Edith 
Fowler, Mrs. Margaret B. 
Fraley, Mrs. Joseh 
Frank, Henry L. 
Frank, Walter 
Franklin, Moses 
Freund, Prof. Ernst 
Freund, I. H. 
Friedman, Herbert J. 
Fulford, Mrs. Geo. T. 
Fuller, Mrs. A. G. 
Furness, Prof. Caroline E. 

Gale, Mrs. Charles W. 
Gardiner, Miss Elizabeth G. 
Gardner, Rathbone 
Garford, Mrs. A. L. 
Garnsey, Elmer E. 
Gates, Mrs. M. E. 
Geer, Robert C. 
Geller, Mrs. F. 
Gemberling, Miss Adelaida 
German, Frank F. 
Gilbert, Mrs. Clinton 
Giles, Miss Anne H. 
Gilmore, Miss Marcia 
Gimbel, Mrs. Bernard 
Goldsmith, Miss Louise B. 
Goodrich, Miss Annie W. 
Goodrich, Miss Katharine 

Goodsell, F. F. 
Goodman, Miss Mary A. 
Goulder, Miss Sybil M. 
Grace, Miss Virginia 

Graeser, Dr. H. R. A. 
Graham, J. S. 
Granger, Miss A. P. 
Greene, Miss Helen F. 
Greene, Mrs. Howard 
Grinnell, Mrs. E. M. 
Groman, Clinton A. 
Gucker, F. T. 
Guggenheimer, Miss Daisy 

Guibord, Dr. Alberta S. B. 
Guillou, Mrs. A. 
Guinzburg, Mrs. Harry A. 
Guth, Mrs. Morris S. 


Hackett, J. D. 
Hagedorn, Joseph 
Hale, Miss Ellen 
Hale House 
Hale, Robert L. 
Hall, James P. 
Hall, Mrs. Keppele 
Halleck, Mrs. R. P. 
Hallowell, Mrs. F. W. 
Hamilton, Dr. Alice 

Harbison, Samuel P., 

Estate of 
Harmon, Dudley 
Harned, Miss Mary 
Harris, George B. 
Harris, Dr. Isham G. 
Harrison, Shelby M. 
Hart, Mrs. Harry 
Hart, Hastings H. 
Hart, Hornell 
Hass, Miss Alma M. 
Havemeyer, J. C. 
Hayes, Prof. E. C. 
Hayward, J. B. 
Hazard, Mrs. F. R. 
Hazen, Miss Louise C. 
Healey, Mrs. A. A. 
Hebberd, Charles 
Hecht, George L. 
Heineman, Miss Ada J. 
Henshaw, J. M. 
Henshaw, Mrs. R. G. 
Herrick, Mrs. J. B. 
Herring, Hubert C. (In 

Hersey, Miss Ada H. 
Herz, Mrs. F. W. 
Hewins, Miss Katharine P. 
Hickin, Miss Eleanor 

Hill, C. D. 

Hill, Dr. William Preston 
Hillman, Sidney 
Hills, Mrs. James M. 
Hilton, George 
Hipke, Mrs. G. A. 
Hitchcock, Mrs. Lemuel 
Hodges, Miss V. 
Hodgman, Mrs. W. L. 
Hodgson, Mrs. F. G. 
Hoggson, W. J. 
Holladay, Mrs. Chas. B. 
Holland, Charles P. 
Holland, E. O. 
Hollingshead, Rev. Geo. G. 
Hollister, Clay H. 
Hollister, Mrs. Clay H. 
*Holt, Mrs. L. E. 
Houghton, Miss E. G. 
Houghton, Miss May 
Howard, John R., Jr. 
Howe, Edward 
Howe, Mrs. F. J. 
Howe, Samuel 
Howell, Mrs. John White 
Howland, Miss Elizabeth K. 
Howland, Miss Isabel 
Howland, Murray Shipley 
Hunner, Dr. Guy L. 
Hunt, Dr. Matilda 
Hunter, Miss Anna F. 
Hunter, Henry C. 
Huston, Prof. C. A. 
Hutchins, Mrs. John Eddy 
Huvck, Mrs. Edmund N. 
Hyde, Arthur E. 
Hyndman, Miss Helen W. 


Ickes, Harold L. 
Ihlder, John 
Ingham, Miss Mary H. 
Irving, Miss Bertha A. 
Isaacs, Lewis M. 

Jackson, Jas. F. 
Jackson, Leroy F. 
Tacobs, H. H. 
Jacobs, Philip P. 
James, Mrs. Edw. Holton 
Janes, Miss Marcia Taft 
Jeanes, Mrs. Henry 
Jeffrey, J. W. 
Jenswold, Christopher 
Johnson, Miss Evelyn P. 
Johnson, Rev. F. Ernest 
Johnson, G. H. 
Johnson, H. H. 
Johnstone, F. B. 
Jones, Miss Amelia II. 
Jones, Miss Harriet L,. 
Tones, Miss Helen S. 
tjones, Miss Myrta L. 
Jones, Mrs. S. M. 
Jordan, David Starr 
Joseph, Isaac 


Kane, Francis Fisher 
Kaul, John L. 
Keck, Miss M. W. 
Keiser, Mrs. Frances 
Kellogg, Arthur P. 
Kellogg, Miss Edith 


Kellogg, Mrs. Frederic R. 
Kellogg, Miss Harriet I. 
Kellogg, L. O. 
Kellogg, Mrs. Morris W. 
Ketsey, Dr. Carl 
Kennard, Miss Beulah 
Kimball, Miss Martha S. 
Kimber, Miss N. B. 
King, Mrs. Angeline E. 
King, Clarence 
King, Mrs. Edith Shatto 
King, Mrs. R. F. 
Kirchberger, Mrs. Moritz 
Kirchwey, George W. 
Kirkpatrick, E. A. 
Kirkwood, Mrs. Robert C. 
Klee, Max 
Kleinert, Miss H. E. 
Knapp, Judge Martin A. 
Knowles, Morris 
Koenig, Dr. Charles 
Kohn, Robert D. 
Kursheedt, Manual A. 
Kursheedt, Roland S. 

Lamont, Miss E- K. 

LaMonte, Mrs. G. M. 

Landers, Hon. George M. 

Landmann, Miss M. V. 

Lane, Mrs. J. C. 

Lane, Winthrop D. 

Lansing, Miss Gertrude 

Lathrop, Miss Julia C. 

Latrobe, Mrs. Gamble 

Law, B. W. 

Lawrence, Miss Sarah 

Lawrence, Rev. W. A. 

Leadbetter, Miss Florence 

League for Political Edu- 

Leavens, Robert F. 

Lee, Mrs. Francis H. 

Lee, Thomas 

Leeds, Miss Sarah W. 

Leeming, Mrs. Thomas 

Lehman, Mrs. Harold 

Lehman, Irvin F. 

Lehman, Mrs. Irving 

Leiserson, Wm. M. 

Lennox, Miss Elisabeth 

Levering, Eugene 

Lewis, Edwin T. 

Lewis, Mrs. Lawrence 

Libby, Miss Mario* 

Lillie, Frank R. 

Lightner, C. A. 

Lindsay, Dr. Samuel Mc- 

Linton, M. Albert 

Lloyd, Mrs. Jos. P., Jr. 

Loeb, Max 

LonHon Guarantee & Ac- 
cident Co., Ltd. 

Lord, Daniel M. 

Lord, Miss Isabel Ely 

Losey, Frederick D. 

Lovell, Deaconess A. W. 

Lowenstein, Solomon 
Lowndes, Roy H. M. 

T.udington, Miss Katharine 

Lukens, Herman T. 

Luscomb, Miss Florence H. 
Lynde, Charles E. 
Lyon, Mrs. George A. 


MacBride, Miss Betty 

MacDowell, Mrs. E. C. 

MacGregor, Mrs. G. M. 

MacLeich, Mrs. A. 

McBride, Mrs. L. H. 

McClintock, Oliver 
"McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus 

McCormick, Elizabeth, 
Memorial Fund 

McCormick, Henry B. 

McCormick, Rt. Rev. 
John N. 

McHenry, Miss I. M. 

McLaughlin, Mrs. A. 

McLean, Miss Fannie 

McLean, Francis H. 

McLennan, W. E. 

Magee, Rev. John G. 

Magruder, Mrs. J. W. 

Mahnke, C. G. 
tMallery, Otto T. 

Mandel, Mrs. Emanuel 

Manges, Dr. M. 

Mannheimer, Rabbi Eu- 

Manny, Frank A. 

Marburg, Mrs. Louis C. 

Marburg, Theodore H. 

Marling, Alfred E. 
Mars, G. C. 

Marsh, Miss Marguerite 
tMarston, George W. 
Martin, Mrs. A. W. 
Martin, Dr. Lillien J. 
Mather, S. T. 
Maule, Miss Margaret C. 
Mayer, Mrs. Levy 
Mayer, Louis 
Maynard, A. K. 
Mead, Mr. and Mrs. Geo. H. 
Mendenhall, Miss Kathleen 
Mero, E. B. 

Merriam, Miss Mary L. 
Merrill, Mrs. John 
Merrill, Rev. William P. 
Mertz, Mrs. Oscar 
Metcalf, Irving W. 
Miles, William E. 
Miller. Miss Annie 
Miller, Miss Arabella H. 
Miller, Mrs. F. A. 
Miller, Dr. George N. 
Miller, Dr. James Alex- 
Miller, Rev. Lindley H. 
Mitchell, Wesley C. 
Montfort, J. M. 
Moody, Prof. Herbert R. 
Moore, Miss Alice E. 
Moore, H. H. 
Moore, H. W. 
Moore, Mrs. Philip North 
Moore, Miss Sybil Jane 
Moors, Mrs. John F. 
♦tMoot, Adelbert 

Morganstern, Albert G. 
Morgenthau, Mrs. Rita W. 
Morris, Mrs. Harrison S. 
Morse, Mrs. H. M. 
Morton, Mrs. Isaac W. 
Moses, R. W. 
Moxcey, Miss Mary E. 
Murdock, Mrs. W. L. 
Murphy, J. Prentice 
Murray, Miss Helen G. 
Musgrove, J. T. 
Musgrove, W. J. 
Myers, Miss Jessie 


Nathan, Edgar J. 

National Window Glass 

Nealley, E. M. 

Neer, Miss Mary L. 

Neill, Charles P. 

Nesbitt, Miss Florence 

Newbold, Miss Catherine 

Newton, A. J. 

New York School of So- 
cial Work 

Nicolay, Miss Helen 

Nicholson. Timothy 

Nicoll, Mrs. Benjamin 

Ninde, George 

Noonan, Thomas J. 

Norris, Miss J. Anna 

Norris, Dr. Maria W. 

Norton, Miss Mary 

Noyes, Charles P. 

Noyes, Mrs. Charles P. 

Northrup, Mrs. Wm. P. 

Ochsner, Mrs. A. J. 
Odum, Howard W. 
Oleson, Mrs. O. M. 
Oliver, Sir Thomas 
Olmsted, Frederick Law 
Olyphant, Robert 
Openhym, Mrs. Adolphe 
Osborne, Miss Lucy A. 
Otis, Rowland 


Page, Dr. Calvin Gates 
Page, Dr. Dudley L. 
Paine, Miss Helen 
Palmer, Miss Kate A. 
Park, Rev. J. Edgar 
Parker, Mrs. Gordon 
Parsons, Miss Emma 
Patten, Dr. Simon N. 
Pattison, Miss Ernestine 
Pattison, Mrs. E. L. 
Peabody, Augustus S. 
Peabody, Rev. Endicott 
Peabody, Prof. Francis G. 
Peck, John A. 
Penton, Miss Louise E. 
Perkins, Douglas 
Perkins, Miss Emily S. 

Perry, E. F. 
Perry, R. P. 
Peskind, Dr. A. 
Peterson, Dr. Frederick 
Pierson, Mrs. Clara D. 
Pinchot, Gifford 
Pinchot, Mrs. Minturn 
Piton, Miss Annie J. 
Piatt, Philip S. 
Playter, Miss Charlotte S. 
Polachek, Mrs. Victor 
Pollak, Mrs. J. A. 
Pomeroy, Dr. Ralph H. 
Poole, Ernest 
Pope, G. D. 
Pope, Willard 
Porter, A. J. 
Porter, Mrs. James F. 
Porter, Rev. L. C. 
Porterfield, W. H. 
"Post, James H. 
Pratt, C. H. 
Pratt, George D., Jr. 
Prentiss, F. F. 
Prentiss, Mrs. S. R. 
Pryor, Miss Emily M. 
Publicity Committee of 
Nat'l Bd. of Y.W.C.A. 
Purdy, Lawson 
Putnam, Harrington 
Quan, Mrs. James E. 


Rafferty, Fred. 
Rantoul, Mrs. N. 
Rapp, Miss Margaret E. 
Rath, James A. 
Raoul, Gaston C. 
Rauh, Marcus 
Reed, Miss Elizabeth E. 
Reeder, Dr. R. R. 
Regensburg, Mrs. Jerome 
Reid, Miss Helen R. Y. 
Renard, Miss Blanche 
Reynolds, James Bronson 
Reynolds, Paul R. 
Richmond, Miss Winifred 
Rickman, Mrs. John 
Rieber, Prof. Charles H. 
Righter, Miss Harriet T. 
Rike, F. H. 
Rinehart, Miss Lora F. 
Rippin, Mrs. Jane Deeter 
Rissmann, Otto 
Roach, E. S. 
Roberts, John E. 
Roberts, Rev. Richard 
Robertson, Miss Georgia 
Robbins, Mrs. Francis L., 

Robbins, P. A. 
Robie, Miss Amelia H. 
Robinson, Mrs. George O. 
Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. 

Louis N. 
Robinson, G. 
Rochester, Mrs. R. H. 

(In Memoriam) 
Rogers, Francis 
Rosenfeld, Mrs. Maurice 
Ross, Prof. E. A. 
Rossbach, Mrs. Max 
Rowell, Miss Dorothy C. 
Rowell, Frank B. 
Rowell, Miss Olive B. 
Russell, Miss Marie 

Sage, Dean 
Sage, L. H. 
Sailer, Randolph C. 
Sailer, Dr. T. H. P. 
St. John, Capt. Arthur 
St. Paul Association 
Salmon, Miss Lucy M. 
Saltonstall, Mrs. Robert 
Sanderson, Prof. Dwight 
Sanderson, John P., Jr. 
Sargent, Dr. D. A. 
Sarfori, Mrs. Joseph 

Saul, Charles R. 
Sayre, Miss Julia A. 
Sayre, J. N. 
Schafer, Mrs. Edward 
Schieffelin, Dr. William 


Schloss, Mrs. bam M. 
•Schonblom, H. H. 
Schroeder. Hyman 
Schuyler, Miss Louisa Lee 
Scott. Mrs. H. B. 
Scovell, Wellington & Co. 
Scripture, Miss B. 
Scudder, Miss Vida D. 
Seabrook, Mrs. H. H. 

Sedgwick, Rev. Theodore 
Seligman, Prof. Edwin 

R. A. 
Sessions, Mrs. A. L. 
Shapleigh, Miss Amelia 
Sharp, Mrs. A. B. 
Shaw, E. C. 
Shaw, Dr. H. A. 
Shellabarger, Miss Eloise 
Shepard, Miss Harriet E. 
Sherman, Charles A. 
Shillady, John R. 
Shute, Mrs. H. j. 
Sibley, Hiram W. 
Silcox, F. A. 
Sims, Mrs. W. S. 
Simes, Mrs. William 
Simon, John 
Sinclair, Miss Mary E. 
Sisson, Dr. Edward O. 
Skeel, Mrs. Roswell, Jr. 
Slade, Francis Louis 
Smith, Miss Elizabeth H. 
Smith, Frank B. 
Smith, Mrs. H. K. 
Smith, Mrs. J. G. 
Smith, Jesse L. 
Smith & Kaufmann, Inc. 
Smith, Marshall D. 
Smith, Mrs. S. Lewis 
Smith, Theodore Clarke 
Snedden, Dr. David 
Social Workers Club of 

Indianapolis, Ind. 
Sonneborn, S. B. 
Spahr, Mrs. Charles B. 
Spalding, Miss Sarah G. 
Speer, Mrs. Robert E. 
Spencer, Mrs. Anna Gar- 

Sprague, Miss Anne 
Sprague, Miss Florence 
Stacy, Thomas I. 
Stanley, Mrs. Phillip B. 
Stark, Miss Sadie L. 
Stein, Mrs. Fred M. 
Stella, Dr. Antonia 
Stephens, Capt. Roderick 
Stix, Mrs. A. L. 
Stoddard, Miss Melita 
Stokes, Miss Helen Phelps 
Stoltze, Mrs. F. H. 
Stone, Robert B. 
Straus, Mrs. Nathan 
Straus, Mrs. Nathan, Jr. 
Strauss, Mrs. Berthold 
Strobel, Charles L. 
Strong, Mrs. J. R. 
Sturgis, Miss M. R. 
Sullivan, Daniel R. 
Sullivan, Miss M. Louise 
Sullivan, Miss Mary Taylor 
Sullivan, Mrs. T. R. 
Swan, Mrs. Joseph R. 
Sweet, Mrs. Carroll Fuller 
Swift, Mrs. G. F. 

Tarbell, Miss Ida M. 

Taussig, Prof. F. W. 

Taylor, Miss Anna H. 

Taylor, Prof. Graham 

Taylor, Rev. Livingston 

Taylor, S. F. 

Taylor, Rov. W. R. 

Teller, Mr. and Mrs. Sid- 
ney A. 

Thacher, Mr. Archibald 

Thacher, Miss Margaret 

Thaw, Benjamin 

Thaw, Mrs. William, Jr. 

Thayer, Mrs. Helen R. 

Thilo, Miss Frances 

Thomas, Miss M. Carey 

Thorne, Samuel, Jr. 

Thorsen, Mrs. W. R. 

Thum, William 

Tillinghast, Joseph J. 

Tilton, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Titsworth, Charles G. 

Todd, Prof. A. J. 

Tompkins, Calvin 

Tompkins, Hamilton B. 

Tower, Edward M. C. 

Tower, Mrs. Russell B. 

Towns, Charles B. 
•Townsend, J. Barton 

Traiser, Charles H. 

Trask, Miss Mary G. 

Tyson, Francis 


Ufford, Mr. and Mrs. Wal- 
ter S. 

Ueland, Mrs. Andreas 
United Hebrew Charities 
of the City of N. Y. 

Van Kleeck, Miss Mary 
Van Schaick, John, Jr. 
Van Winkle, Mrs. Nina 

Vedder, Henry C. 
Villard, Oswald G. 
Vogel, Mrs. Frederick, 

Volger, B. G. 
Vose, Mrs. F. P. 
Vrooman, Carl 


Waid, D. E. 

Wagner, Miss Elizabeth 

Wagner, Rev. Clarence R. 
Walcott, Mrs. Roger 
Walker, Mrs. A. C. 
Walter, Mrs. C. R. 
Walter, Mrs. Isaac N. 
Walters, Wm. C. 
Ward, Artemas 
Ward, Rev. Harry F. 
Ward, Miss Kate M. 
Ware, Rev. Edward 

Warren, George A. 
Watson, Frank D. 
Watson, Mrs. Katharine 

Watts, Charles H. 
Weatherly, Rev. Arthur 

Weber, Mrs. Edward Y. 
Weed, Miss Mabel 
Weihl, Miss Addie 
Weller, Charles F. 
Wendte, Rev. Charles W. 
Wescott, Ralph W. 
West, W. L 
Westgate, Lewis G. 
Wetmore, E. D. 
Weyerhaeuser, Mrs. J. P. 
Wheeler, Miss Mary 

Wheeler. Dr. Theodora 
White, Burton F. 
White, Harold F. 

White, Miss May W. 

Whitney, Miss Charlotte 

Whitney, Mrs. Josepha B. 

Whittemore, Mrs. F. W. 

Wichelns, Herbert A. 

Wierman, Miss Sarah 

Wilbur, Walter B. 

Wilcox, Miss Mabel I. 

Wilder, Miss Constance F. 

Wile, Dr. Ira S. 

Wilkinson, Otis 

Will, H. S. 

Willcox, Miss M. A. 

Willcox, W. F. 

Williams, Mrs. George R. 

Williams, H. A. 

Williams, J. M. 

Williams, Mrs. Ralph B. 

Willis, Miss Lina 

Wilson, G. K. 

Wilson, Dr. Walter J. 

Winston, Major T. W. 

Wittpenn, Mrs. H. O. 

Wolf, Mrs. Albert 

Wolf, R. B. 

Wolfe, S. H. 

Wolff, Mrs. W. A. 

Wood, Charles Morgan 

Wood, Thomas 

Woods, Miss Amy 

Woods, A. F. 

Woods, Mrs. C. M. 

Workum, Mrs. David 

Wright, Dr. Jonathan 

Wylie, Miss Laura J. 



B. L. 



A. E. 

*Gave also to General Fund 

tGave also to Calif. Fund 
tGave also to Industry 



Appeals and Acknowledgments 

For General Maintenance: 130,000 

WE have reached a stage — a stage long striven for — when, in 
the publishing year now entering on its second six months, 
there is every prospect that our regular subscriptions at the new 
$5 rate, our advertising receipts, our $10 cooperating subscriptions 
and our contributions of $25, $50 and $100 will for the first time in 
the history of Survey Associates meet the routine cost of Survet 
maintenance (manufacture of issues, the managing editor's depart- 
ment, the handling of renewals, administration, advertising and 
membership departments), freeing all larger contributions for in- 
vestment in the development of the Survey and for our educa- 
tional activities. ... 

The showing in cooperating subscriptions is published on the 
preceding pages. Budget figures and the response to date for ''he 
balance of our maintenance fund follow: 

Number Number Amount 

Amount Budget Goal to Date to Raise to Raise 

$25 200 135 65 $1,625 

50 20 8 12 60S 

100 100 37 63 6,308 






Aaher, L. E 

Baldwin, Arthur D 25.00 

Baldwin. Mrs. H. P 25.00 

B.rbey, Henry G... 25.00 

Belknsp, ¥«. M. B. 2S.00 

Bender, Mrs. Inez J 25.00 

Biatell, Mis* Eleanor 25.00 

Blackstone, Mrs. T. B.... 25.00 

Blaney, Mrs. Charles D... 25.00 

Borg, Mrs. Sidney........ 25.00 

Brooks, Miss Bertha G.... 25.00 

Brooks, Mrs. Charles 25.00 

Brown, Prof. Wm. Adams 25.00 

Bruere, Robert 25.00 

Bucketaff, Mrs. Florence G. 25.00 

Buell, Miss Bertha G 25.00 

Bunker. George R 25.00 

Burlingham, C. C 25.00 

Burns, Allen T 25.00 

Cannon, Miss Dorothy A.. 25.00 

Carter, Richard B 25.00 

Chamberlain, Mrs. Jos. P. 25.00 

Cheney. Dr. H. W 25.00 

Coe, Dr. George A 25.00 

Crane, Richard T., III.... 25.00 

Crocker, Mrs. Alvah 25.00 

Dakin, Mrs. Henry D 25.00 

Dale, Mrs. Joseph S 25.00 

de Forest, Henry L 25.00 

Delano, Frederic A 25.00 

Doyle, Nicholas A 25.00 

Dreier, Mrs. H. E 25.00 

DuBois, Mrs. Eugene 25.00 

Earle, Mrs. E. P 25.00 

Ehrich, Mrs. Adelaide Price 25.00 

Eiaenman, Charles 25.00 

Elkus, Abrara I. 25.00 

-F" 25.00 

Fitrsimm«ns, Thomas G... 25.00 

Fleisher, Alexander 25.00 

F«rd, Mrs. Bruce 25.00 

Ford, Mrs. John Battice.. 25.00 

Priedlander, Edgar 25.00 

Gannett, Dr. and Mrs Wm.C. 25.00 

George, Miss Julia 25.00 

George, W. D 25.00 

Gifford, Dr. H 25.00 

Gleason, Herbert P 25.00 

•Goethe, CM 25.00 

Graham, Arthur Butler 25.00 

Hathaway, Miss Martha N. 25.00 

Hazard, Miss Caroline 25.00 

Heinz, Howard 25.00 

Hieeins. Charles M 25.00 

Hilles, William T 25.00 

Hitch, Mrs. Fred. Delano. 25.00 

Hoag, Mr. and Mrs. C. G. 25.00 

Hoyt. Mrs. John Sherman 25.00 

Ide, Mrs. Francis P 25.00 

Ingraham. Mrs. H. C. M.. 25.00 

Ittleson, Henry 25.00 

Ives, Mrs. D. 25.00 

Tamison, Miss Margaret A. 25.00 

Taneway, Chaplain, F. L.. I'S.OO 

Jeffrey, Mrs. Joseph A.... 25.00 

Kellogg, Miss Clara N.... 25.00 

Kennedy, Prof. F. L 25.00 

KIei«ttuck, Mrs. C. G 25. 90 

Kuhn, Mrs. Simon 25. •• 

L« Monte, Mis* Caroline B. 25.0» 

Lewis, Theodore J 25.0* 

Lippincott, Miss Mary W.. 25.00 

Loomis, N. H 25.00 

Ludlow, H. S 25.00 

Lueders, Miss Emma B... 25.00 

McCormick, Miss M. V... 25.00 

MeCrea, Nelson G 25.00 

McDowell, G. H 25.00 

McGrath, James 25.00 

McRae, Milton A 25.00 

Mack, Mrs. Clarence E... 25.00 

Madeira, Mrs. L. C 25.00 

Milbank, Albert G 25.00 

Miller, Nathan J 25.00 

Moore, Mrs. Mary Young. 25.00 

Morley, Frederick H 25.00 

Morrow, Mrs. D. W 25.00 

Nash, W. K 25.00 

Norton, Miss Grace 25.00 

Paine, Re». George L 25.00 

Peabody, George Foster... 25.00 

Perkins, Roger 25.00 

Peters, Mrs. Theodore 25.00 

Post, Mr. and Mrs. Louis F. 25.00 

Potts, Thomas C 25.00 

Powlison, Charles F 25.00 

Price, Mrs. O. J 25.00 

Pyfer, Fred S 25.00 

Rogan, Ralph F 25.00 

Rosenbaum, Selig 25.00 

Rosenberg, Abraham 25.00 

Rosenberg, Max L 25.00 

Rosenfeld, Mrs. M. C 25.00 

Rubens, Mrs. Charles 25.00 

Sapiro, Aaron L 25.00 

Saunders, B. H 25.00 

'•Schqnblom, H. E 25.00 

tSchwarzenbach, Robert 

J. F 25.00 

Seager, Mrs. Henry R 25.00 

Sears, Miss Annie L 25.00 

Seligman, Mrs. Isaac N... 25.00 

Sherman, Miss Corinne A. 25.00 
Sioussat, Mr. and Mrs. St. 

George L 25.00 

Smith, Miss Mary Rozet.. 25.00 

Spingarn, J. E 25.00 

Stern, Alfred W 25.00 

Stix, Mrs. S. L 25.00 

Straus, Mrs. H. Grant... 25.00 

Thomas, Mrs. Jerome B... 25.00 

Thornley, William H 25.00 

Titsworth, F. S 25.00 

■Upson, Mrs. H. S 25.00 

Vincent, George E 25.00 

Wadsworth, Eliot 25.00 

Watson, Miss Esther 25.00 

Watson, Miss Lucy C. . . . 25.00 

Watt, Rolla V 25.00 

Weil, Mrs. Henry 25.00 

Whitlock. Mrs. Herbert P. 

(In Memoriam) 25.00 

Wilcox, Ansley 25.00 

Williams, Mrs. L. C 25.00 

Willock, Harry H 25.00 

Wittmer, Henry 25.00 


Bijur, Mrs. Abraham $50.00 

Blodgett, Mrs. John W.... 50.00 

SKvans, Harold 50.00 

Pratt, Frederic B 50.00 

Sherwin, Miss Belle 50.00 

Stix. Mr. and Mrs. Ernest W. 50.00 

Torsch, E. L 50.00 

••Townsend, J. Barton 50.00 


Anonymous $100.00 

Babbott, Miss Helen 100.00 

Bamberger, Louis 100.00 

Bonnell, Henry H. 


"Bush, W. T 

Castie, Mrs. George P. .. 

Colvin, Miss Catherine... 
•Converse, Miss Mary E. . 


Curtis, Miss Frances G... 100.00 
De SiWer, Mr. and Mrs. 

Albert 100.00 

Gardiner, Robert H 100.00 

Goff, Frederick H 100:00 

Goldsmith, Mrs. Alfred... 100.00 

Hatch, Mrs. Harold 100.00 

Hull, Morton D 100.00 

Jewett, Dr. Mary B 100.00 

Lewis, Mrs. Theodore J... 100.00 

Lewisohn, Sam A. 100.00 

McGregor, Tracy W 100.00 

Mack, Judge Julian W 100.00 

Ma«cn, Miss Ida M 100.00 

May, Walter A. 100.00 

Merriam, Mrs. W. H 100.00 

Meyer, Alfred C 100.00 

Pollak, Mrs. Bernard 100.00 

••Post, James H 100.00 

Pulitzer, Joseph, Jr 100.00 

Reid, Mrs. Ogden Mills... 100.00 

Rosenbaum, Mrs. E. F.... 100.00 

$$Scripps, Miss E. B 100.00 

Seager, Prof. Henry R... 100.00 

Severance, J. L 100.00 I 

Swift, Harold 100.00 ' 

Volker, William 100.00 

Warburg, Paul M 100.00 I 

Willcox, William G 100.00 I 

Wolff. Mrs. Lewis S 100.00 

For Educational Activities: $30,000 

FOR ten years we have built up through special contributions 
our industrial department, for four years our foreign service 
department. We appeal for similar contributions for 1920-21 to 
maintain these departments and in this second half year shall en- 
deavor to secure similar footing for our departments of civics, 
family and child welfare, health, school and community. Intensive 
editorial work, journalistic research, the consecutive and com- 
petent handling of material, experience and events — these are the 
educational elements that go into the staff activity; these are the 
elements that turn the Survey from an easy scrap-book of good 
will into a living force. For these we appeal. 

Contributions are solicited for this general division of the Sur- 
vey's work, or for the special departmental activities incorporated 
in it, as follows: 


I»du«try $5,000 

Family Welfare and Child Welfare 5,000 

Sehool and Community 4,000 

Civiss 3,500 

Health 2,500 

Fareign Service 3,500 

to Date 




Ckamberlain, Prof. Jos. P. 

de F«rest, Robert W 

Pratt, Mrs. Geo. Dupont 

Rosejiwald, Julius 

Straight, Mrs. Willard.. 


Burnham, Miss Mary A. 

Cabot, Dr. Richard C... 
tLasker, Misses and Mrs. 


tMacy, V.- Event 

Pew, Miss Ethel 

Sibley, Miss Florence 

Warburg, Felix N 

Woodward, Dr. George.. 

Lamont, Mrs. T. W 

Lasker, Edward 

Lee, Joseph 

Emmons, Arthur B 

Brown, James W 

Lattimer, Gardner ..... 

$1,000.00 Senter, Miss Augusta... 

1,000.00 Weeks, Rufus W 

1,000.00 Griffith. Miss Alice S. . 

1,000.00 King, Henry C 

1,000.00 Marston, Miss Helen D. 

500.00 Crosby, Miss Caroline M. 

500.00 tGiese, H. W 

500.00 Heimann. Miss Rita 

Hillard, Miss Mary R... 

500.00 ••Holt. Mrs. L. E 

500.00 Johnson, Arthur S 

500.00 Phelps, Miss Edith M... 

500.00 Pinchot, Mrs. Gifford... 

500.00 Thompson, Thomas, Trust 

500.00 Zabriskie, Mrs. C 

250.00 - ••Bentley, Mrs. Cyrus 

250.00 ••Blochman, L. E 

250.00 ••Denny, Miss E. G 

200.00 tMoot, Adelbert 

75.00 Anonymous 

60.00 Goethe, C. M 


Bing, Alexander M... . $500.00 

Pels, Samuel S 500.00 

•Macy, V. Everit 500.00 

Burnham, George, Jr... 300.00 
•Lasker, Misses and Mrs. 

Rosensohn 300.00 

Brandeis, Judge Louis 

D. and Mrs 200, 

Epstean, Edward 200. 

Calder, John 100, 

Evans, Mrs. Glendower. 100. 

Filene, A. Lincoln 100, 

Filene, Edward A 100, 

"Mallery, Otto T 100, 


Pollak, Julian 

*Schwarzenbach, R»bert 

J. F 

Crunden, Frank P 

Davj;, J. Lionberger. . . . 
Farnam, Prof. Henry W. 
Weyl, Mrs. Walter E... 

Eddy, L. J 

•Giese, H. W 

** Jones, Miss Myrta L. .. 

••Moot, Adelbert 

Merriman, Miss Christina 






40. It 

15. 09 



Woerishoffer, Mrs. Anna $1,000.00 Rhoads, George A. 

Borton, C. W 10.00 Thomas, Arthur H. 

Buzby, Walter J 10.00 Yarnall, D. Robert. 

'Evans, Harold 10.00 

Leeds, Morris E 10.00 





•Scripps, Miss E. B $100.00 

Stern, Mrs. Sigmund... 100.00 

■Marston, George W 25.00 

Allen, Mrs. R. C 10.00 

Ashley, R. L 10.00 

Brookings, Mrs. Walter 

DuBois 10.00 

Brown, E. A 10.00 

Brown, Dr. Philip King. 10.00 
California Branch, Na- 
tional League for 

Women's Service . 10.00 

Chase, Miss Pearl 10.00 

Clayburgh, Mrs. H. E... 10.00 

Ehrman, Mrs. Albert L. 10.00 

Ehrman, Mrs. Alexis L-. 

Harper, J. C 

Haslett, Mrs. S. M 

Heller, Mrs. E. S 

Hogue, Mrs. L. B 

McDuffie, Mrs. Duncan. 

Macneil, Sayre 

Peixotto, Dr. Jessica B. 
Pischel, Mrs. Kaspar. ... 
Putnam, Mrs. Osgood . . . 
Sackett, Miss Mary M. . 

Sapiro, Milton D 

Workman, Miss Mary . . 

•Gave also to General Fund 
•Paid also Cooperating Subscription 



$445.0! J 

tGave also to California Fund 
tGave also to Industry Fund 
tGave also to Foreign Service Fund 

Vol. XLVI 


No 3 



Associate Editors 




S. ADELE SHAW, Managing Editor 
Published weekly and Copyright 1921 by Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 Street, New York. Robert W. deForest, president; Arthur P. 
Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

Price: this issue, 15 cents a copy; $5 a year; foreign postage, fl.25; 
Canadian, 65 cents. Changes of address should be mailed us ten days in 
advance. When payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon 

Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post office, New 
York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at d 
special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorised on June 26, 1918. 



" |. A OR why you call my boy a poor nut?" queried an in- 
r* dignant mother who confronted the dietitian of a New 
Jersey charities association the other morning at her 
office door. And the latter has not yet found a way of con- 
vincing Mrs. Caruso that "poor nut" on the face of Angelo's 
card stands for poor nutrition. 


ANNOUNCEMENT has been made that the New 
York City Committee for the Promotion of Community 
Councils has made a payment of $15,260.97 to the 
National Social Unit Organization. The latter organization 
has accepted this amount as payment in full for claims it 
had outstanding against the Community Councils. [See the 
Survey for April 9, page 37.] Over a period of some ten 
months when an affiliation existed between the two' organi- 
zations, the Social Unit advanced some $30,000 to Community 
Councils. With the payment of this bill, Wilbur C. Phillips, 
executive secretary of the National Social Unit Organization, 
announces that the financial difficulties of the former organi- 
zation have been met. 


ANOTHER step toward coordination of national 
health agencies will be taken May 1 when a number of 
these bodies will take possession of joint offices in the 
Penn Terminal Building, New York city. The Common 
Service Committee, representing at present the American 
Social Hygiene Association, the National Committee for 
Mental Hygiene, National Organization for Public Health 
Nursing, National Tuberculosis Association and National 
lealth Council, has been created to serve as the centralized 
organization for this coordination. Each organization will 
etain complete autonomy, the new arrangement being in no 
sense a merger. It is, rather, a step in the direction of 
economy and for better cooperation in health projects. 

The work of the committee is closely linked with the 
program of the National Health Council, organized last 
December for the purpose of interrelating the work of the 
national private health agencies of the country. In all prob- 
ability the council will eventually assume most of its func- 
tions. At present the Common Service Committee will serve 
the various agencies by providing a joint library, conference 
exhibit and projection rooms, centralized telephone service, 
rest and lunch services, and publicity and publication services. 

In addition to the organizations named above offices; in the 
building will be occupied by the American Public Health 
Association, Bureau of Social Hygiene, Child Health Organi- 
zation of America, Maternity Center Association, New York 
Community Service, and the New York Diet Kitchen Associa- 
tion. It is expected that the American Society for the Con- 
trol of Cancer, the National Committee on Prisons and Prison 
Labor and the United States Public Health Service will later 
occupy offices in the building. 


TWO new organizations formed within the last few 
weeks at Washington are likely to exert influence on 
the legislation of the Congress which opens this week. 
One, the People's Legislative Service, has been described in 
the Survey for April 2. The other, the People's Recon- 
struction League, is no less important. Perhaps a comparison 
of the two organizations will best describe the latter. Both 
include on their executive boards well known farm and labor 
leaders. Both are interested in furthering democratic legis- 
lation which aims at public welfare, not special privilege. 
But in function they are distinct, one forming, to quote, the 
"infield," and the other, the "outfield" of the legislative game, 
or perhaps each forming half of a complete circle. The Leg- 
islative Service is primarily an information bureau, interested 
in getting at the truth about bills on the forward-looking side 
of the calendar. Securing that information, it circulates it 
among members of Congress and the public. The Recon- 
struction League, gathering up the public opinion created by 
this information and in other ways, through an organization 
which will ultimately function by congressional districts and 
by states, applies its pressure upon Congress. In other words, 
it is intended as a "people's lobby," through which the big 
groups into which the public is divided may join for certain 
legislative ends. 

In adopting a specific legislative program, the league also 
differs from the Legislative Service. Certain issues are 
definitely advocated by the league, including immediate uni- 
fied government operation of the railroads, packer control 
legislation, federal control of natural resources, short-time 
credits for farmers, taxation of large incomes, profits and 
estates, and the defeat of any proposal for compulsory, uni- 
versal military training. 

The league's campaign opened with a national conference 




in Washington on April 14 and 15. This conference, accord- 
ing to announcements by its officers, was to form a "national 
town meeting," reminiscent of the days when government 
actually resided in the hands of town meetings, to which all 
citizens were invited. 

Already branches of the league are forming in ten states, 
made up of the combination of state farm and labor and civic 
bodies, after the pattern of the national league. A similar 
plan will ultimately be followed as to congressional districts. 
The national officers of the league include: Herbert F. Baker, 
president; William H. Johnston, of the Farmers' National 
Council, C. C. Connolly, president of the United Farmers 
of America, and Mrs. Florence Kelley, vice-presidents; Jack- 
son H. Ralston, treasurer; George P. Hampton, managing 
director of the Farmers' National Council, general manager ; 
Benjamin C. Marsh, secretary of the Farmers' National 
Council, executive secretary. 


THE appointment of Mary Anderson as director of the 
Women's Bureau in the Department of Labor has been 
announced. Miss Anderson was made assistant chief of 
the bureau at the time of its organization and later succeeded 
Mary Van Kleeck, the first director, who resigned to resume 
her work in the Russell Sage Foundation. Miss Anderson is 
a former factory worker and for a number of years was an 
official of the Boot and Shoe Workers' Union and of the 
Women's Trade Union League. She was automatically re- 
tired at the end of the Wilson administration, the Senate hav- 
ing failed to confirm her prior appointment. Under the 
leadership of Miss Anderson and of her predecessor in office, 
the Women's Bureau made a number of important inquiries 
and formulated useful standards for the protection of women 
in industry. 

While the reappointment of Miss Anderson is counted a 
good augury for the bureau, Congress discriminated against 
it both in the size of the appropriation allowed and in the 
scale of salaries fixed. The bonus of $340 a year allowed 
employes in other departments and bureaus was refused and 
niggardly rates of pay were fixed. Most government salaries 
are much lower than those paid for similar work in private 
industry, but the discrimination against the Women's Bureau 
renders the difference more than ordinarily wide. The 
bureau is given only three positions which pay as much as 
$2,000 a year. Beyond these the upper limit for statisticians 
and investigators and other specialists is $1,800. When pro- 
tests were made to individual senators against the insuffi- 
ciency of the rates set the Searchlight reports that the reply 
was frequently made: "Why, $2,000 is enough for a Woman." 
Under the previous appropriation larger salaries were allowed. 
The compensation of a number of the more skilled civil 
servants in the bureau must accordingly be reduced. 


AUSTRALIA, Belgium, China, France, India, Italy, 
New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Rumania, Russia, 
Sweden, South Africa, Canada, Jamaica, Palestine, 
Holland, Switzerland, the United States and Great Britain 
were represented at an international conference of girls' club 
workers recently held in London. The English representa- 
tives laid emphasis on the development of democratic partici- 
pation of club members in management as the most significant 
feature in their work. Scandinavian delegates described joint 
clubs of university students and factory girls in which both 
meet on equal terms; while a Russian visitor spoke of the ef- 
fects of joint unions and clubs for young men and women. 
Representatives of Poland and Belgium spoke of the low state 
of health of club members, as a result of war conditions, as 
the chief problem before them. To interest club girls in 
world affairs, the British National Organization of Girls' 
Clubs suggested the following means: 

Cooperation with the League of Nations Union in developing 
its essay competition scheme. 

Correspondence between clubs in different countries. 

Study circles composed of girls really keen to learn about other 
lands and prepared to do a certain amount of reading. 

International evenings when the dances and songs of different 
countries could be performed in costumes. 


ANNOUNCEMENT by the National Security League 
that it will make particular effort to counteract the in- 
fluence of the newly-organized Intercollegiate Liberal 
League indicates the eminence to which the new organization 
arose in its foundation. The body was brought into existence 
April 2 and 3 by some four hundred liberals delegated by the 
liberal groups of forty-five American colleges and universities 
in conference at the Harvard Union, Cambridge. An under- 
graduate woman, Helen Muriel Morris of Wellesley, was 
elected to be its first president. The league was organized 
with the expressed purpose 

... to bring about the fair and open-minded consideration 
of social, political and international questions by groups of 
college students. The organization will espouse no creed or 
principle other than that of complete freedom of assembly and 
discussion in the colleges. Its ultimate aim will be to create 
among college men and women an intelligent interest in the 
problems of today. 

In his statement, as quoted in the New York Times for 
April 10, Charles D. Orth, president of the National Security 
League, makes the purposes of the new league identical with 
those of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society. He says: 

The Socialists are striking at the foundation of American- 
ism when they attempt to implant their Utopian theories in 
the immature minds of the young men and young women in 
the colleges und universities of America. Institutions of learn- 
ing are established primarily for the dissemination of know- 
ledge, which is acquainted with fact and not with theory. 

The National Security League will try to establish a branch 
in every college and university in the country in which the 
Intercollegiate Socialist Society or the new Intercollegiate 
Liberal League is working, openly or surreptiously. This plan 
was applied by us with great success previous to and during 
the war. We believe the poison can be best counteracted by 
militant patriotic organizations of the loyal students not yet 

Although the new organization has some personnel in com- 
mon with the I. S. S., it has a greater latitude of political 
faiths in its membership, as attested by the names of the speak- 
ers at the conference, among whom were Dean Briggs of Har- 
vard, Dr. Charles W. Eliot, Francis Neilson, Andrew Furu- 
seth, president of the Seamen's Union, Senator Ladd of North 
Dakota, and H. N. McCracken, president of Vassar. 


THE creation of a veterans' service administration em- 
bracing all government departments dealing with the 
disabled ex-service man was the chief recommendation 
made to President Harding last week by the President's Com- 
mittee for Disabled Soldiers. This committee, headed by 
former Brig. Gen. Charles C. Dawes of Chicago, was re- 
quested by the President to make a serious inquiry into the 
charges of governmental neglect of the disabled veteran. The 
recommendation would require the transference to such a 
central department, of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, 
the rehabilitation division of the federal Board for Vocational 
Education, and part of the United States Public Health 

The committee also strongly recommended that a director- 
general be placed at the head of this administration who 
should report directly to the President. He would be given 
authority to secure facilities necessary for the care of the 
disabled soldiers either by allotment of appropriations to gov- 
ernmental agencies or by contract with civilian agencies, 
wherever government facilities prove inadequate. 

Although arraigning the "deplorable failure on the part 
of the government to properly care for the disabled veterans,' 
the report is tempered in its criticism of the existing bureaus. 



In fact, cause for the present chaotic situation is largely 
charged to the distribution of responsibility among different 
governmental agencies with no central control over them. 
Divergent legal provisions, limitations in the interests of pre- 
sumed economy which have embarrassed the various agencies 
in retaining a high grade of personnel, and a lack of pro- 
vision for hospital construction are enumerated in the report 
as important factors making for inefficiency. It is recom- 
mended that a continuing hospital building program be en- 
tered upon immediately. To this end it is suggested that the 
$18,600,000 appropriation made by the Sixty-sixth Congress 
be utilized without delay. 

Recognition by the commission of "humanizing serv- 
ices" and "helpful neighborliness" in addition to the medical 
and educational services now provided is a distinct recognition 
of the type of medical social work developed in the hospitals 
of the United States Public Health Service by the American 
Red Cross. Various private organizations were called upon 
in the drafting of the report, including the National Tuber- 
culosis Association, the National Committee for Mental 
Hygiene and the American Red Cross. 

Three outstanding abuses were stressed, namely, a too 
generous or unjust payment of money as compensation, in- 
adequate inspection of hospitalization and medical care and 
improper supervision of disabled men being given training 
under the federal board. It is felt by the committee that 
prevention of them lies mainly in the employment of reliabi.. 
personnel under a single directing head. Further, although 
approval is given to the principle of vocational training for 
the disabled veteran, the report shows that it is essential that 
"every care be taken that no abuses arise to cause injustice 
to the man or the government." 

Following the presentation of the report, Secretary Mellon 
reappointed Col. R. G. Cholmeley-Jones as director of the 
Bureau of War Risk Insurance to assist in carrying out the 
recommendation of the President's committee. 


PUBLIC meetings on disarmament have, during the last 
few weeks, been held throughout the country. The 
encouraging feature has been that these meetings have 
not in all cases been called by the same organization but 
represent a spontaneous rise of different groups to the present 
political opportunities. At most of these meetings resolutions 
have been passed or speeches made urging the government of 
the United States to take the lead in this matter. Thus, at 
a very largely attended meeting held in New York city last 
Saturday by the United States section of the Women's Inter- 
national League, a motion was passed with enthusiasm en- 
dorsing the resolution introduced in the last Congress by 
Senator Borah asking the government to call a conference 
with Great Britain, France, Japan and Italy to advance 
simultaneous disarmament in these countries. In a telegram 
to Mrs. Florence Kelley, who presided over the meeting, 
Senator Borah expressed his intention to reintroduce this 
resolution "on the first day on which bills can be introduced 
and urged as effectively as possible." 

Another resolution, offered by Jane Addams, requested the 
league to hold a special international conference of women on 
the Pacific Coast to prepare recommendations on a naval 
holiday. This motion arose from a discussion in which, in 
addition to Miss Addams, S. K. Ratcliffe, the American cor- 
respondent of the Manchester Guardian, Dr. T. Iyenaga, 
director of the East and West News Bureau, and George 
R, Lunn, mayor of Schenectady, took part. Mr. Ratcliffe 
explained the insistence of the British public on a predominant 
navy by the prevailing fear of being cut off, at some future 
time, from the overseas sources of supplies on which the 
economic existence of the British Isles depe/ids. It is not 
part of any general prevalence of a militarist spirit; for at 
the same time, he explained, universal military service is dead 

as a political issue, and the labor government , which, he pre- 
dicted, will soon supercede the coalition government, while 
it will seek to conserve the union of British commonwealths, 
will unquestionably be pacific in its attitude toward the rest of 
the world. 

Miss Addams pointed out that the present huge naval 
program of the United States not only fomented the spirit 
of fear that led to unnecessary and wasteful armament 
throughout the world, but stood in the way of other national 
measures which would directly make for a pacification of the 
world, such as a greatly increased and national program for 


Where the first summer school of education for internation- 
alism is to be held 

stimulating foreign trade and feeding Europe, cancellation of 
the war debts of France to this country, and an effective protest 
against imperialistic activities on the part of other powers. 
Dr. Iyenaga maintained that the friendly attitude of this 
country toward Japan and the conciliatory policy on out- 
standing questions in which both nations are interested was 
discounted in Japanese public opinion by the constant official 
and semi-official talk here about the need for a huge navy. 

A new enterprise started this summer by the Women's 
International League for Peace and Freedom — to give it its 
full name — is the holding from August 1 to 15 of a summer 
school at Salzburg, Austria, for men and women, on the 
psychology of internationalism, international organization 
and other topics. Miss Addams who, as president of the 
league, will be in Vienna at its third international congress, 
July 10-16, will give the inaugural lecture. Emily G. Balch, 
secretary-treasurer of the league (6, rue du Vieux College, 
Geneva), writes that the league is in need of additional sup- 
port to meet current expenses. 


THREE important social bills are before the Japanese 
Diet, according to East and West News. To judge 
from a letter recently received from Japan, they em- 
body the major part of a legislative program adopted last fall 
by a Committee for Social Service appointed by the govern- 
ment, of which Mr. Tokonami, home minister, was chair- 
man and which represented different parties, including several 
members of the House of Peers and of the Lower House and 




such social workers as Mr. Yamamuro, head of the Salvation 
Army, and Mr. Tomeoka, founder and head of a widely 
known school for delinquent boys. 

A Public Employment Agency bill provides for a national 
labor exchange system, but with the direction of the local 
offices by the local authorities: mayors in cities and headmen 
in towns and villages. Incidentally, these bureaus are to be 
used for bringing about a better understanding between capi- 
tal and labor. 

A Home Supply Corporation bill provides legal machinery 
for the formation of mutual building loan associations in the 
hope of meeting, by this means, the present shortage of 
dwellings, especially among families of the "lower middle 
classes." A Slum Improvement bill makes available national 
subsidies for the improvement of the quarters, in all large 
cities of Japan, where the despised lower orders or eta — who 
enjoy equal political but not equal social rights — live in ap- 
palling congestion. No special laws are needed for this im- 
provement of housing, sewerage and water supply, for medical 
aid and for education ; but the bill makes available the neces- 
sary budget appropriations for this specific work. 

The committee cooperates with the Department of Agricul- 
ture and Commerce in working out a law of social insurance ; 
more particularly against the risk of unemployment. In the 
meantime, efforts are made to construct a program of public 
works, such as road and tunnel making, a sewerage system and 
deepening of the harbor, to meet a severe period of enforced 
idleness in Tokyo. Another field studied by the committee is 
that of child welfare; but apart from efforts to enlist public 
sympathy, no decisive action has as yet been taken or recom- 
mended. The committee also is interesting itself in coordinat- 
ing the work of the numerous young men's and young wom- 
en's societies, representatives of which were called together 
last November, on the occasion of the rice festival, in the 
building of the home department, to be addressed by the 
crown prince, the war minister — who in his speech was any- 
thing but militaristic — and other government officials. 


IN connection with a comprehensive inquiry into the milk 
supply of St. Louis, Mo., the Public Welfare Committee 
of that city has come upon some perturbing facts. So 
far as they deal with pasteurization, the sanitary condition 
of dairies and the methods of sale from open receptacles, the 
facts found are not alarming, and the evils disclosed have al- 
ready effectively been tackled by the committee itself; while 
the federal Department of Agriculture has been induced to 
carry out a thorough survey of the approximately seven 
thousand dairy farms within a radius of IOO miles from which 
St. Louis receives 8o per cent of its milk supply. But an 
examination of the prices charged to distributor and consumer, 
compared with those of other cities, showed a discrepancy that 
is not easily explained. The subject is 9 important because in 
St. Louis as elsewhere the children of the poorer classes are 
often, owing to the high price of fresh milk, brought up on 
condensed and store milk which, as all authorities are agreed, 
is no adequate substitute. 

The St. Louis distributor, at the time of inquiry, paid 
5.9 cents per quart and charged the consumer 16 cents. Only 
very few large cities, inquiry showed, were paying as high a 
retail price while in many a much lower one was charged not- 
withstanding a higher price paid by the dealer. In fact, the 
distributor's "spread" varied from 42.9 per cent in Omaha to 
202.3 P er cent in Toledo, St. Louis coming second highest 
with 1 7 1.2 per cent. Of course, this percentage does not 
represent net profit, but includes all the costs of distribution. 
On an average for 36 large cities, this gross profit amounts to 
7.29 cents or 97.8 per cent on the wholesale price paid by the 
dealer. In New York city it is 150. in Chicago 164, in 
Philadelphia only 65 per cent. The Philadelphia housewife 
at the time of the investigation got the same milk for 13 cents 
which in New York cost 17 cents. Here are two other nearby 

cities: Syracuse, 91 per cent gross return, retail price 13 
cents; Toledo, 202 per cent gross return, retail price — this is 
where you guess wrong! — also 13 cents. The Toledo milk- 
man may be a profiteer, but he manages to buy his milk at less 
than any other dealer in a large city: 4.3 cents a quart. 

What is the explanation? Of course, the committee only 
investigated it in its own city. In St. Louis, the cost to the 
distributor during a period of several months was reduced by 
$1.22 per IOO pounds, but the consumer went on paying the 
old price. During the investigation itself, he made another 
gain of 9 cents per IOO pounds and made a reduction to the 
public of 46^2 cents, or 1 cent per quart — demonstrating the 
utility of a little public inquisitiveness, and rather strangely 
contrasting his act with his statement to the committee that 
even at the higher prices his business was unprofitable. What 
really happened in St. Louis and is always happening is that 
at a time of rising cost of production the consumer is asked for 
much more than the actual rise; at times of falling cost he is 
only grudgingly and belatedly given the fall in price to which 
he is entitled. 

Heretofore the large distributors required the consumer to pay 
double the price increase demanded by the producer and justified 
this condition by statements that a spread of 100 per cent was 
necessary to the profitable conduct of their business. Figures 
from all other cities indicate the truth of this statement as a 
present fact. ... A spread of 100 per cent is sufficient. 

Differences in overhead expenses and in carelessness on the 
part of the public in the handling of bottles explain to some 
extent the variation of distributing costs. Both sources of ex- 
cessive cost can be eliminated. But the main cause is excessive 
competition, which seems to be especially developed in St. 
Louis, and almost duplicates the essential cost of delivery. 
The committee, for this reason, recommends that the milk 
supply of the city be regarded as a semi-public service and be 
regulated so as to eradicate all unnecessary services and to 
secure the economies of large-scale distribution. 

Instead of introducing more expensive competitors in the field 
to waste more money of the consumer, it is rather the opinion of , 
your committee that the city should endeavor to permit the eli- 
mination of all unnecessary investments of both capital and labor , 
and effectively regulate the industry. 


REQUESTED at the last annual conference to seek 
closer touch with the social settlements in other lands, 
the officers of the National Federation of Settlements 
have met with much encouragement for the plan, first pro- 
posed by Robert A. Woods, to hold an international settle- 
ments conference next year, probably in England. E. St. 
John Catchpool, sub-warden of Toynbee Hall, London, who 
has given much thought to the matter, writes that he con- 
siders the formation of an international federation of settle- 
ments even more important than that of national federations. 
He has prepared a list of continental European settlements, 
including those in Vienna, Prague, Copenhagen, Berlin, 
Stockholm, Munich and Paris, to which must be added a con- 
stantly growing list of neighborhood houses in the Far East. 
The plan as it has been suggested would not exclude at the 
start what some would consider mission centers and com- 
munity houses rather than residential settlements so long as 
the spirit in which they work is similar, since a closer associa- 
tion of all these is deemed important. Toynbee Hall for 
some time has been in the habit of sending literature and in- 
formation to settlements on the Continent and of encourag- 
ing their representatives to come and stay as its guests. Many 
other English settlements, as well as of course those in Amer- 
ica, by such interchanges of visits have always been gathering 
grounds of international information on social questions and 
centers of international fellowship. Many of them have, 
during the last year, contributed money to the settlement of 
Vienna which has become one of the major agencies to relieve 
the material want and encourage a spirit of hopefulness in 
that fated city. 

Especially interested in internationalism is the Educational 




■ tf» 



Settlements Association of England, a federation of social cen- 
ters and settlements which has grown out of the need of the 
adult school movement for permanent homes in different 
communities. The English adult schools, it will be remem- 
bered, owe their origin to the enthusiasm and energy of 
Quakers and have remained religious in tone and purpose, 
though in recent years they have assumed wide interests and 
responsibilities in the social life of their members and of the 
cities where they are established. This association, together 
with the Workers' Educational Association, has created an 
international organization, the World Association for Adult 
Education, which is holding in the first week of July, this 
year, an international summer schoql at one of the adult 
school country guest houses, to be opened by Lord Haldane. 
Both the Educational Settlements Association and the Fed- 
eration of British Settlements are enthusiastic about the hold- 
ing of a comprehensive international settlements' conference 
next year. 

The matter will come up for confirmation at the annual 
conference of the American National Federation of Settle- 
ments, to be held at Waukegan, 111., June 19 to 22. A pre- 
liminary program for this conference has been drafted which 
differs from that commonly met with at annual events of 
this kind in that it reintroduces for further discussion those 
subjects in which special interest was manifested last August 
at East Aurora, instead of starting with a completely new set 
of topics. Nevertheless, in the additional items of the pro- 
gram, the contemplated choice of speakers, and especially a 
new procedure to secure before the conference suggestions 
from its members both of interesting new activities and of 
questions they desire to have discussed, the officers and exec- 
utive are providing liberally for all desire there may be for 
novelty. Waukegan, by the way, is famous for birds, trees 
and water, and for the complete contrast it affords to the 
neighboring village of Chicago. 

The Open Shop 

"^ HE open shop movement requires explanation. 
There is confusion and uncertainty about its nature 
and purpose. There is a disagreement over the very 
definition of the term "open shop." A report 
recently issued by the Merchants' Association of New York 
has this definition : 

By a true open shop is meant an establishment in which em- 
ployes are engaged irrespective of their affiliation or non-affilia- 
tion with a labor union or any other lawful organization. 

At the National Conference of State Manufacturers' As- 
sociations which was held in Chicago in January, there seemed 
to be among the delegates a different view of the open shop. 
One delegate said that he hated to be a hypocrite "under a 
resolution or anything else," and he did not like to vote in 
favor of the open shop "when my own policy is not to carry 
that out but to hit the head of the radical in my shop when- 
ever he puts it up." A resolution finally adopted at this con- 
vention which seems to have been accepted as the definition 
of the open shop stated that it is 

. . . fundamental in this country that all law-abiding cit- 
izens or residents thereof have the right to work when they 
please, for whom they please, and on whatever terms are mut- 
ually agreed upon between employe and employer, and with- 
out interference or discrimination on the part of others. 
Another delegate voting for this resolution said that no 
one could be employed in his shop who would not sign an 
agreement that he is not, and will not become a member of 
a union, but he said: 

I am in favor of this resolution because the interpretation I 
give to it is that the open shop means to me that I can employ 
whomever I may please as an individual employer. 

These quotations from the proceedings of the Chicago meet- 
ing are taken from a pamphlet by Savel Zimand, recently 
issued by the Bureau of Industrial Research, entitled, The 


Open Shop Drive, Who Is Behind It and Where Is It Going? 
This pamphlet gives further evidence of the confused char- 
acter of the open shop movement. The Seattle Chamber of 
Commerce and Commercial Club, which favors the open shop, 
is quoted as deploring the lack of personal contact between 
the management and workers. To restore this contact it 
favors the introduction of shop committees. On the other 
hand, the Associated Employers of Indianapolis, which ap- 
parently favors the open shop, takes a different stand on 
representation. In a statement of principles which it has 
sent out to employers to be posted in their shops, appears the 

We will at all times in the future, as in the past, be glad to 
confer with any or all employes individually on all matters not 
affecting shop policy or management, but we will not entertain 
shop committees. , 

In this same document appears the statement: 

Loyalty is expected and will be exacted from each of our 

The report brings together much valuable information to 
the extent and character of the open shop movement in the 
United States. By quoting from pamphlets, statements, and 
various other pronouncements, it shows that among the or- 
ganizations considered, the object of the open shop campaign 
is to weaken or destroy the unions. There is a discussion of 
certain national organizations which favor the open shop, 
and of certain "auxiliaries" of the movement, including non- 
industrial organizations, which have lent their support, and 
detective agencies working in the direction of undermining 
trade unionism in the shop. The value of the report would 
have been greater had it included a study of the reasons for 
the hostility of these organizations toward trade unionism. 
It would be desirable also if in such a study there could be 
included a study of the closed union shop, so that the ob- 
jectives of the militant groups representing both labor and 
capital could be examined and compared. 

A very interesting statement on this same subject is made 
by the Merchants' Association of New York in a report to 
which reference is made above, and which comes from ^the 
press almost simultaneously with Mr. Zimand's report. After 
defining the "true open shop" as quoted above, and a "true 
closed shop" as "an establishment in which persons who are 
not members of a labor union are excluded from employment," 
the report eontinues: 

Your committee deplores the disposition on the part of some 
employers who are using the term "open shop" to work toward 
a condition of the closed non-union shop by discriminating 
against union men. It likewise regrets that the operation of the 
closed union shop frequently results in restriction of output and 
limitation of available labor supply. Both of these tendencies 
are subversive of individual rights, detrimental to sound labor 
relationships, and in many cases economically inefficient and 

The report states that the bitterness and discontent engendered 
by unemployment "are 3 serious bar to the establishment of 
better industrial relations." The committee expresses the 
belief that restriction of output could be dealt with and that 
production would be increased if "the fear of using up the 
job" were removed by an adequate provision against unem- 
ployment. Plans for dealing with unemployment should be 
taken up and "will be most effective if they are worked out 
by management and labor together and provide for joint 
participation and responsibility." 

The report favors the establishment of some form of em- 
ploye representation. The committee expresses the opinion, 
however, that employe representation "will tend to conflict 
with the interests of such labor unions as are dependent upon 
militancy and tactics of warfare for their existence and 
growth." From this they conclude that "it should be the first 
interest, therefore, of both management and labor to work 
for the removal of conditions which necessitate a militant 
policy by labor unions." J. A. F. 




The Shell of the Em- 
ployment Service 

THE building of the federal Employment Service was 
one of the adventures of the war. The demolition 
of the Employment Service is one of the proofs of 
the wave of apathy and reaction which came in the 
wake of the war. So far as the Employment Service witnes- 
ses, the country learned nothing from the industrial upheaval 
which this nation passed through during the months and the 
years following our participation in the great conflict. The 
hands of the clock have been turned backward, or perhaps 
it would be more accurate to say Congress refused to wind 
the clock. The shell of the Employment Service is left; but 
there is little motion. It is a curious state of affairs. The 
year 1920 marked no change in the Employment Service save 
the decay which is wrought by the increasing poverty and 
neglect. Congress had the opportunity to act; bills generally 
well drawn were introduced both in the House and in the 
Senate for the purpose of perpetuating the federal Employ- 
ment Service. These measures practically identical in form 
and known as the Kenyon-Nolan bill embodied the cooperative 
intelligence of perhaps a majority of the employment techni- 
cians in the United States. In neither house did the bills get 
as far as committee approval, much less legislative action. 
Congress did not seem to be aware that employment is a great 
national activity which, the experience of most industrial na- 
tions has shown, calls for the active intervention of the gov- 

In spite of the inaction of Congress, it is still true that 
there has been a growing recognition during many years of 
the necessity for public employment offices. For the great 
majority of wage-earners, work is one of the supreme facts 
in life. Congress has itself said that the labor of human be- 
ings is not a commodity, nor an article of commerce, yet pri- 
vate employment agencies have made the labor of human 
beings both commodities and articles of commerce, and Con- 
gress has refused to do anything to make real its statement 
of principle. There are few more sordid examples of the ex- 
ploitation of workers than those offered by the less scrupulous 
private employment agencies. Even some good ones levy a 
tax and usually a very heavy one on the opportunity to work. 
Stenographers in New York city pay as much as one week's 
salary in order to obtain employment. Unskilled workers, 
railroad laborers, construction men, and harvest hands have 
been treated often with utter contempt. According to the 
latest report of the Employment Service, men have been sent 
by private agencies to the harvest fields ten days before there 
was work to do. Railroad construction men have again and 
again been sent out on will-o'-the-wisp travels to jobs which 
did not exist, merely for the sake of the fee which the agent 
collected in advance. Again, through collusion between pri- 
vate labor agencies and foremen, men actually employed have 
been wantonly discharged after a few days so that other gangs 
might be hired and their fees collected. In a cumulative way, 
this has been a great drain on the nation's resources. Largely 
because of chaotic employment conditions, multitudes of cas- 
ual laborers have been created. By the very terms of their 
existence, young men of fine capacity have been degraded. 
Gradually they have lost skill and the capacity *p acquire 
skill. They have become homeless wanderers. !e morbid 

conditions of their existence, as the late Carleton H. Parker 
brilliantly showed, produced morbid results, and the nation 
which was willing to devote large sums of money to prosecute 
and often to persecute tragic by-products of a system of na- 
tional neglect has been unwilling to lift a hand to stop this 
process of destruction. 

From the standpoint of national productivity, the situation 
has been hardly less wasteful. The fluctuations of employ- 
ment are classed among the great causes of economic waste. 
Every manufacturing industry pays heavy tribute to the an- 
archy which characterizes employment relations in the United 
States. During the war, the classic case of the Pacific Coast 
ship-building firm which lured skilled workmen away from -a 
Buffalo shipyard went the rounds. These men, riveters, were 
taken across the continent and allowed to work about a week. 
By that time the recruiting agent of a Massachusetts ship- 
building concern had raised the offer of the Western bidders 
and brought the men back to the Atlantic Coast. This was 
reported during the summer of 191 8 when the world needed 
the skill and continued application of every available ship- 
builder. Yet it was a typical illustration of one phase of 
economic loss which lack of any system in employment dis- 
tribution makes inevitable. Labor turnover which engineers 
now point to both as symptom and a cause of industrial mal- 
adjustment is another example. If the estimates of some of 
the more skilled personnel managers are to be relied upon, 
labor turnover alone costs American industry more in a few 
weeks than the support of .an adequate employment system 
would require in a year. In common parlance in this coun- 
try, the anarchist is the man with a bomb, forever plotting 
diabolical destruction. In reality, the lack of government, 
the absence of rule, the senseless interplay of small and large 
forces is anarchy. In hiring and firing, the average employer 
does what is good in his own eyes, with little thought of his 
competitors, with not much more thought for the fortunes 
and the fate of the men and the women he summons and 
dismisses, with infinitely less of the well-being of the republic 
of which all these workers are members. Occasionally some 
intelligent employer will put his own house in order. The 
Dennison Manufacturing Company regularized a business as 
seasonal as the manufacture of Christmas cards. Shoe con- 
cerns and clothing manufacturers, by inventing staple lines 
of merchandise, have given regularity to employment in their 
own shops, and incidentally by eliminating this great source 
of economic waste have brought prosperity to themselves and 
to their workers. But these pioneers are only a shining mi- 
nority. Most are not even aware that it is possible to fight 
such losses. Industrial anarchy seems so much a part of the 
familiar rule that they take it to be essential to the natural 
order. Yet a national employment service properly managed 
would supply the data which would throw light on present 
waste while yet affording the facilities through which that 
waste might be avoided. 

Facts and conditions such as these might have been envisaged 
at any time during the last five decades. As a matter of fact, 
at least twenty years ago, European industrial nations began 
to plan carefully to deal with their own similar problems. 
The English system of national labor exchanges is almost as 
old as Lloyd George's fame, and Germany was the pioneer. 
Five years and more ago, the United States made a furtive 
beginning. An Employment Service was established as a part 
of the Bureau of Immigration of the Department of Labor. 
During the slump of immigration which came during 191 5 
and 191 6, federal immigration officers were diverted to em- 
ployment tasks. Congress had made no preparations, and in 
consequence the secretary of labor merely undertook to begin 
to perform a great national function while men trained in 
other activities were temporarily idle. At the beginning of 
1 91 8, a fresh start was made. Congress had given little evi- 
dence of being aware even of the existence of the need. Neces- 
sity was so great, however, that the secretary of labor, stimu- 
lated by other government heads, who were directly respon- 
sible for producing the materials needed for the prosecution 
of the war, could not longer hesitate. The United States 
Employment Service was born in the office of the secretary 
of labor and it was nourished with iunds provided by the 




president out of a general appropriation allotted to him by 
Congress to meet the emergencies of the war. 

The organization was enormously expanded during the 
summer of 191 8. It was given the exclusive task of recruit- 
ing unskilled labor for all war work. In addition to this it 
rapidly built up divisions dealing with skilled labor, with 
women's work, and with the employment of juniors. Within 
a few months, the Employment Service was compelled to 
carry a load whose easy handling called for the experience 
and the slow growth of years. There were weaknesses ; there 
were mistakes ; there was inadequacy of vision ; nevertheless 
cooperation was given from every interested source and many 
signal achievements were made. At the peak of its growth, 
the United States Employment Service maintained 742 branch 
offices and employed 3,387 workers. [See the Survey for 
January 31, 1920, page 484.] During the season of its war 
activity — the eleven months from January to November, 19 18 
— the service registered 3,675,858 individuals. It received 
applications for 7,895,675 workers. It referred 3,444,093 
individuals to jobs, and actually placed, according to its re- 
ports, 2,698,877. Since October, 1919, because of the failure 
of Congress to appropriate, the Employment Service has. been 
unable to maintain independent offices. It now works through 
state and municipal agencies. According to the last report 
23 states and 10 cities are cooperating with the federal Em- 
ployment Service which is now attempting, in an impoverished 
way, to act as a national clearing house for state and muni- 
cipal agencies. The federal organization conducts no field 
work and operates no employment bureaus. All placement 
work of intrastate clearance, all work of collecting informa- 
tion relating to employment and industrial conditions is car- 
ried on by states and by municipalities. Some states report 
to the federal office on the employment activities of their own 
offices on the industrial situation from week to week, and on 
the labor surplus or deficit from day to day and on their ship- 
ment of labor to other states. The federal office receives, 
and, as well as it can, analyzes the information thus obtained. 
With inadequate resources, it endeavors to survey the indus- 
trial problem of the nation and to coordinate the employment 
activities of the states but the real work of necessity is done 
by the individual states and by the cities. A national em- 
ployment service in any true sense of the term has ceased to 

Many of the states have been stimulated by their experi- 
ence during the war and are now doing good work. During 
the fiscal year, July, 1919, to June, 1920, 2,018,258 individ- 
uals are reported to have been placed at work. Extremely 
interesting activities have still been carried on in the harvest 
fields. Zone clearance offices were established at strateg c 
places, and armies of harvesters were recruited to aid the 
farmers. In 191 8 when the labor shortage was at its height 
and before the Employment Service had been sufficiently ex- 
tended, farmers in certain districts of Kansas are reported to 
have paid as high as $15 a day for field workers, while at the 
same time in many places harvest hands were idle. The or- 
ganization of recruiting through the state and federal offices 
restored wages to a more normal level and at the same time 
gave additional employment to the men actually available. 
The harvest hands were benefited and the farmers generally 
reduced the labor cost of producing wheat. 

At the present time, the federal service has left only a skele- 
ton organization Its chief public activity, aside from advis- 
ing with the state and municipal offices, is to make public the 
information obtained through these sources. In January, the 
Washington office began to issue a report on employment. In 
its initial statement the service presented figures showing that 
that month 3,473,446 fewer workers were employed in indus- 
try that in January, 1920 — a reduction of 36.9 per cent. The 
service, however, ought to be more than a minor publicity 
agency for state and local offices. The Employment Service 

ought to be reconstructed to serve the industrial and agricul- 
tural needs of the nation. The Kenyon-N'olan bill is suf- 
ficiently elastic to provide for a cooperative employment ser- 
vice combining both state and national effort. It is conceiv- 
able that the plan embodied in the bill could be improved. It 
might well be that the Department of Commerce, the De- 
partment of Agriculture and the Department of Labor ought 
jointly to supervise the national service, although there are 
certain arguments for retaining the Employment Service in 
the Department of Labor. But these are questions of detail, 
even though highly important detail. The fundamental need 
is to recognize national responsibility in the matter. The 
present requirement is for the re-establishment of the Em- 
ployment Service on an adequate scale. Out of such an or- 
ganization properly managed will pour that information con- 
cerning the actual functioning of the productive energies of 
the nation pre-requisite to any permanent building. 

William L. Chenery. 

The Crime Wave and 


CRIME wave or' no crime wave, that is a mooted 
question in more than one community. The matter 
is serious enough but has humorous aspects, as when 
in one of Stephen Leacock's inimitable sketches the 
crime wave is reported to have reached Jonesville at precisely 
noon on a certain day. At this fatal hour the inevitable "pro- 
minent citizen" was shot down on the always present "Main 
Street." There is also some humor, though it is most one- 
sided, in the recent action of one of the judges of the biggest 
criminal court in our biggest city in sentencing four young 
men to maximum terms because forsooth they "started the 
crime wave in New York." 

The writer has recently conducted an inquiry and collected 
some figures which at least cast grave doubt on the existence 
of any crime wave if -by that expression, dubbed a "reportorial 
phrase" by one police commissioner, is meant an appreciable 
increase in the aggregate amount of crime. 

Statements were secured from police commissioners or chiefi 
of police of a number of large cities, including New York, 
Detroit, Cleveland, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Buffalo and Roch- 
ester. All deny the existence of a crime wave and most of 
them submit figures showing fewer arrests and convictions 
during 1920 than during the previous year. 

In Buffalo, there was a decrease in 1920 in each of the 
following groups: homicides, burglaries, hold-ups, pockets 
picked, and automobiles stolen. The total decrease in these 
five major groups, as compared with the total in 1919 was 
675, or 27 per cent. In Detroit, where there has been much 
crime-wave talk, there were fewer arrests for five major crimes 
during the last three months of 1920, than during the same 
period in either 1919, 191 7 or 1916. 

On the other hand, some of these police chiefs admit that 
there was undoubtedly some increase during the latter part of 
1920 in the more flagrant and violent crimes. This was re- 
flected in the newspapers in many cities, although of course one 
can get no true perspective from newspaper accounts of 
sporadic crimes any more than one can judge of the social 
importance of certain murder trials or divorce actions from the 
astounding and unwholesome publicity they secure. It may 
well have happened, as in New York, that a series of sensa- 
tional crimes occurred in close proximity, causing some enter- 
prising newspaper reporter to invent the excellent headline 
phrase of "crime wave." 

Not desiring to give too much weight to police reports, the 
writer has compiled some figures showing court arraignments 
for most of the courts of New York state. These figures show 


— 1 — 



for all courts an increase of 1.4 per cent in the number of 
arraignments in 1920 as compared with 1919. This small 
increase, however, was entirely in the lower courts and may 
be accounted for entirely by increased traffic law violations 
and other minor offenses due to more stringent laws and 
stricter enforcement. 

In ten large county courts trying felonies, there was a de- 
crease in 1920 of 10.3 per cent in arraignments. In the court 
where nearly all of the most serious crimes committed in Man- 
hattan come for trial, the Court of General Sessions, there 
were 4,743 arraignments in 1920, as against 5,114 in 1919. 
These figures certainly do not reveal anything like a general 
crime wave. 

The police chiefs in the cities above cited were asked to 
give their opinion of the causes and means of preventing crime. 
Those who admitted any increase in certain kinds of crime in 
the latter part of 1920 attributed this chiefly to two factors: 
( 1 ) the return of soldiers with generally unsettled conditions 
after the war; (2) general industrial depression and the pre- 
vailing unemployment. If there is a crime wave, and the 
general conclusion seems to be that there has been no general 
increase, but some increase in recent months in the more 
spectacular crimes, the fact seems to be largely due to the 
above factors. 

No statistics are at hand to show how many of the offenders 
caught are ex-soldiers, but many known instances have oc- 
curred. Most of the serious crimes have been committed in 
our cities by very young men, almost boys, between the ages 
of sixteen and twenty-five. Never before has the young crim- 
inal been so much in evidence. Familiarity with deadly 
weapons and the war spirit turned to lawlessness, whether 
caused by actual experience at the front, the associations of 
the camp, or reading newspapers at home, unquestionably have 
caused some boys, doubtlessly criminally inclined, who would 
otherwise have been at least cautious in their depredations, to 
develop into daring burglars or highwaymen, taking any 

Here is an actual case in point, the facts of which came 
under the writer's personal observation : 

A young man was convicted of robbery, first degree, for par- 
ticipating in two daring hold-ups carried out, according to the 
local newspapers, in true "money or your life" style. With an- 
other young man as an accomplice, both armed with revolvers, 
these hold-ups were carried on in boldest fashion. In one of 
them the victim was shot and barely escaped with his life. Care- 
ful investigation by a probation officer failed to show any pre- 
vious attempts at crime. The young man had served with the 
108th Regiment in France, took part in several battles and had 
an excellent military record. Previous to his enlistment in the 
army he had a good record for industry and sobriety. After 
leaving the service he did not become easily adjusted to civil 
life, fell in with bad companions, and went "the limit." Al- 
though he confessed and was apparently repentant, because of 
the seriousness of the crimes and the public indignation aroused, 
he was sent to a state prison for four years. 

What has been the effect of this awakened public interest 
in the age-old problem of crime upon the public faith in the 
newer, more humane and scientific methods of dealing with 
offenders through probation, the indeterminate sentence and 
parole? Only one of the police .chiefs replying to the ques- 
tionnaire, a known reactionary, believed that "altogether too 
much probation and parole" had caused increased crime. In 
his city, however, to the writer's knowledge, probation has 
been successfully and carefully administered and has the sup- 
port of all classes of citizens. The same chief reported fewer 
arrests in 1920 than in previous years. 

In Chicago a committee of the Crime Commission in its 
Second Annual Report criticizes the administration of the 
probation system and the probation law as applied to adults. 
To advocates of probation in other states, especially in New 
York and Massachusetts, this at first is surprising. In Illinois 
the law gives much less discretion to the judges in the use of 
probation than in New York, Massachusetts and in many 

other states where the power of the courts to place on proba- 
tion instead of to commit is practically unlimited. Testimony 
from these states is overwhelming that no serious abuses have 
arisen, that the courts have on the whole used the wider 
powers given them under the probation laws wisely and well. 
There seems to be no doubt that the trouble in Chicago is not 
with the probation law but its faulty administration. A suffi- 
cient number of properly trained probation officers has not 
been provided. As a result the system of careful social in- 
vestigation of cases before they are placed on probation has 
not been developed. When two or three times as many 
charges are assigned to one distracted officer as he or she can 
properly supervise there is danger. The result is superficial 
or no investigations preliminary to sentence and lack of care- 
ful supervision. 

Hurried, unscientific dealing with offenders in all of our 
so-called inferior courts has been the rule. Happily there are 
signs of a change. Information has recently come from the 
Chicago Crime Commission that they will not sponsor an at- 
tack on the probation law but will bend every effort to im- 
prove its administration. 

Another reaction of the public and of some of the courts 
to the "crime wave" has been an expressed desire for more 
severe penalties. In New York state there are now pending 
in the legislature a series of bills, some of them, though by no 
means all, inspired by judges of criminal courts. At the pres- 
ent writing the more drastic of these bills seem doomed to 
defeat. Some of them which merely increase the possible max- 
imum prison term for serious felonies, thus giving the courts 
greater latitude, seem unobjectionable. Others, breaking down 
the indeterminate sentence provisions, as for instance the bills 
prescribing a fiat life sentence for burglary in the first degree 
and for murder in the second degree, and others raising or 
fixing a high minimum term, thus tying the hands of the 
court, seem to be decidedly reactionary. 

The entire current popular discussion of the crime problem, 
whether it be of a sporadic crime wave or the ever-present 
problem as old as Abel (and probably a million or so years 
older) is, as it always has been, to say the least, largely puerile 
and unscientific. It seems when we are confronted by the 
social and individual phenomena of delinquency that most peo- 
ple are governed by their feelings and more so than in any 
other field. Every crime, or let us say every anti-social act (the 
word crime is surcharged with the feelings of hate and fear), 
has a cause. When the offender, be he child or man, is first 
apprehended, is not the first essential to get at the causes 
whether they be mental, moral, environmental or, as fre- 
quently, all three; then in possession of the facts, we may 
apply a fitting treatment to cure the condition and only thus 
protect society. To give this necessary individual treatment, 
the court must have broad discriminatory powers and also 
trained social agents and experts and enough of them. More 
severity, an attack on probation, or the indeterminate sentence 
as seemingly too lenient, too considerate to the prisoner, will 
help not at all. These reactions are due largely to feelings, 
primitive feelings of revenge, intolerance and fear. 

If war and industrial depression are causes of crime, as they 
undoubtedly are combined with other factors, this is only one 
of many counts in the indictment. When we become suffi- 
ciently intelligent to outlaw them, we may expect an end of 
crime waves and crime itself will be lessened as it undoubtedly 
has been by every real social advance. 

But this is a long story. In the meantime the best thing we 
can do is to equip the police, the courts and all of our institu- 
tions dealing with delinquency with social experts who know 
their job and give to those who administer these agencies 
greater powers of scientific discrimination in order to bring 
about individual treatment, not falling back to old ways gov- 
erned by rigid laws and "feelings." Charles L. Chute. 

Secretary, National Probation Association. 

The "Home Boy" in Delaware 

Conditions of Child Life in a State Which Still Legalizes the 

Binding Out System 

By Paul L. Benjamin 

CHARLES DICKENS would find rare, material 
for another incomparable story in the history of the 
placed out child of Delaware. Here the schoolroom 
door stands hospitably open during the early, sunny 
days of September, but not always for the "home boy." He 
must tramp, tramp the long sweet potato rows, seed the wheat, 
and husk the corn. Then comes a brief snatch of school un- 
til time for the holly wreaths at Christmas. After that if 
he can struggle through the mud and the weather, he at- 
tends school until March. With the spring come the birds, 
the call to the out-of-doors, and the crops — always the crops. 
The "home boy" starts the drab existence over again. 

For some time Delaware has felt that everything was not 
right with the "home" children. In 1916 the federal Chil- 
dren's Bureau made a survey of mental defectives in her 
rural communities. This indicated that a factor in the feeble- 
mindedness in the state was the child placed with the Dela- 
ware farmer by child-placing agencies of other states. Then 
a New York newspaper branded Delaware as primitive, call- 
ing attention to an old law sanctioning the binding out of 
•hildren. Delaware hastened to ascertain the truth. The 
state Board of Charities states that there are now about 
twenty children actually "bound out" in Delaware. The law 
permitting this is termed "The Masters, Apprentices and Em- 
ployees" (see Revised Code of Delaware, page 1447, 3101- 
3122 inclusive). It binds the child to its master and gives 
the master the right to will the child to his assigns, and cir- 
cumvents any attempt on the part of the child to run away. 
Naturally such a law has given the foster parent a feeling of 
possession. These twenty children, however, are Delaware's 

In 191 7 the state Board of Education was authorized by the 
legislature to administer a law requiring outside agencies 
placing in Delaware to give a bond. Last year the Board of 
Education assisted by the Children's Bureau of Delaware 
engaged Jessie Logie to make an intensive study of the situa- 
tion in the state and of the 294 children placed within her 
orders. This study covered from March 1, 1920, to De- 
cember 15, 1920. Miss Logie made an exceedingly signifi- 
cant, colorful report which is an indictment of' the methods 
employed by certain of the outside agencies. 

The cases cited show the condition of these children. There 
is for instance William, a bright mulatto boy of thirteen 
years of age, who was placed with a farmer. The man is 
the sun-up-to-sun-down type of worker. William attended 
school only seventy-six and a half days during 1919-1920. 
Early in the spring he was taken out of school. And 
he works — ten hours a day — drag-harrowing and cultivat- 

The group of outside agencies studied included the two or 
three doing a good, intensive job straight down to the one 
sending a child alone to a distant railway station to be met 
by a farmer. The three striking things unearthed by Miss 
Logie's report were the prevalence of mental defectives, the 

lack of proper schooling, and the exploitation of children as 
farm laborers. 

Delaware has been a fruitful field in which to place the 
backward child. Dr. L. O. Weldon of the United States 
Public Health Service during 1920 examined 49 of the 294 
children chosen for the Children's Bureau study, because of a 
history of doubtful mentality. Of this number 16 were found 
to be retarded, and 25 were discovered to be mentally de- 
ficient. In a report submitted to the surgeon-general of 
the service under date of October 4, 1920, it is stated that 
. . . these and other examintions made by the Public Health 
Service, show the actual and potential seriousness to the state 
of Delaware of the unrestricted placement of dependent children 
within her borders. The state can probably protect itself 
adequately against the dumping of defective and psychopathic 
material from other states by a system of investigation, whereby 
the proper state authorities will have on file a family history, 
personal history and physical and mental examination of each 
child before allowing it to come into the state for placement. 

Thoughtful citizens of the state are asking: "Is the de- 
pendent child really a white slave of Delaware?" "Are the 
children being exploited as farm laborers?" "Are the schools 
primitive?" The following typical case makes pertinent 
these questions. Francis, seventeen years old, has been for 
the past four years in the home of a farmer who has a son 
sixteen years of age. The lad is in the seventh grade having 
attended school only 100 days last year. On the other hand, 
the son is in the second year of high school and attends every 
day. Francis was kept out of school until late in the fall 
to work while the farmer's own son started on time. Indeed, 
as one looks over the whole array of cases, time almost clanks 
back to the apprenticing of seamen, the slave mart, and Stev- 
enson's vivid portrayal in Kidnapped. The "home boy" who 
reaches the age of eighteen and is still in the fifth or sixth 
grade and refuses to go longer to school never recovers his 
lost ground. 

Up to 1917, Delaware had no state-wide compulsory at- 
tendance law. Since 191 7 the law has required 180 days 
a year up to fourteen years of age, 100 days a year until the 
completion of the grammar school. According to the statistics 
of the Delaware State Board of Education, in the school 
year of 1919-1920, of the 187 children over fourteen years 
of age, only thirteen were in high school and only eighty- 
three were above the sixth grade. There were only 7 chil- 
dren between the ages of fourteen and sixteen years who 
went to school over 130 days; 71 between the ages of seven 
and thirteen years went less than 130 days. It would seem 
that at least a majority of the societies leave the matter of 
an education entirely to the foster parents and authorities. 

Perhaps the most cruel phase of this situation rests in the 
drab lives of the child workers. "Silent but eloquent wit- 
nesses to their long hours of hard labor are their enormous 
hands distorted by hard work." Miss Logie tells the story 
of Laurence, a pathetic youngster of twelve, placed with a 
tenant farmer on a large farm with a shabby house. "Chil- 
dren must be made to work, and if they don't work they 
must be whipped," says the old man. Early in May, Lau- 





rence is plowing with a walking plow. For him the school 
door is closed. He trudges in from the fields, with big hands 
and bulgy blue overalls. What chance has such a lad of be- 
coming a normal individual under the present handicap of 
hard labor for which his school is sacrificed? 

The Child Labor Law of Delaware, Article III, Chapter 
90, Revised Code of Delaware, Section 44, says: 

No child under fourteen years of age shall be employed, per- 
mitted or suffered to work in, about or in connection with any 
establishment or in any occupation except as hereinafter pro- 

Provided, however, that this act shall not apply to children 
employed on the farm or in domestic service in private homes. 

One wonders at this discrimination. Farm labor may be 
most cruel — the remoteness, the monotony, the heat, the tasks 
often past the strength of adolescence, the food, the sleeping 
quarters. Hours are often from sunrise to sunset with milk- 
ing the cows, feeding the stock, long hours in the fields, and 
then to bed after evening chores have been done. As one 
youngster of thirteen who gave this routine for the day said, 
"Then I wouli like to read, but I am too tired and have to 
go to bed." 

Child placing is a difficult and delicate process. It de- 
mands skill and training and the ability to translate such 
factors into terms of human life and happiness. It requires 
the most painstaking study of the conditions surrounding the 
child and its family life. It involves, as Miss Logie says, 
"an investigation not only of the social and economic condi- 
tions of the family, the resources offered by relatives and the 
possibility of mothers' pensions, but also a patient and per- 
sistent effort to adjust the family problems and to hold the 
family intact." Only six of the eleven agencies now operat- 
ing in Delaware endeavor to make a thorough investigation 
before receiving the child. The remaining five agencies do 
not consider that it is their function to go deeply into the 
situation surrounding the child offered for placement. "The 
old-fashioned surrender is used by the latter group. A parent 
or guardian who, for some reason, finds himself in a difficult 
position regarding the care of a child applies in person to 
the society. He then signs a paper before a notary public 
surrendering all claim to the child and promising not to at- 
tempt to see it or to disturb it until it is of age." Such a 
surrender often brings a train of complications, tragedies and 

John, a cunning dark-haired boy of ten years, is a member 
of a family consisting of a father, one brother and two sisters. 
The mother is dead. The father places the children at board 
in an institution but fails to meet the payments. The chil- 
dren are then placed out although there is no question of the 
father's unfitness unless it be that of poverty. John is placed 
with a tenant farmer down state, a man of mediocre intelli- 
gence and little education, who whips the child with a strap 
and leaves him alone nights while the family drives in to a 
neighboring town for the movies. Meanwhile the real father 
has died. The relatives are constantly asking for John. 
And so, here is a family of small, attractive children, torn 
apart and scattered without the least apparent effort to keep 
them together. 

But with investigation the task is only begun. Adequate 
supervision, tactfully and patiently conducted, is the real test 
of a good child-placing job. As Miss Logie points out, if 
it develops that it is necessary to place a child in a home, 
then the type of home best adapted to the particular child 
must be carefully considered. After a painstaking investiga- 
tion we should know something of the child's disposition and 
tastes, and where habits and training stand ready to attack 

his weakest points. On the same score the home should be 
fitted to the child. The conscientious, well-equipped worker 
will persist until the homeless child is transplanted easily and 
naturally into the home suited for it. The organization 
owes it to the child to keep sufficiently in touch with him to 
give him a warm feeling of guardianship until he has become 
an actual and permanent member of the family or to make 
him feel, when the world looks black and he is filled with 
a sense of oppression and injustice, that he has a spokesman 
in at least one person — in fact, that he has a real friend who 
sees that he gets a square deal no matter how much courage 
it may take to correct the wrong conditions. Agencies do- 
ing thorough work do not allow more than fifty children to 
a worker where active supervision is necessary. 

Of the agencies represented in the state, one visits its chil- 
dren once a month and takes them every six months for a 
medical examination. These children are kept in good physi- 
cal condition. Five of the agencies visit their children from 
two to four times a year, sometimes- more often. Two at- 
tempt to visit their children once a year but simply record the 
date of the visit. The four remaining societies have no sys- 
tem of visiting and keep practically no record of their visits. 
One of these has not visited the children within three years. 
None of the latter had any record of the child beyond the 
bare fact that he was placed on such and such a date with a 
certain person. There is nothing to show the amount of 
schooling, the grade or, indeed, whether or not he has been 
in school at all. 

Play and recreation are vital needs in the life of any child. 
A few years ago the rural districts of Kent and Sussex coun- 
ties were peculiarly bereft of the means of recreation. Bad 
roads isolated the farms to such an extent that the farmers 
were obliged to depend almost wholly upon their own re- 
sources for amusement. The Ford and the movie, however, 
have brought happier days. It is indeed a busy farmer who 
does not now stop his work on a Saturday evening in time 
to take the family to the nearest town. Almost the highest 
form of cruelty that can be inflicted is to leave the child home 
on such a Saturday evening. This is often the case with 
the "home child." Miss Logie tells the story of James, a 
bright boy of fourteen, living with a farmer and his wife 
who are well past middle age and who seeni quite devoted 
to him. The worker, calling on the foster mother in her 
^neat, clean, little sitting-room with its shining furniture push- 
ed well back against the wall asks: 

"Does James get a chance to play?" 

"Well," is the reply, "he goes to church on Sunday mornings 
and in the afternoon he rests and goes to church again." 

"But is that all?" 

Her face brightened at the question: "There is never a funeral 
notice comes to this house but James goes." 
Thus we have the "home" child of Delaware. What 
a contrast is found in this state with its wonderful fruits and 
berries, its luscious melons and delicious vegetables, its pine 
woods and holly trees. As Miss Logie vividly says: "Here 
are the countless tired feet of children trudging all day long 
up and down the corn rows, aching little backs that have 
bent over the sweet potato fields from early morning until 
sun down." 

The Children's Bureau study is an arraignment of poor 
child placing. It makes clear the grave abuses that will cer- 
tainly creep into the foster family care of children unless the 
society placing the child has full knowledge as to the child, its 
needs, the foster home, its capabilities and limitations, and 
ties these two up through careful and adequate supervision in 
the form of visits, letters and conferences. 




Conducted by 

IN a memorandum which will come up for action before 
the House of Delegates of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation at its meeting in Boston next June, the Council on 
Health and Public Instruction of that body recommends that 
in local medical societies throughout the country laymen, con- 
cerned with public health, should be admitted as associate 
members in the appropriate sections of the medical societies. 
Should such a relationship be confirmed by the American 
Medical Association at its forthcoming meeting, far-reaching 
results, beneficial to medical men and to the lay public alike, 
may be anticipated as time goes on. 

The council includes such distinguished physicians as Dr. 
Victor C. Vaughan, chairman, dean of the University of 
Michigan Medical School, Dr. Walter B. Cannon of Har- 
vard, one of the leading physiologists of the world, Dr. W. S. 
Rankin, the progressive health commissioner of North Caro- 
lina, Dr. Haven Emerson, former health commissioner of 
New York, Dr. Milton Board of Louisville, Ky., Dr. Fred- 
erick R. Green of Chicago, secretary. 

In a report put forth on a rural health program, the coun- 
cil points out the growth of large public health associations 
in which laymen as well as physicians are active. The repo:t 
itself strikingly illustrates the broadening of interest among 
members of the medical profession in the relationship of med- 
ical practice to public health and to economic or social problems. 

It outlines the need of the small town and rural districts 
for better medical service and speaks of the isolation of the 
rural practitioner. It recommends that the American Medi- 
cal Association should take steps: 

(a) To assist local medical practitioners by supplying them 
with proper diagnostic facilities. 

(b) To provide for residents of rural districts, and for all 
others who cannot otherwise secure such benefits, adequate and 
scientific medical treatment, hospital and dispensary facilities 
and nursing care. 

(c) To provide more efficiently for the maintenance of health 
in rural and isolated districts. 

(d) To provide for young physicians who desire to go to 
rural localities, opportunities for laboratory aid in diagnosis. 

(e) The council believes that these results can be best se- 
cured by providing in each rural community a hospital with 
Roentgen-ray and laboratory facilities to be used by the legally 
qualified physicians of the community. The secretary of the 
council was requested to study the laws of the different states 
bearing upon this subject and to prepare a model bill to be 
studied more fully at the meeting of the council in March, 1921. 

It is also of interest that the council recommends the pub- 
lication by the American Medical Association of a "popular 
jp-to-date journal" dealing with sanitation and the problems 
)f communicable disease. The nature and transmission of 
contagious diseases, the council states in its report, ought to 
be taught in the public schools of the country and such teach- 
ing should be required by law. No teacher, according to the 
council, should be given her license without having had in- 
struction in these subjects and all normal schools and univer- 
sity schools of education should be required to give instruc- 
tion therein. 

Dr. Victor C. Vaughan, chairman of the Council of Health 
and Public Instruction, in h-is address at one of the meetings 
of the Midwinter Medical Congress, elaborated more fully 
than the brief report of the council the program of community 
medicine, which he and his associates believe necessary to meet 
present needs in the smaller communities. 

This Midwinter Congress, which has been held for years 
under the auspices of the American Medical Association in 
Chicago, took this year the form of a conference of five bod- 
ies — the Council on Medical Education and Hospitals, the 

Physician and Layman 

Council on Health and Public Instruction of the American 
Medical Association, the Association of American Medical 
Colleges, the Federation of State Medical Boards of the 
United States, and the American Conference on Hospital 
Service — and, as many of those present remarked, was not- 
able because a considerable part of the program went entirely 
outside the special medical areas into the broader relations 
which are now stirring the minds of forward-looking physi- 
cians. In fact, of the seven sessions, three were almost ex- 
clusively concerned with such subjects: Hospital Service; Ru- 
ral Health Centers; and Organization of the Public for 
Health Work. A few years ago, the programs of these annual 
congresses were entirely technical. 

Dr. Vaughan recited the achievement during the first half 
of the Nineteenth Century of many village doctors in the 
scientific study of disease and the advancement of medical ser- 
vice. With the growth of cities and the increasing dependence 
of the physician upon elaborate and expensive means of diag- 
nosis, the physician in the small community has been put to 
greater and greater disadvantage as compared with his urban 
brother. Consequently the young men have been shunning 
the country. The average age of physicians in country prac- 
tice is in many places above fifty. The younger men are not 
coming in. Yet despite the rapid growth of the large cities 
these smaller places still include more than half the popula- 
tion of this country. In a series of propositions Dr. Vaughan 
outlines his program as follows: 

Every physician should have modern, scientific facilities for 
diagnosing disease. This means the aid of techncians, such as 
bacteriologists, chemists, X-ray operators, together with suitable 
equipment with which to work, and a library. But laboratories, 
specialists, equipment, and libraries are far too expensive to be 
provided by the individual doctor. The time when the indi- 
vidual physician could depend upon his unaided senses, with a 
few simple instruments, has passed. The community has a stake 
in the high quality of medical service, for the health and well- 
being of everyone is affected. The community should therefore 
bear a share in the provision of those tools which the medical 
profession needs to work with. Only in this way can the finan- 
cial burden be borne and the health interests of the public be 

There should be a "minimum of interference" by any public 
agency with the relations between the doctor and his patients. 
The patients should have the unquestioned right to select their 
own physicians. The fee to be paid by the patient should be 
fixed by agreement between him and his doctor, without any 
.interference or regulation by outside authority. Physicians ap- 
pointed by a state or other public authorities are not needed in 
civil life, certainly not by those able to pay a physician. The 
relation between the private practitioner and his patient is con- 
fidential, is sacrosanct, is a matter only between the individual 

Every community, upon the vote of its citizens, should be per- 
mitted to build and maintain a community hospital. Already 
eleven states have enabling acts which permit local communities 
to build and maintain general hospitals. Such laws should be 
extended throughout the country. Community hospitals should 
have one bed for about every 500 of population, each bed to be 
in a room by itself. Library, X-ray equipment, and operating 
facilities should be included in the plan of the hospital. These 
facilities should be open to every physician of the community 
for his private patients. The hospital should charge the patient 
a fee for the cost of nursing, board, and administrative service; 
but there should be no control by the hospital over the fee of 
the private physician from the patient. 

Again Dr. Vaughan emphasizes the peculiarly individual 
character of this relationship. 

Community hospitals should [he said] be managed by a board 
of trustees of three to five men. The state might contribute 
something toward the community hospitals in some backward 
or poor localities, but state aid should be reduced to the minimum 
possible. They should serve as places for study, inspiration, 




and in a way as graduate schools for the local medical pro- 
fession. Preventive as well as curative medicine should be con- 
sidered in planning the work and relationships of hospitals. 
Such hospitals would thus be developed as centers from which 
valuable statistics of morbidity could be collected. Such com- 
munity hospitals would place all physicians on the same level 
as far as opportunities "are concerned. There would no longer 
be an overwhelming advantage for the doctor who lives in the 
large city. 

There is a wide-spread movement for state medicine and 
compulsory insurance, of which much, Dr. Vaughan contends, 
the medical profession should oppose. If the organized med- 
ical profession leaves the initiative to other groups it remains, 
he pointed out, on the defensive. The organized medical pro- 
fession should recognize that there are grave needs for better 
service in different parts of the country ; they should take hold 
of this problem aggressively and work out a program in a 
constructive way along the lines now recommended. 

Such is a program for better medical service presented by 
physicians, to physicians, for physicians. It suggests the need 
of laymen and physicians sitting in together to address them- 
selves to problems which concern both. 

Michael M. Davis, Jr. 


Socialized Medicine 

OCIALIZED medicine" in North Carolina is an issue 
which has been' sharply brought to the front. This state 
has a progressive health officer, Dr. W. S. Rankin, last year 
president of the American Public Health Association. Un- 
der his leadership some of the most progressive health work 
of the country has been undertaken in the counties of North 
Carolina, particularly that dealing with the great plagues of 
the South: malaria and hookworm. But Doctor Rankin has 
run foul of opposition arising among sections of the medical 
profession in his own state. The Guilford County Medical 
Society on November 4 last passed resolutions endorsing in 
general the educational campaign which has been instituted 
by the board and which has been successfully conducted by 
it for a number of years. "We believe," states the first reso- 
lution, "that this campaign of education as instituted by the 
state Board of Health has done much to stamp out infectious 
diseases and has prevented the spread of communicable dis- 
eases." With this commendatory resolution as an introduc- 
tion, the society turned from praise to censure with the aston- 
ishing statement that it believed that the board should not in- 
stitute a campaign of treatment for any disease or condition 
whatever. As if made bolder by enunciation of this sally, the 
resolutions set out in earnest to make war: 

The campaign instituted by the state Board of Health for the 
removal of tonsils and adenoids has been unnecessary, expens- 
ive and reflects upon the willingness of the physicians of the 
state to take care of these cases. In the main, the cases that 
have been operated on have been at places unsuited for opera- 
tions on the throat or any other surgical procedure. Operation! 
conducted in school houses or places that have not been espe- 
cially constructed for this and in the presence of a great number 
where the patient could not have the best advantages, are con- 
ducive to bad results, and owing to the congestion incident to 
these clinics, in many instances, are dangerous to life. In Guil- 
ford County the men doing special work along this line have 
always been anxious and willing to give to any poor person, 
who mav need their service, every consideration and their best 
efforts free of all charges, but these men are not willing to 
operate on cases that are able to pay without compensation and 
indeed we believe that the local men are more familiar with the 
financial conditions existing in this community than the state 
Board of Health. We believe that every operative case should 
be studied and a complete examination made and a careful 
history taken, then treated when the operator is not forced to 
tax himself or his assistants, avoiding excitement, rush and a 
wholesale way of doing things. 

As a climax the society charges that 

. . . the treatment of diseases as instituted by the state Board 
of Health is looking toward socialistic medicine animated by a 
socialistic spirit and is a step toward state paternalism. 

Dr. Rankin meets this fundamental issue squarely and ef- 

fectively in an open letter from which the following swinging 
paragraphs may be quoted: 

Your resolutions, after the customary preliminary friendly 
grip of their first section, proceed at once to attempt a decision 
with a knock-out for the state Board of Health in the next 
round, Section 2. There is no question about your getting the 
decision, about the board's taking the count, if you can land 
with the full force of your all-inclusive swing: "We do not 
believe that the state Board of Health should institute a treat- 
ment campaign for any disease or condition." Your society 
evidently believes, with us, in that nugget of wisdom which 
Theodore Roosevelt voiced when he laid: "It is unpardonable 
to hit lightly." 

It is a good thing that the hookworm campaign is about over 
in North Carolina and in the South, because if the Guilford 
doctors stop the state from treating a disease in order to prevent 
new cases all the work that reduced the prevalence of hookworm 
disease 35 per cent and that did away with all aggravated types 
of the disease would have been impossible. The campaign 
against hookworm disease, as you will recall, was based upon 
treating the infected person in order to prevent that person 
from scattering the infection in such a way as to reach others. 

Your knock-out, if it should land, would do more to cripple 
and to make ineffective the campaign against malaria, the one 
outstanding and the greatest of all southern health problems, 
than anything that could conceivably happen, because one of the 
principal means for preventing malaria is the treatment of the 
chronic malarial carrier by quinine in order that his infection 
may be destroyed and not transferred by the mosquito to his 
family and neighbors. This method of malaria control, in many 
places, is the only available meant by which the disease may be 
prevented. It was well developed under the leadership of 
Gorgas in Panama and Cuba; it has been the main reliance in 
the control of the disease in the Roman Campagnia; it is recom- 
mended by every text-book on preventive medicine; it is used 
by the United States Public Health Service and every southern 
state board of health. 

If your knock-out should land, the campaign against venereal 
diseases will be done away with. Your county society knows 
that during the war and on the battle front in France there were 
more soldiers in hospitals, physically incapacitated from ven- 
ereal diseases than from wounds received in battle; your society 
further knows that the government is responsible for the state- 
ment that these diseases are more prevalent among civilians 
than among soldiers. The strategy of the attack on venereal 
diseases was planned and adopted by three cabinet officers, 
assisted by three surgeons-general serving under them, to wit, 
Secretary Daniels of the navy, Secretary Baker of the army, 
Secretary McAdoo of the treasury, and Surgeons-General Braist- 
ed of the navy, Ireland of the army, and Cumming of the Public 
Health Service. It consists in attacking the freshly infected per- 
son, cases of gonorrhea and syphilis in their easily curable 
stages, in treating the infected before he can convey his infec- 
tion to others. 

All of these instances are cited only as illustrations of the 
principle that in the prevention of many of our most important 
diseases prevention is based and conditioned upon treatment. 

It would seem that the members of your county society had 
gone far enough when they expressed their opposition to the 
treatment of any disease by the state in order to prevent its 
being spread to others, but you were not satisfied. Your society 
believes in thoroughness. When its members move they go with 
such momentum, aided by gravity, that it is impossible to stop at 
the foot of the hill. They go right on into the sea. Not content 
with placing themselves on record against the treatment of any 
disease by the state your society also records its opposition to the 
treatment of any condition by the state to prevent the develop- 
ment of disease, meaning, of course, the treatment by the state of 
the condition of susceptibility of persons to typhoid fever, small- 
pox and diphtheria with vaccines and antitoxins in order to an- 
ticipate and prevent disease. The free vaccination by the officers 
of the state Board of Health of nearly 300,000 citizens of this 
state against typhoid fever within the last three years and the 
reduction of the total annual deaths from this disease from 839 
in 1914 to 250 in 1920, due largely to typhoid vaccination, was 
a piece of work which, under the resolution of your society, 
should never have been done. And the resolution applies in the 
tame way to vaccinations against smallpox and the use of anti- 
toxins against diphtheria which, by the way, in the last five years 
has had its death rate cut more than half in two. 

The position assumed by your society in Section 2, amazing as 
it is, is less amazing than the reason you advance for it. You 
say "the physicians of North .... are fully qualified and in 
numbers sufficient to take care of the indigent sick, and none will 
or do suffer for want of medical attendance." 

The purposeful use of the word "indigent" in the above quota- 
tion enables your society to avoid a collision with an immovable 
mass of facts regarding the prevalence «f diseases. With that 



word you undertake to dodge the findings of the War and Navy 
departments, that 38 per cent of American men in the healthiest 
of all age periods, between twenty and thirty, are physically 
defective, and a considerable per cent of these defectives are in 
need of medical treatment; you play on "indigent" to avoid the 
findings of the Life Extension Institute, showing that 59 per cent 
of industrial workers are in need of medical treatment, and only 
an insignificant fraction are receiving treatment; with "indi- 
gent" your society attempts to divorce the state's interest and 
care from 40,000 public school children in North Carolina suf- 
fering from defective adenoids and tonsils, from 600,000 school 
children needing dental treatment, from 15,000 persons suffering 
from tuberculosis, from 50,000 suffering from venereal diseases, 
from 100,000 suffering from chronic malaria, and from 30,000 
mothers who go to childbed each year in North Carolina, and 
that without any medical attention, assisted only by ignorant 
and, in many cases, illiterate midwives. 

What does your county society mean by "indigent?" Can a 
democracy classify its citizens into indigent and non-indigent, 
paupers and able to pay? Does your society advocate it? If 
the state's concern for the health of its children should divide 
them into indigent and non-indigent, then why does your county 
society not advocate the application of the same principle to 
public education? Does human progress rest any more upon 
schools than it does upon health? Let me emphasize the point 
that your society seems to miss; namely this: The state is con- 
cerned not only for the health of those who cannot maintain 
health, your "indigent," but also and because of their larger 
number and their greater civic importance, is much more con- 
cerned for those that are not "indigent;" therefore, in providing 
for the vast numbers that suffer from various causes, the con- 
cern of the state is not whether or not they are "indigent," but 
whether they need treatment. 

Coming now to Section 4 of your resolution, you give cer- 
tain special reasons for your opposition to our treatment of 
public school children who suffer from diseased tonsiTs and aden- 
oids. Your first reason is that it "reflects upon the willingness 
of the physicians of the state to take care of these cases." The 
attitude of the profession, its willingness or unwillingness, has 
nothing to do with it. The fact that these children are not 
treated, and that fact alone, accounts for and necessitates the 
position of the state. 

As your society gave two reasons for opposing the tonsil and 
adenoid clinics, so we give two reasons for using them: to pre- 
vent unnecessary disease and inefficiency; and, to promote school 
progress, not only for the diseased child, but more important, 
for the other children that would be held back in their classes if 
the defective were not treated. 

In a personal letter to the Survey, Dr. Rankin states that 
the society has taken no official action in regard to his letter. 
"My information and understanding is that most of the coun- 
ty societies, when this matter came to their attention, moved 
to table it and without discussion, which in my judgment was 
the proper course to pursue. The New Hanover County 
Medical Society and, I presume, others passed strong resolu- 
tions supporting the position of the board." 

Raymond Holden. 

Health Notes 

AT a time when effort is being made by persons interested 
in child welfare to extend the scope of the medical care 
of school children, the recent decision of the Supreme Court 
of the State of Washington that the city of Seattle must aban- 
don its school clinics, comes as a decided shock. Inquiry shows 
that until January 5, the schools maintained a dental clinic 
with two full-time dentists and a dental nurse, caring for 
about thirty children a day. . The League for Medical Free- 
dom initiated action against the clinics, claiming that the 
school funds were being used illegally. The lower court 
sustained the action of the school board, but the case was car- 
ried to the supreme court and the decision reversed. A bill 
has, however, been introduced at the present session of the 
legislature to give the schools the authority to make such ex- 

The school medical inspector in Seattle, Dr. Ira C. Brown, 
writes, "As to the necessity for such dental service, there is a 
crying need for it. When we started the work several years 
ago, 90 per cent of the children needed dental treatment. 
With the efforts of our school nurses and that of our dental 

service, we have reduced this number to about 30 per cent, 
and we were in a fair way of bringing it still farther to a 
place that we might call abreast of the work wk«« vre were 

EXTENSIVE changes have taken place during the two years 
since Dr. I. N. Rubinow, well known in this country for his 
authoritative publications on social insurance and his active 
participation in the health insurance movement, assumed 
charge of the American Zionist Medical Unit in Palestine. 
At the time that Dr. Rubinow entered the work, the country 
was found to be almost without medical service and without 
physicians. There were no well-established hospitals. Now 
there is actually an over-supply of doctors, writes Dr. Rubi- 
now in a recent letter to the Survey. "The financial, as 
well as the moral breakdown of all Eastern Europe and the 
terrible growth of anti-Semitism, pogroms and bo forth, has 
flooded this country with physicians. As against a Jewish 
population of about 70,000 there are already over 100 physi- 
cians in the country, of whom only 50 are employed by the 
American Zionist Medical Unit. So you see that we have 
not monopolized the medical service, and it is difficult to or- 
ganize it completely in face of such competition from out- 
side private physicians. Of course, there is a population of a 
half million Arabs and only a few Arab physicians, but they 
do not call for medical aid until they are in extremes." 

WITH an anti-tuberculosis bill recently drafted by the fed- 
eral government of Switzerland, that republic moves to the 
forefront of the countries which are determined to fight the 
white plague by radical measures. It contains provisions not 
only for obligatory registration but also for compulsory segre- 
gation of patients dangerous to persons in their surroundings ; 
for treatment of predisposed cases in childhood ; disinfection 
and special measures against insanitary dwellings. The can- 
tonal governments are held responsible, under this bill, for 
seeing to it, in cooperation with the municipal authorities 
and private organizations, that all institutions and agencies 
necessary for a successful prevention and treatment of tuber- 
culosis are brought into being, including sanatoria, clinics and 
care of persons predisposed to or endangered by the disease. 
The federal government, under this bill, would financially 
contribute to the maintenance of the necessary institutions by 
the cantons, and through these, by local authorities and volun- 
tary organizations. 

AN effort is being made in Missouri to substitute "legally 
chartered" for "reputable" or "in good standing," as the qual- 
ifying description of medical schools for the licensing of med- 
ical graduates. In a recent editorial, the Journal of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association makes the following comment: "Any 
group of men may obtain a 'legal charter' for a medical 
school ; it requires much more — money, buildings, laboratories, 
expert teachers, and clinical material — to establish one that is 

THE Argentine Republic has entered upon an experiment in 
the control of the use of certain drugs. For six months Ar- 
gentinian druggists will be allowed to sell all brands of aspirin 
or medicines containing aspirin at present on the market, until 
their stock is exhausted. At the end of this period of six 
months the sale of all brands of aspirin will be prohibited 
except on the requisition of an authorized medical practitioner. 

THE growing interest of organized labor in matters of health 
and sanitation is indicated in the resolution recently adopted 
by the Evansville (Ind.) Central Labor Union, favoring 
the passage of a bill by the state legislature giving the state 
Board of Health control of all substances offered for sale as 
remedies for tuberculosis. 




CIVICS: Housing and City Planning 

Conducted by 

The Calder Report 


THREE million idle men are now walking the streets 
while the nation is suffering from a house shortage, 
from inadequate transportation facilities — railways, 
highways, and waterways — and with untold energy from un- 
developed water power awaiting utilization." That is the 
kernel of the building situation as it presented itself to the 
Select Committee on Reconstruction and Production of the 
United States Senate, appointed last August to look into this 
situation, after it had heard many experts and held hearings 
in some of the principal cities. Senator Calder, in the open- 
ing pages of the committee's report, squarely places the blame 
for the shortage of houses on a general maladjustment of 
credits in the two years following the Armistice. It is a con- 
servative report, both in its statement of facts and in the pro- 
gram it advocates; but not timid. If the bills — which, Sen- 
ator Calder says, are being drafted in line with the recom- 
mendations — are passed by Congress, the federal government 
will be able to make a serious beginning on a housing pro- 
motion program such as is almost universal in progressive 
countries and too long postponed in this. 

Residential construction from 1915 to 1918 was only 42 
per cent of the normal, in 1919, 58 per cent, and in 1920, 37 
per cent. Allowing for replacement of worn-out structures, 
the shortage during the last six years has increased to over a 
million homes; indeed, the residential construction of 1920 
barely sufficed to offset fire losses, obsolescence and alterations. 
In some states and cities the shortage is much greater. In 
New York city, for instance, only 18^2 per cent of the nor- 
mal house supply was achieved in 1 91 7, 1 per cent in 191 8, 
17I/2 per cent in 1919, while in the first six months of 1920 


1919 { 1920 foi| 





Average prices In 1913 - 117^.) 


1914 | 191.5 I 1916 j 1917 | 19 lg 

p-rp i |i 1 1 1 1 j 1 1| i ij 1 1 fmiTTTT|TTpTrnirnTTr 

gj^SJ g. H S £J 







i \ 







■iLiil I ' 1 1 1 IuLiIIilUlIuIiJJ ul'ilnli 




i — I 240 

lii'iiiiilill niiiiiiinli; 





| 1913 

§ 5 § c- a § I i? s I t £ g 3 § ig g § £ 5 s i 
1914 | 1915 | 1916 |" 1917 | 19:8 | 1919 j 1920 .jftZjL 


Fluctuations in their wholesale prices compared ivilh those of all 

commodities and iviih those of food and metal products, showing 

the excessive rise in prices betiueen 1919 and 1920. This chart 

v>as prepared by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 

new construction was practically offset by demolitions. Evi- 
dence of the effect of this shortage on health and morals is 
brief but to the point. "In the interest of humanity and 
public health," says the report, "no stone should be left un- 
turned in the effort to relieve such barbaric conditions wher- 
ever they exist." 

What, then, is the remedy? It is not, says the committee, 
to rush wildly into a system of federal grants and bonuses 
or blindly to imitate measures that may have proved useful 
in other lands. It has to be sought, rather, in elimination of 
those factors in building cost which are due to preventable 
causes but which have reduced to a non-profitable proposition 
investment in house property at prices and rents which large 
classes of the population can afford to pay. Above all, the 
traditional American reliance upon ingenuity, which has re- 
duced the cost of all mechanical appliances, and low-cost quan- 
tity production must be given the opportunity to assert itself. 
Hence, the greater part of the report is taken up with a de- 
tailed discussion of three primary elements in cost : coal, trans- 
portation and building materials; the effect on them of war- 
time regulation and government purchases, the responsibility 
for excessive prices and other influencing factors. In regard 
to coal, the committee concludes: 

There is conflicting evidence and great divergence of opinion 
as to the cause of the high prices, but whatever are the facts 
as to the cause, the committee finds that no cause constituted 
either justification or legitimate excuse for the great enhance- 
ment which occurred, most largely in the spotmarket, and which 
enhancement, the evidence clearly shows, was participated in 
by operators, operator-brokers, wholesalers, and retailers, ag- 
gravated by the entrance into the field of quick and easy profits, 
of a horde of speculators who have had no defenders before the 

To meet this evil, a bill is offered "to provide for the 
gathering and publication by existing government agencies 
of current facts as to production, distribution, available sup- 
plies, standards of quality, costs, and realization of coal." The 
problem, it is shown, must be handled nationally, since the 
eastern states are largely dependent for their coal supplies 
on Pennsylvania and West Virginia. The producing states 
should not be relied upon exclusively to collect and disseminate 
this vital information. While the committee does not ad- 
vocate a general federal regulation of the coal industry, it 
recognizes sufficient precedent and urgent need for the pub- 
licity function proposed in the bill. 

In the matter of transportation, the chief recommendation 
is that railway rates be stabilized on the basis of the new 
valuation under way and that rates on building materials be 
readjusted so as to cover no more than adequate compensa- 
tion for actual costs. A general suggestion is made of the 
desirability of. increasing federal appropriations for the im- 
provement of waterways and terminal wharves, but pending 
consideration of the railroads and railroad rates in relation 
to them, there is no definite recommendation. In this con- 
nection an important statement is hidden away in a discussion 
of public utilities: 

The gradual failure of the rapid transit systems of the 
country tends toward the remaking of the slum. Decentraliza- 
tion of population becomes more and more imperative. 

The availability of capital, however, is an even greater 
need. This statement was made to the committee more fre- 
quently than any other. But often the suggestions made were 
contrary to the most elementary laws governing credit. Pri- 
vate investors cannot be forced or cajoled into putting money 
into housing if other forms of enterprise are more profitable. 
The natural remedy is a return to normal credit conditions. 



It would be well if America could thoroughly learn the fact 
that her economic salvation lies within her own vast borders 
and that foreign trade is only an incidental factor to American 
prosperity. , . . 

The total production of many of the essential commodities is 
no greater than this nation would consume if so-called Ameri- 
can standards of living generally prevailed. The surplus 
product of labor and credit might well be directed to the de- 
velopment of our own natural resources and to the improvement 
and organization of means of production and distribution. 

There will be little quarrel with this statement; but the 
part assigned by the committee to the federal government in 
redistributing the national stream of credit may seenrto some 
needlessly limited. Their proposal is for an amendment of 
the Federal Reserve Act "to permit the Federal Reserve 
Board to direct the use of savings and time deposits of national 
banks for long-time loans, thus giving such deposits greater 
security and supplying a source of long-term money for home 
building." Another recommendation calls for the establish- 
ment of home loan banks "to sell, under federal supervision, 
bonds secured by the aggregated loans deposited by the mem- 
ber banks" — in other words, an adaptation of the provisions 
of the Federal Farm Loan Act to loans on home building. 

In spite of its seeming reluctance to aid home building by 
the grant of special financial privileges, the committee recom- 
mends four amendments to the Revenue Act of 1918: the 
first, limited to five years, "to provide for the exemption from 
excess-profits and income taxes of the profits on the sales of 
dwelling houses where such profits, plus an equal amount, 
are reinvested in dwelling house construction ;" second, "to 
exempt from taxation interest on loans up to $40,000 on im- 
proved real estate used for dwelling purposes, when such loans 
are held by an individual;" third, "to limit the taxation of 
profits from the sale of capital assets by providing for their 
taxation as of the years of accrual rather than as of the year 
of their sale ;" fourth, "to limit the surtax upon saved income 
to an amount not in excess of 20 per cent of such income." 

Without any of the exaggerations frequently met with in 
discussions of decreased labor efficiency, the committee pro- 
vides proof — admitted by labor leaders as well as by employ- 
ers — that this efficiency has undoubtedly decreased ; but it be- 
lieves that productivity is now again approaching pre-war 

The root of the problem, however, lies in the failure of so 
many of the building trades to attract young men. Perhaps 
this is no more than a part of a broader problem affecting 
other industries as well — that is to say, the unwillingness of so 
many American mechanics to encourage their sons to follow in 
their footsteps; the allurement, in other words of the so-called 
"white-collar" job. In addition, however, it does appear that 
the building trades have exceptional problems. Chief among 
these is the irregularity of the building industry. . . . 

Labor being the preponderating item of expense in building 
it may be said that the cost of building is directly dependent 
upon the cost of subsistence and upon the continuity of opera- 

How to operate building with what engineers call a "con- 
stant load," then, becomes an essential problem. It is, of 
course, one closely bound up with a transformation of pro- 
cesses and practices. Opinions are divided as to the extent to 
which a really continuous operation is possible. The step 
recommended by the committee, therefore, is a necessary 
preliminary to far-going changes. It is the establishment in 
the Department of Commerce of "a division for the gather- 
ing and dissemination of information as to the best construc- 
tion practices and methods, technical and cost data, and mat- 
ters relating to city planning, etc., in order to encourage 
standardization and improved building practices throughout 
the country." 

To judge the adequacy of this program, one should remem- 
ber that the committee was not charged with a general sur- 
vey of housing conditions, but was limited to an inquiry into 
the building industry and recommendations to stimulate and 
foster the development of construction work. There will be 
some disappointment that the committee has not seen its way 
— in view of the critical nature of the present shortage — to 

recommend an immediate appropriation of federal funds for 
home building loans, on terms so attractive as to lead to a 
large resumption of construction work. But no fault can 
be found in the main with its statement of the actual situa- 
tion and the conclusions drawn from its investigation of 
causes. It is an unbiased document; and the recommenda- 
tions leading out from it do not close the door to the assump- 
tion of greater responsibilities by the federal government in 
the future. Rather do they — and especially the establishment 
of the housing division, too hastily abandoned after the war 
by the past administration — promise an intensive study of the 
problem in the future by men qualified for the task, not as a 
temporary emergency but as an enduring project for enlight- 
ened social statesmanship. 

The Small House in Germany 

T was from Germany that the movement for a scienti- 
fically regulated extension of towns and cities took its 
course around the world. With a system cf local government 
singularly effective in securing a coordinated view of the com- 
munity's present and future needs and in bringing about joint 
action on the part of different departments in the execution 
of far-reaching plans, such cities as Frankfort, Leipzig, Stutt- 
gart, Ulm— and later the metropolitan areas of Greater Ber- 
lin and Hamburg — developed a technique of planning which 
for two decades was the envy of municipal reformers else- 
where. But, thorough as it was, this system of preparation 
for the physical growth of communities lacked the sympathetic 
understanding of common needs and the imagination dis- 
played in England and in America, once the fundamental 
theories of the project of city planning became widely under- 
stood. While street plans reached out far into the future and 
areas were secured for parks, industrial expansion and muni- 
cipal purposes, the housing of the people proceeded too often 
along the old, unsatisfactory lines — with the result that the 
density of population in the newer parts of the German cities 
is not appreciably less than in those built thirty and forty 
years ago. 

By a process of cross-fertilization, German housing reform- 
ers who helped to spread the gospel of city planning in Eng- 
land, Holland and Belgium in the decade before the war, took 
back home with them a new vision of housing for the work- 


Notwithstanding the spread of essentially sound principles of 
housing in the new Germany — and the encouragement given them 
by recent legislation and by the whole force of organized labor, all 
sorts of wild projects find their adherents too. The skyscraper 
here reproduced from a drawing in the Muenchener Neueste 
Nachrichten is said to be under consideration by the municipal 
authorities of Munich. It is a tenement building of twenty-five 
stories, about half the height of the V/oolworth building, to be 
constructed in reinforced concrete in the middle of a large open 
space owned by the city where it would not interfere with the 
access of light and air to other buildings 




ing classes and a definite change in objective from regulated 
town extension to determined town decentralization. The 
ideal of the garden suburb and garden village was spread by 
innumerable writings and by a vigorous campaign on the part 
of the Gartenstadt-Gesellschaft. During and since the war, 
while little building of homes took place, the substitution of 
the small one-family house for the model tenement, and of 
simple, semi-rural surroundings for magnificent systems of 
boulevards and ornamental small parks entirely conquered ; 
and as soon as economic conditions make a resumption of 
large-scale building operations possible, a revolution in hous- 
ing standards must be expected which will be even more 
radical than that in England where the great majority of the 
people have always lived in small houses. 

In proof of this statement, attention may be directed to a 
series of books and pamphlets, some of them by the foremost 
architects and local government officials in Germany, that 
have lately been published by the Heimstaettenamt der 
Deutschen Beamtenschaft, an organization formed in Febru- 
ary, 1920, to meet the housing needs of more than a million 
public officials organized in unions. This society, last October, 
held an institute attended by 500 representatives of the con- 
stituent unions, while 400 had to be turned away. The dean 
of land reformers, Adolf Damaschke, gave the introductory 
lecture, and the subsequent lectures dealt with technical ques- 
tions, selection of locality, trade unions in relation to land 
settlement, cooperative building, savings institutions and other 
sources of finance, state housing, horticulture, land legislation, 
community organization — all in relation to the small, indus- 
trial community. Professor Erman discussed the legislation 
passed in the last two years on the basis of the new republican 
constitution to facilitate the creation of such settlements; 
pointing out that the existing legal provisions suffice to make 
at • least a beginning of housing developments along the 
most modern lines. Of special importance in this connection 
is the land leasing law of 1919 and the facilities it provides 
for making municipally owned land available for use by public 
utility housing societies. 

Adolf Otto, in a detailed paper on the relation of coopera- 
tive organizations to housing, considers the relative advan- 
tages, from the cooperative investors' point of view, of putting 
cooperative funds into the creation of homes rather than 
other enterprises. He points out that, in order to succeed, 
cooperative housing societies must employ expert services, and 
outlines methods of overcoming some of the difficulties that 
have been experienced with this form of house supply. One 
of these is that members are apt to be disgruntled if, after 
having contributed considerable savings toward building 
homes, they have to wait for years before they can obtain 
one for their own occupancy. He makes the interesting sug- 
gestion that the distribution of homes might be by lot, but 
that the number of lots held by each member should vary 
with the length of his membership in the organization — a 
procedure by which the older members would secure a better 
chance of an early satisfaction of their housing needs. With- 
out attempting to decide between the policies of sale and of 
leasing of homes built by a cooperative building society — a 
question evidently keenly debated in cooperative and trade 
union circles — he draws attention to the minimum rights over 
the individual holdings which the community must retain for 
its own protection, if the policy of sale is adopted. 

Plans and Perspectives 

MODERN methods of building construction play havoc 
with the existing building ordinances, even in progres- 
sive cities. The experience in this respect of Rochester, N. 
Y., on which the Bureau of Municipal Research of that city 
has just issued an enlightening report, is probably typical. 
Some sections of the code are not fully enforced because they 
are out of date ; and this had led, apparently, to relaxation in 
the enforcement of others. Moreover, in the important mat- 
ter of density of building, the existing code represents a com- 

promise with the interests of some tenement house owners and 
not the demands now usually made, in the interest of health 
and amenity, for adequate access of light and air — demands 
which, the investigators consider, could well be met without 
excessive stress on present transportation facilities and area 
available for building. Other recommendations are that the 
Bureau of Buildings be given power to raze structures which 
are judged to be dangerous as fire risks or as unduly affecting 
the health of occupants or the value of adjacent buildings; 
that building occupancies be classified to enable variation of 
structural and fire resistive requirements; that specifications 
for structural materials be related more closely to nationally 
accepted standards; that all attempts be abandoned to lay 
down in the code a theory for safe structural design. 

LEIFUR MAGNUSSON'S descriptive articles on housing 
developments by employers have for some time been an inter- 
esting feature of the monthly Review of the United States 
Bureau of Labor Statistics. In Housing by Employers in the 
United States (Bulletin No. 263, 283 pp.) a large number 
of these plans and achievements are synthetically studied from 
every important point of view. Some of the chapter heads 
are suggestive: Reasons for Supplying Houses; Method of 
Conducting Housing ; Nature of Accommodations Provided ; 
Method of Financing; Sale of Company Houses; Main- 
tenance; Results. Descriptions of the major schemes are ar- 
ranged in accordance with (usually coinciding) regional and 
industrial groupings. Full references are given for further 
inquiry. The principal results of company housing, compiled 
from some 350 replies to a questionnaire, (in the order of 
frequency noted) are: 

A better class of workmen is secured. 

There is a greater stability in the supply of labor. 

A reduction in the number of floaters. 

Better liring conditions. 

Greater loyalty from employes. 

More contented and more efficient workmen. 

Better control of hire and discharge. 

Married men are attracted. 

Greater regularity of employment. 

The workman secures a better house for less money. 

It brings profit to the company. 

It facilitates part time. 

It serres to adrertise the company. 

The opinion of labor evidently has not been sought. 

PROFESSIONAL women, not only in the United States 
but also in England, have great difficulty in securing suitable 
homes at rents they can afford to pay. After experiments in 
London in the purchase of houses and renting of rooms to 
club members by the Women's Freedom League, a larger 
scheme has been taken in hand by a newly formed Women's 
Pioneer Housing, Ltd., a public utility corporation with 
limited earnings, which proposes to buy big houses and turn 
them into apartments, also providing central restaurants. An 
even more elaborate scheme has just been launched in New 
York city under the name of the Woman's National Club, 
to be completed by October, 1922, which at a cost of five 
million dollars will provide a building occupying 50,000 
square feet in a central location, both to house clubs and to 
provide accommodation for individuals. 

DECEPTIVE, so-called cooperative housing plans, by which 
owners entice tenants to injudicious investments, have had the- 
effect of stimulating interest in genuine cooperative housing 
by associations of consumers. A pamphlet on this subject has 
recently been issued by the Cooperative League of America. 
Of special value are its references to the successful applica- 
tion of the principle in England, Germany, Denmark and 
Switzerland. In the last named country, the union of co- 
operative societies, called upon during the war to place its 
reserve and surplus funds at the disposal of the government, 
has been permitted to use these for the building of a model 
village near Basle. By an ingenious scheme, it is made easy 
for any cooperator to secure a house in this settlement on per- 
manent lease by easy payments. 




By Athel Campbell Burnham, M.D. Macmillan Co. 149 pp. 
Price, $1.60; by mail of the Survey, $1.75. 

This excellent little book is published most appropriately at a 
moment when interest in health and health work is more active and 
more wide-spread than perhaps at any previous period. The gen- 
eral reader will find it of value, while the physician, nurse and 
public health administrator will profit from its information, its com- 
prehensive material, and its broadening point of view. The social 
worker in the non-medical agency has long needed such a book as 
this, both for information and for guidance. 

The opening sentence of the book summarizes Dr. Bumham's 

central point. 

The public health problem of today is a community problem. It is no 
longer possible to separate the health of the individual from the health of 
the community at large. Conditions of work, play, education, food sup- 
plies, and transportation, which were at one time largely the personal 
concern of the individual have today become community problems and 
must be solved as such. 

In a series of chapters the degree of prevalence of disease in the 
community, as shown by various surveys, is described and the rela- 
tion between sickness and poverty outlined. 

In discussing the work of the private physician, Dr. Burnham 


Admitting that it is impossible for the private physician to devote much 
time to preventive medicine, let us examine the present system of medical 
treatment which is largely under the control of the private practitioner. 
Does the present system of medical treatment supply adequate facilities 
for the care of disease? Does private practice supply modern scientific 
medical treatment to a reasonable extent for the bulk of the population? 

He concludes: 

The community problem today is not concerned with the search of new 
ways and means for the curing of existing disease; such search may well 
be left to hospitals and scientific institutions. The real problem before 
the community is that of making proper use of the tools at hand, so that 
modern scientific methods of treatment may be available to each and 
every citizen, whether rich or poor. To this end the medical service must 
be reorganized so that the services of the general practitioner, the spe- 
cialist and the medical laboratory may be secured by the sick in the com- 
munity at an equable cost. The present system of charging what the 
traffic will bear must be discarded. 

The chief agencies or forces working for health are described in 
a series of brief but useful chapters: health departments; public 
health nursing; campaigns for better health, such as those against 
tuberculosis; industrial medicine; social hygiene; health centers; 
endowed health demonstrations, such as that of Framingham and 
those conducted by the Rockefeller Foundation. The discussion of 
controversial questions, such as state medicine and health insurance, 
is well balanced. It is regrettable that so little space is devoted to 
the movements for prevention of maternal and infant mortality, and 
for the promotion of child hygiene. In view of its relative import- 
ance, certainly a chapter rather than a few scattered paragraphs 
should have been devoted to this field. It is also unfortunate that 
not even mention is made of the campaign against cancer, and that 
hardly anything is said regarding the campaigns for mental and for 
dental hygiene. 

Dr. Burnham's estimate that a community should provide one hos- 
pital bed for every 100 of population must be taken as a little extra- 
vagant, in view of the fact that our most advanced communities 
today have hardly half this number. The place of the hospital and 
dispensary is rather inadequately recognized in the discussion of 
the health center and medical treatment plan for a community. 

Specialists in many branches will complain of omissions or defi- 
ciencies in a book of 150 pages which can be carried in a coat pocket, 
but from the standpoint of the thousands who need just such a book, 
we can congratulate the publisher and the author on issuing it at 
this time. Michael M. Davis, Jr. 

By F. Muller-Lyer. Introductions by L. T. Hobhouse and E. J. 
Urwick. Alfred A. Knopf. 362 pp. Price, $5.00; by mail of 
the Survey, $5.25. 

With a much advertised French Evolution of Humanity published 
in 100 volumes and this encyclopedic German work in one volume, 
national characteristics for once seem to be transposed. Neverthe- 
less the synthetic method of Dr. Muller-Lyer's book, and his clear 
mapping out of the subject in hand are distinctly Teutonic. As the 

translators and the introducers attest, it is a practical and helpful 
piece of work; in fact the present publication arose from a note- 
book of translations of its principal parts used for some years in 
manuscript as an aid to students. Considering the size of the sub- 
ject it covers, some of the chapters are necessarily somewhat super- 
ficial; but the value of this schematic presentation of human devel- 
opment is not thereby impaired. The first part gives a definition, 
early history and classification of culture which is original and 
stimulating. The second part sets forth the evolution of the material 
phenomena and implements of culture ; the third a history of labor 
and labor organization; the fourth the causes of progress; the fifth 
a summary of culture stages; the sixth a cultural prognosis — the last 
named all too brief considering the interest and value of social 
prophesy on the basis of so extensive a knowledge of origins 
and tendencies as that displayed by the author of this work. Inci- 
dentally, though distinguished by learning and severely condensed, 
it is a most readable book and will delight the beginner in social 
studies. B. L. 


By E. S. Bogardus. University of Southern California Press. 

304 pp. Price, $1.75 ; by mail of the Survey, $1.95. 

In this text-book for undergraduate students the problem-solving 
method of education is adopted. Special attention is given to the 
lists of problems at the end of each chapter which, the author states 
in his preface, are formulated with the purpose of making the 
student a constructive thinker and not simply a good memorizer. 

After defining social psychology, he gives ac analysis of the va- 
rious phases of the subject with special emphasis on the make-up of 
the social personality; on the importance of suggestion-imitation 
phenomena as an experimental method of trying out acts and in- 
ventions; on the relation of invention and leadership and the im- 
portance of stimulating and developing these phenomena in a pro- 
gressive society to procure the greatest self-expression and enrich- 
ment of individual personalities combined with the highest interests 
of the group; and finally on the nature of groups in their constitu- 
tion, conflicts, loyalties, and control. The discussion of the social 
personality is carried out in considerable detail and is, on the whole, 
the most interesting part of the book, presenting a comprehensive 
picture of the ego from every angle of social adaptation. 

The subject is treated popularly with the use of many illustra- 
tions, but in a style that is almost too commonplace and unimagin- 
ative to be stimulating if judged other than as a background of 
facts assembled clearly and systematically for the purpose of aiding 
students in the solution of the problems. S. H. Swift. 

By Lillian J. Martin, Warwick & York, Inc. 89 pp. Price, 
$1.40; by mail of the Survey, $1.45. 


By Charles B. Thompson, M.D. Warwick & York, Inc. 48 

pp. Paper. Price, $0.75: by mail of the Survey, $0.80. 

The purpose of Dr. Martin's book is primarily to furnish a 
description of the scope and methods of her work as psychologist 
in a clinic founded by her two years ago. It contains a frank 
discussion of her aims, therapy, fees, and disposal of cases, and 
a brief description of the classification and treatment employed. 

In prefacing the book, the author states that her desire at the 
opening of her office was "to ascertain from actual experience 
whether the clinical psychologist has a place, not alone as simul- 
taneous accompanist and supplementer of the general medical prac- 
titioner, but as an independent worker, in increasing the health and 
efficiency of the community." The medical profession is more and 
more recognizing the value of the psychological approach, but until 
psychologists receive the additional training of psychiatrists, with 
their broad experiences in handling mental problems as a whole, it 
would still seem expedient and more satisfactory if the work of 
mental hygiene clinics in the community were carried on jointly, 
by employing the knowledge and concerted efforts of the psychiatrist 
and psychologist, and never losing sight of the fact that the end 
and aim of all mental hygiene work is the utilization of all possible 

h ^ 




From the introduction to a new edition of Burdette G. Lewis' 
The Offender (Harper & Bros.) 

THE aftermath of war again has forced upon the at- 
tention of law-abiding folk the eternal question of 
how to deal wisely with the undisciplined in our com- 
munities. The large number of crimes of violence, of rob- 
beries, burglaries, murders, and the like, has served once 
more to demonstrate that the fundamental purpose of or- 
ganized society is the protection of life and property. . . . 

Thus again is presented the problem of the offender. 
How shall he be dealt with? Bearing in mind that the 
end in view is the common weal, that men shall be led to 
conform to the regulations of society established in the 
interest of all, for the security of all in the equal blessings 
of the enjoyment of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happi- 
ness, the effort must be, first, to demonstrate to the rest 
of men that it is unwise and unprofitable not to obey the 
law and, secondly, so to operate upon the mind of the of- 
fender that he may be led to the same conclusion and be 
fitted to return to his normal place in the community. 

The difficulty arises not so much in a recognition of these 
principles, as in their application. . . . All men are not 
of equal mental capacity. Many of them are lacking the 
physical or the intellectual ability to comprehend the proper 
relation of their acts to the established social order. Hence, 
the proper administration of justice requires investigation 
and discrimination in the treatment of each offender. Mod- 
ern science has developed a more accurate knowledge of 
mental condition than formerly was possessed. The psy- 
chiatrist is become an indispensable adjunct to modern 
judicial procedure. . . . 

How long will society continue to ignore the terrible 
wastage of neglected childhood ? How soon will it recognize 
the lavish returns surely resulting from investment in the 
proper physical and mental care of its children? 


methods of approach which lead to constructive help in assisting 
the individual successfully to integrate and adapt himself to life 
in the community. 

The contribution by Dr. Thompson is written in the form of a 
syllabus treating briefly the subject of mental disorders. The au- 
thor divides the entities described under two headings: those 
"mental disorders in which there is a definite injury to brain tissue," 
and those "which seem to be explicable entirely on a psychological 
basis." The classification set forth is in part an original one and 
will, no doubt, meet with the disapproval of many psychiatrists. 

The treatise is a short one, containing brief descriptions of some 
of the disease entities with illustrative cases, some discussion and 
a short statement as to the means of prevention of mental disease. 
While the work may well be conceived as a worth while attempt 
to furnish a means of dissemination of mental hygiene principles 
and knowledge of mental disorders, it is felt that the utilization 
of this text without further study of subject matter as presented 
in books containing a fuller discussion of the psychiatric concep- 
tion would be of little avail to a lay student. 

Marion E. Kenworthy, M.D. 

By Edward J. Kempf. C. V. Mosby Co. 762 pp. Illustrated. 
Price, $9.50; by mail of the Survey, $10.00. 

This is a work to be reckoned with, deeply reckoned with by both 
theoretical and practical students of behavior and personality pro- 
blems. And it is also fair to say that if psychologists are going to 
make any attempt to vitalize their science, they cannot any longer 
remain mere formalists; they must, by necessity, catch up with the 
strides this author makes, even if they hesitate or positively decline 
to go his whole distance with him. 

Kempf brings to focus the psychological implications of the phys- 
iologists, notably Sherrington, who insist on the vast number of 
neural impressions coming every second into the center of one's be- 
ing, not only from the external world but also from the apparatus 
conveying stimuli from the bodily organs themselves, and the phys- 
iological implications of those psychologists who have insisted cor- 
rectly on the mental importance of the various human strivings and 

energies, as expressed or repressed. In several most important early 
chapters Kempf clearly phrases his contribution to better under- 
standing of the human individual. He develops his monistic, dyn- 
amic, biological conception of personality. He frankly maintains 
that this leaves no room in any way for the notion that the mind is 
one thing and the body another. For him the emotions and senti- 
ments are cravings that have their origin in the tensions and move- 
ments of the various "autonomic segments" of the bodily apparatus. 
The content of consciousness is largely made up of just this inflow 
of bodily stimuli — of course a vast deal of it being below the thresh- 
old of active consciousness. 

For the purpose of this wholly inadequate notice, rather than 
review, fitted to a lay journal, it must be stated that Kempf has 
psychotherapy directly in mind as the aim of treatment of mental 
diseases and conduct disorders. In one notable paragraph he insists 
that the evolution of his theory points out the way to knowledge of 
how conditions of the nervous system, evidently including the content 
of consciousness, make either for recovery or death from bodily 
disease, even infections, or how special nerve tensions may even 
create bodily disease. His "autonomic systems" have far-reaching 
consequences for both body and mind. 

Chapter headings, Physiological Foundations of Personality, The 
Psychology of the Family, The Universal Struggle for Virility, Good- 
ness and Happiness, coming before the sections on the specific treat- 
ment of mental abnormalities, indicate something of the author's 
outline of his subject. In the introduction and in these chapters he 
lays broad philosophic foundations and builds upon these a wealth 
of case histories and specific interpretations of abnormalities of con- 
duct and mental life. 

It is not reading for the mentally timid or the morbid or the mor- 
bidly curious or the young. Nor are the illustrations for these. It 
is a strong work for strong minds. William J. Healy. 

By Adriana Spadoni. Boni & Liveright. 256 pp. Price, $2.00; 
by mail of the Survey, $2.10. 

Critics of Miss Spadoni's first novel, The Swing of the Pendul- 
um, complained that it lacked in structural unity and that many 
of the characters were washed in too lightly. No such comment 
can truthfully be made of this, her second book. Again the con- 
flict of the story is one of social viewpoints, the milieu that of 
social reform movements. The home life of the old subservient 
and automatized factory clerk is set forth with a realism which 
every social observer will recognize. So are the characters of mil- 
lionaire reformer, of the men and women around the radical labor 
offices, the young lawyer who is throwing in his lot with the revolu- 
tionary labor movement and, seeing life in the large, is blinded to 
the preventable suffering in his immediate environment, and the 
young woman who seeks for beauty and peace through personal 
contacts and finds them in a deeper understanding of the turmoil 
of the world in which the noisy agitation of her inner circle of 
friends is but as a low whisper in a roaring storm. An excellent, 
interesting and thought-provoking novel. B. L. 


By Capt. C. Flutet. Henri Charles Lavauzelle, Paris. 59 pp. 
Price, Frs. 1.50; by mail of the Survey, $ .50. 

A practical guide for wounded or otherwise disabled soldiers and 
sailors of France who may be entitled to the benefits of the law of 
March 31, 1919, under which medical and surgical attention and 
hospital treatment were authorized, this little handbook is intended 
not only for the use of reformes themselves but also for civil phys- 
icians, municipalities and private organizations. It gives a concise 
summary of the law and its applications. As a summary of the 
French provision on this subject, this pamphlet will be of interest 
to students of state measures for the care of disabled soldiers in 
America. Raymond Holden. 


By Harry W. Carey, M.D. Revised Edition. F. A. Davis Co. 

149 pp. Price, $1.25; by mail of the Survey, $1.35. 

So rapid is the progress of bacteriology, and the practical applica- 
tion of that science, that since its first publication in 1915 this hand- 
book has had to be brought up-to-date by important additions. The 
simple arrangement and easily readable text of the original edition 
have been retained. 





To the Editor: "Fool," said Shakespeare, "join the army, lose a 
leg and not have money enough to buy a wooden one." Only too 
truly has this epitomized Europe's attitude to her war-heroes. For- 
tunately, the United States has usually treated its returned soldiers 
better. The veterans of the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, the 
Mexican and Civil wars were given grants of land. We then had 
vast stretches of public domain, untouched by civilization's hand. 
To the federal government it was a relatively inexpensive way of 
amply rewarding such of her sons as had fought and bled for her. 
Today, however, conditions are different. Our public land is gone. 
If the American soldiers of the World War are to be compensated 
as were our veterans of previous struggles, we must have recourse 
to some other method. Hence the demand for a soldiers' bonus or 
"adjusted compensation." 

In an article entitled Soldiers' Bonuses: State and Federal, ap- 
pearing in the Survey for February 26, William H. Glasson dealt 
at length with what has been done so far by way of "adjusted com- 
pensation" for the ex-service men. Concerning the federal bonus 
given, he says: "The $60 grant was a moderate and proper aid to 
the discharged soldiers during a trying period of transition." Lim- 
itation of space prohibits my discussing Mr. Glasson's article. Suffice 
it to remark that at the time granted the $60 was "a mere tip," 
scarcely enough to buy a good civilian suit. 

Within the past year there has been much agitation for an addi- 
tional federal bonus amounting to about $30 per soldier per month 
of service. Thirty dollars per month added to the basic thirty 
received while in service would still make a wage considerably 
under that paid during the war to unskilled labor in this country. 
It fails to consider the many privations suffered by the soldiers and 
sailors during the struggle. It is a safe bet that, apart from the 
feeling of patriotism and legal and social compulsion, few of the 
men could have been hired to endure what they did in the service 
for $500 or $1,000 a month. 

The opponents of "adjusted compensation" confine their opposition 
to two main points: first, that it will cheapen patriotism, and second, 
that at present our country is too poor to stand the additional burden 
such a bonus would involve. 

Consider for a moment the "cheapening of patriotism." None of 
the opposition question the justice of the ex-service men's position. 
They aver that to give that justice will cause a degeneration of 
the patriotic impulse. One might as well maintain that because the 
French, English, Russian and German soldiers received less pay 
than did the Canadian, American and Australian soldiers the latter 
were less patriotic. It would be equally sound to argue that because 
the American workman receives better wages than many European 
laborers the latter love their country more than the former. The 
logical end of such an argument is that the citizens of a just and 
humane democracy would be less patriotic than those suffering under 
the iron heel of a czaristic autocracy. Too often, those responsible 
for the opposition to the soldiers' "adjusted compensation" are afraid 
the taxes necessary to obtain the funds for a bonus would justly take 
some of their war profits. 

It is estimated that thirty thousand millionaires were created in 
this country during the World War. Said Basil M. Manly, speaking 
in the spring of 1920: "In the last three years the American people 
have paid in net profits every dollar's worth of stock of the coal 
companies and all corporations in the essential lines of industry and 
trade." During the war the big sugar companies realized over 50 
per cent profits, while the steel corporations earned nearly half a 
billion dollars on capital stock totaling only a quarter of a billion. 
In 1916-17 the canned-salmon industry made profits ranging from 
52 to 100 per cent. A net profit of more than 100 per cent was 
earned by 2,030 corporations on their capital stock during the three 
years of the war. William G. McAdoo, former United States treas- 
urer, claimed the coal owners realized profits of 300 per cent and in 
some cases 1,000 per cent upon their investments. The average 
profits during the three years of war of all corporations in the 
United States with a net income of $1,000,000 or more approximated 
24 per cent on their capital. 

In the face of such enormous profits the subservient defenders of 
predatory wealth insist the country can't justly compensate its ex- 
service men; or they try to shift the tax burden on the working 
classes. Many a discharged veteran found his job taken by a 




A Stimulating Professional Atmosphere 

Amid Attractive Surroundings 







NORTHAMPTON, MASS. Write for Bulletin. 




Departments in 
Family Work Psychiatric Social Work 

Child Welfare Community Work 

Social Work in Hospitals Social Investigation 

Civic Research Public Health Nursing 

Educational and Vocational Guidance 

Send for catalogue 

Frank D. Watson, Director 
1302 Pine St., Philadelphia 

Directors, Supervisors and Teachers 

of Americanization, Citizenship 
and Immigrant Education. 

New York University Summer School offers a special 
Institute, in cooperation with the New York State 
Department of Education, on Immigrant Problems 
and Education. Special courses, observation work and 
conferences, July 5th to August 13th. For bulletin ad- 
dress: Rufus D. Smith, Director of Institute, New 
York University, 32 Waverly Place, N. Y. 

The Summer Quarter 

Courses are the same in educational and credit value 
as those offered in other quarters of the year. 
The colleges, the graduate schools and the professional 
schools provide courses in Arts, Literature, Science, Com- 
merce and Administration, Education, Law, Divinity, Medi- 
cine, and Social Service Administration. 
Ideal place for recreation as well as study. Golf, tennis, 
rowing, etc. Two great parks and Lake Michigan within 
walking distance. 
Students may register for either term or both. 

1st Term — June 20 — July 27 
2nd Term — July 28 — Sept. 2 

Write for complete announcement 

Cfte Omuet0itp of Chicago 

Box 509 — Faculty Exchange 

Chicago, Illinois 



younger mam a* a wimm. Upon his return to civilian life it was 
not waiting for him as promised. Meanwhile, he goes to swell the 
ranks of the unemployed or answer the call of crime. The country 
he risked his all to save no longer needs him. 

The billion or two needed for "adjusted compensation" could 
easily be raised by a proper method of taxation. It should not be 
obtained by a sales tax, which would fall upon the consumer. 
Direct, non-shiftable taxes, levied on the classes who profited most 
by the war, should produce the funds. When those profiting by war 
are forced to pay for it, war will shortly cease. Steeply graded 
excess profits, income, inheritance, land value, building site, and cor- 
poration taxes are the sources from which the necessary revenue 
9hould be secured. When a country so enormously wealthy as ours 
pleads inability to justly compensate its defenders, something is rad- 
ically wrong. Any nation able but unwilling to properly care for 
the men who fought its battles it unworthy of the love of free men. 

Ann Arior, Mick. Edward G. Punke. 


To The Editor: I have read with care and interest the article 
When Y's Men Disagree in a recent issue of the Survey. [See the 
Survet .for March 12, p. 861.] One of the objections most often 
raised against the financial federations of charities, etc., in our 
cities by the working secretaries of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, is that they do not allow the contributor to secure the 
moral or religious reaction which comes from designating his gift 
to an individual organization with whose work he may become 
familiar. ' " 

It is well known that in almost all financial federations and 
community chests the donor is given full opportunity to designate 
his gift to any organization, or to exclude organizations which he 
does not approve of or wish to support. This is certainly true in 
Buffalo. In some cities,' federations are even taking steps to en- 
courage such designation, as I am informed, though this has not 
been especially encouraged in the past. Probably this erroneous 
idea about financial federations has much to do with leading the 

minds of some active secretaries of the Y. M. C. A. t« view the« 
with disfavor. 

I personally am not a complete believer in the community chest 
idea as developed during the war and now continued in quite ,a 
few cities; that is, I am not sure that it is sound or wise in its 
extreme form. In this form it surely involves dangers and com- 
plications; and I am inclined to think that the all inclusive com- 
munity chests in cities like Cleveland, Detroit and Rochester may 
not be permanent. There are serious difficulties about continuing 

But I do believe strongly in a financial federation such as we 
are trying to create in Buffalo, and such as has grown up in Cin- 
cinnati, as I understand — a voluntary association of cooperating so- 
cieties and charitable agencies, democratic in its origin and con- 
trol, and aiming at economy in publicity and in the raising of 
funds, and at standardizing and improving administration and 
management; seeking to build up and strengthen weak societies 
and increase their efficiency where they are really needed, but te 
discourage and even to suppress inefficiency, wastefulness, overlap- 
ping and undesirable duplication of work. 

This is a revival of the effort which the Charity Organization 
Society began in Buffalo in 1877, to organize and combine the so- 
cial work of the community into one united and strong force for 
the social welfare, resting on a safe and sound foundation af 
financial stability. 

For instance, I do not think that our federation ought now t« 
take in the Young Men's Christian Association, even if the asso- 
ciation should ask for admission, which it has not done. I think 
that the Y. M. C. A. ought to form a federation for financial pur- 
poses with the Young Women's Christian Association, for the good 
of both, and thus avoid two financial campaigns for these closely 
allied bodies. And I think also that the Y. M. C. A. should com- 
bine all its own campaigns into one, and not raise money for its 
local uses and for its national and international needs at different 
times of the year. An»let Wilcox. 

Buffalo, N. T. 


Boys' Club Federation, International. Bing- 
hamton, N. T. May 23-26. C. J. Atkinson, 119 
West 40 St., New York city. 

Charities and Correction, New York City Con- 
ference. May 18-19, to be held in Brooklyn, 
Manhattan and Richmond. Julius Brown, 487 
Fourth aire., New York city. 

Commerce, United States Junior Chamber. Dal- 
las, Tex. June 16-18. Wm. R. Simmons, 513 
Tribune Bdj-, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Educational Conference oe Academies and High 
Schools. University of Chicago. May S and 6. 
University of Chicago. 

Fire Protection Association, National. San 
Francisco. June 7-9. Franklin H. Wentworth, 
87 Milk St., Boston. 

Girls' Clubs. National Association of. Derby- 
shire, England. June 11-15. Catherine Towers, 
16 Gordon sq., London. 

Industrial Physicians and Surgeons, American 
Association. June 6. Dr. Francis D. Patter- 
son, P. O. Box 4061, W. Philadelphia Station, 

Industrial Relations Association oe America. 
St. Louis, May 3-5. C. H. , Weiser, 314 N. 
Broadway, New York city. 

Kindergarten Union, International. Detroit, 

American. Boston, June 
Craig, 535 North Dearborm 

May 2-6. May Murray, Springfield, Mass. 
Mayors and Other City Officials. F.lmira, 

June 7-9. William P. Capee, 2* Waahingter 

ave., Albany, N. Y. 
Medical Association, 

6-10. Alexander R. 

st., Chicago. 
Political and Social Science, American Aca»- 

Emy o». Philedelphia. May 7-8. Carl Kelsey, 

Logan Hall, University of Peanoylvania, Phil- 
Social Work, National Conference. Milwaukee, 

June 32-39. W. H. Parker, 316 Plymouth 

Court, Chicago. 
Tuberculosis Association. National. Hew York 

city, June 13-17. Philip P. Jacobs, 181 Fourth 

ave.. New York city. 



DO \T17- I I f I A 1V/I I 1? /"a R I M Q a"""" 1\I E'lttor of "The Critic and Guide." Honorary Member of The British Soeiety for tin 

JtV. W IL1L1I .£-*. 1V£ «J>. iV V-» D11U V^ 1^1, Study of Sex Psychology. Member of the International Association for Sexual Rcsearah. 


THURSDAY, APRIL 21, AT 8:30 P. M. 

The Venereal Diseases: Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chancroids. Their successful Prevention. 
Points in their treatment of importance to laymen. Sex Power and Athletics. Dura- 
tion of tho Sex lastinct in men. Questions and Answers. 

SUNDAY, APRIL 24, AT 8:30 P. M. 
"WOMAN: Her Sex and Love Life." For Women Only 

The Menopause and its disorders. Some False, Ideas and Supersti- 
tions regarding Woman's Sex Life. Abortion in its medical and moral 
aspects. Questions and Answers. 

RUMFORD HALL, 50 East 41st Street, near Madison Avenue 

Admission SI. 00 plus 10 per cent. 

Management FINE ARTS GUILD, Inc. 

489 Fifth Avenue. Telephone Vanderbllt 8261 



Fifty cents a line per month, four weekly Utsf 
tiens, copy unchanged throughout the 

&be Arbitrator eftere "The Jolly New World" 
for 25 cents — a primer of liberalism. $1 a 
year. Sample free. P. O. Box 42, Wall St. 
Sta., N. Y. C. 

Setter Simea reports the most important activr- 
ties of tin MS* charitable and pufclic welfare 
agenoies ia New York City. Ten issues per 
year— -$2.0fi. 70 Fifth Ave.. N. Y. 

Jfarettart-ffiorw supplies information needed by 
workers ia foreign communities. Legislation, 
adult education, international contacts, foreign- 
language press comments. Monthly. $1.50 a 
year. Woman* Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, 
New York City. 

Hospital (Social derutrr; monthly; $3.00 a year; 
published under tat auspicea at the riosptt*.. 

Social Service Association af New Yark Citj, 
Inc., 19 East 73d Street, New York. 

fHcnfal Hyairnc- quarterly; $2.00 a year; pub- 
lished by the National Committee far Mentai 
Hygiene, SO Union Square, New York. 

Public Hraltli Nurse; monthly; dues $3.00 and 
upward; subscription $3.00 per year; publiaav 
ed by the National Organization for Pubtir 
Health Nursing, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 


Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly inser- 
tions: copy unchanged throughout the month. 

The Trend of Jewish Population in Boston: A 
study to determine the location af a Jewish 
Communal Building, by Ben Rosen, Vol. 1, No. 
1, Monographs of Federated Jewish Charities af 
Boston, 25 Tremont St. Price 75 cents. 

Second Report of the Committee on Foreign 
Inquiry. Social Insurance Department. From 

the National Civic Federation, Floor 33, Metro- 
politan Tower, New York city. $3.50. 

The Second Generation op Immigrants in the 
Assimilative Process (Reprint from The 
Annals of The A. A. of P. St S. S. January 
1921) ay T. Sleszynski, 510 State St., Erie, Pa. 

Layout and Equipment op Playgrounds. Play- 
ground and Recreation Association of America, 
One Madison Avenue, New York City. Price, 
25 cents. 

Pioneering for Plat. Community Service, One 
Madison Avenue, New York City. (Suggestions 
for conducting campaigns for community recre- 
ation). Price, 30 cents. 

Immigration Literature sent on request by the 
National Liberal Immigration League, Box lib, 
Station F, New York City. 

Credit Unions. Free on request to Mass. Credit 
Union Assn., 5 Park Square, Boston. 

Colored Women as Industrial Workers in Phi- 
ladelphia. From the Consumers' League af 
Eastern Pennsylvania, 814 Otis Bldg., Philadel- 




RATES: Display advertisements, 25 
cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 
Want advertisements, % cents per word 
•r initial, including the address or box 
number, for each insertion, minimum 
charge, $1.50. 

Discounts 00 4 or more consecutive 

Address Advertising Department 


112 East 19th Street New York City 


SUPERINTENDENT for a custodial home 
for delinquent girls committed through the 
Children's Court. Must hare institutional 
•xperience. For further information write 
to Mrs. Sidney C. Borg, Hotel Chatham, 48 
Street and Vanderbilt Are., New York city. 

SOCIAL WORKERS, dietitians, industrial 
aurses, secretaries. Miss Richards, Provi- 
dence, R. I., Box 5 East Side; Boston, 16 
Jackson Hall, Trinity Court, Fridays, utoi. 

desires family case worker with C.O.S. ex- 
perience. Interesting Community, expert 
■upervision, opportunity for initiative. 
Salary $100. 3813 Survey. 

WANTED: District workers for a fam- 
ily case working agency in a large eastern 
•ity. Must speak Yiddish. Good salary. 
3818 Survey. 

WANTED: Young woman assistant to 
Director of Home for Girls to supervise re- 
•reation and to assist generally, season be- 
ginning May 1st. Apply, Director, 36 West 
•8th Street, New York City. 

WANTED: Resident Girls' Club Direc- 
tor for Neighborhood House of Jewish Sis- 
terhood of Newark, N. J. 21 Seventeenth 

WANTED: By State Tuberculosis Asso- 
ciation in Mississippi Valley a live field 
worker who knows public health. Work 
requires organizing, speaking, discussion of 
programs, etc. Salary, $2,400 a year and 
expense* and good prospects. Write full 
details-. 3830 Survey. 

WANTED: Superintendents for two sum- 
mer branches, preferably trained nurses ex- 
perienced in administrative work with chil- 
dren. May develop into permanent posi- 
tions. Apply in writing, giving full infor- 
mation. Brooklyn Children's Aid Society, 
72 Schermerhorn Street, Brooklyn, NewYork. 

STATISTICIAN acquainted with social 
work, wanted by a Federation of Jewish 
Charities. Good opportunity, satisfactory 
salary. Address Statistician, 3801 Survey. 


TEACHERS WANTED for colleges, pub- 
lic and private schools — all sections of coun- 
try (some foreign openings). Walter Agnew, 
1254 Amsterdam Avenue, New York. 


MAN with successful executive experience 
in social work, social research and business 
administration, desires change. 3809 Survey. 

MAN AND WIFE, Protestant, open for 
positions as superintendent and matron or 
instructors, child-caring institution. Ex- 
perienced; enthusiastic. 3814 Survey. 

CULTURED WOMAN, college graduate, 
resident middle west, desires summer posi- 
tion as Camp Councilor, or companion or 
chaperone at summer home or resort. Likes 
young people. Minimum compensation. Ref- 
erences exchanged. 3815 Survey. 

YOUNG Married Man desires appoint- 
ment in administrative position of modern 
Protestant boys' reform school or orphan- 
age. Business experience- and training in 
modern methods and supervision. 3816 

SUPERINTENDENT of Hebrew Orphan 
Asylum is in the field to make a change to 
another institution. College graduate and 
many years' experience. 3817 Survey. 

SOCIAL WORKER, male, thirty-eight, ex- 
perienced in church work, high school teach- 
ing, athletics, Boys' Clubs, several months 
experience with State Children's Welfare 
Organization, also several months in organ- 
izing and supervising Rural Community 
Clubs. Executive, 345 Oakwood Place, 
Springfield, Ohio. 

MAN with successful executive experience 
in community center, relief work, and ad- 
ministration of large organizations, avail- 
able for immediate change. 3819 Survey. 

able May 15. Experience as municipal, state 
and federal official and with national private 
agency. Progressive, efficient, social minded, 
a result getter. 3821 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE with broad experience in 
institutional care of children, child plac- 
ing and family case work, now head of 
Federation of Jewish Charities in large 
eastern city, will consider change for 
larger opportunities for service. 3822 

CHAUFFEUR, mechanic, married, expert 
care and operation, seven years' experience, 
institutional and private references, city or 
country. 3823 Survey. 

AMERICAN college man, 38, experienced 
in "Y," educational and factory employment 
work, desires position where interest in fel- 
low man may be applied in improving hu- 
man efficiency and character. 3824 Survey. 


WANTED, in New York City, by two 
women (social workers) small furnished 
apartment, from May first to October. Ad- 
dress: Armitage House, 451 East iai St., 
New York City. 



Give your Boy a chance 


A choice Summer Camp for Boys on a Lake 
in the Maine Woods near Belfast, Maine 

Exceptional Care and Personal 
Supervision Given Every Boy 

For Booklet address 


Tower Hill School Wilmington, Del. 



An Attractive Summer Residence 



The Berkshire Hills 

with garage for two cars, vegetable garden, 
apple orchard, flower garden, unexcelled ar- 
tesian well water. House, Swiss chalet archi- 
tecture, 11 rooms, 3 ba f brooms, screened 
dining-porch and sleeping-porches. Only a 
few minutes from village stores and railway 
station. State road all the way from Pitts- 
field, Lenox ,and Springfield. Altitude 1,400 
feet. Beautiful view of surrounding hills. 
For information address E. O. SUTTON, 
12 Ingraham Terrace, Springfield, Mass. 

Adirondacks— Keene Valley, N. Y. 

To Rant: Cottages, fully equipped, v«ry mod- 
ern, batka. toiieta, etc. Season $3»» to $1,000. 
H. W. Otis. 

Dorset. Vt. For Sale. "Cloverlea." 

7 rooms, fireplace, bath, sleeping-porch, town 
water, garden, 1 acre. Also smaller bungalow, 
2 bedrooms. Picturesque Tillage, pleasant eolony, 
golf, library, church. E. Camakt, care Frank 
Suter, Rosslyn, Va. 


Maple Syrup and Sugar 

Absolutely Pure 


Highland Farm, Alstead, New Hampshire 

An intensive two weeks' course in 


Boston, April 25-May 7, 1921. Open 
to social workers, nurses and others in- 
terested in the care of underweight 
and malnourished children, Director 
William R. P. Emerson, M.D. Fee 
$50.00, including all materials. Lim- 
ited number partial scholarships. Ad- 
dress Mabel Skilton, Secretary Nutri- 
tion Clinics for Delicate Children, 44 
Dwight Street, Boston. 


k - .-. 




Anierica's foremost thinkers will discuss this them 

THE YEAR 1921 is to be The Christian Century's greatest year. More than two 
score of the nation's foremost religious and ethical thinkers will conduct a thorough- 
going and unhampered discussion of the place Jesus Christ holds in the life of our 
times. Here is an example: 

The Mind of Jesus and the 
Competitive System 

will be discussed by 

Robert Hunter, Spokesman for submerged 
humanity, author of "Poverty," "Why We 
Fail as Christians." 

Roger Babson, America's influential adviser 
of business men, author of "Religion and 

Harry F. Ward, Constructive radical, pro- 
fessor of Christian Ethics, author of "A 
Better Industrial Order." 

Scott Nearing, Socialist authority, a fearless 
agitator who believes in religion and the 
ethics of Jesus. 

This single group alone makes The Christian Century indispensable to any man or woman who feels how 
urgent and how basic the industrial question is in religious and social progress. But these writers will rep- 
resent only one of the many aspects of the great theme. The list of participants is a growing one. Each 
week adds a new stellar name to the brilliant galaxy. At this moment the writers and their themes are: 

William Adams Brown 

Theologian and Missionary Statesman. 
"Can Society be Made Christian?" 

Peter Ainslie 

Church Statesman and Mystic. 
"Would Christ Approve the War?" 

Jane Addams 

America's Foremost Woman. 
"Christ and War." 

Joseph Ernest McAfee 

Prophet of Religious Democracy. 

"Are Christian Missions Christian?" 

Martha Foote Crow 

Interpreter of Religion and Literature. 
"Christ in Present Day Poetry." 

Charles E. Jefferson 

Preacher and Author. 

"Are the Churches Christian?" 

Herbert Croly 

Editor The New Republic 

"The Problem of Religious Education." 

H. D. C. Maclachlan 

Scholar and Pastor. 
Subject Not Yet Announced. 

John Kelman 

Scotch Preacher Adopted by America. 
Subject Not Yet Announced. 

Edward Scribner Ames 

Preacher and Philosopher. 

"Affinities Between Modern Philosophy 
and Jesus' Mind." 

Finis S. Idleman 

Preacher of Grace and Power. 
Subject to be Announced. 

Vida D. Scudder 

Churchwoman and Socialist Leader. 
"Can Public Opinion be Christian- 

John Spargo 

Socialist-Philosopher and Publicist. 
"Religion and Social Progress." 

Robert E. Park 

Professor of Sociology. 

"The Black Man, the White Man and 

William E. Barton 

A Counsellor of Souls. 

"Would Christ Find Affinity With 
Modern Spiritualism ?" 

Walter Williams 

President Press Congress of the World. 
"Christ and Modern Journalism." 

Albert Parker Fitch 

A Vital Theologian. 
"Do the Churches Really Believe in 

Joseph Fort Newton 

Preacher of International Sympathies. 
"Is Our Literature Christless?" 

Edgar DeWitt Jones 

Preacher and Shepherd of Men. 
"Dare We Be Christians?" 

Robert E. Speer 

M«st Potent Spiritual Influence in the 
American Church. 

"Christ and Our Social Customs." 

Lynn Harold Hough 

Brilliant Preacher and Teacher. 

"Is Science Foe or Friend of Christ?" 

Richard L. Swain 

A Writer Who Thinks of God in Terms 
of Life. 

"Can Christ Rule Modern Business?" 

Charles Henry Dickinson 

Authority on Religious Education. 

"Do We Really Know What Were the 
Ideals of Jesus?" 

Peter Clark Macfarlane 

Novelist and Short Story Writer. 
"Is the Church Christian?" 

Lloyd C. Douglas 

Equally Brilliant as Preacher and 

"Christ as a Practical Psychologist." 

Rufus M. Jones 

Modern Exponent of Quaker Ideals. 
"War and the Teaching of Jesus." 

Francis J. McConnell 

A Bishop Who Is Also a Prophet. 
"Are Christian Missions Christian?" 

Katharine Lee Bates 

Poet, Critic, Prophet. 

"Christians or Pharisees?" 

Burns Jenkins 

Preacher and Newspaper Editor. 
Subject to be Announced. 

Charles A. Ellwood 

"Is Our Civilization Christian?" 

Shailer Mathews 

Publicist, Teacher, Theologian. 

"Is Christian Theology Christian?" 

John M. Coulter 

World-Famous Botanist. 

"Is Evolution Anti-Christian?" 




NEVER in the history of American religious 
journalism has there been so eager and 
widespread a response to a program of 
complete freedom in the discussion of 
Christian themes as that which The Christian Century- 
is receiving. Its circulation has burst all denomina- 
tional bonds. Thoughtful church- 
men, both lay and clerical, in all 
communions are enthusiastic 
subscribers. They rejoice in a 
journal of religion which, with- 
out displacing denominational 
organs, undertakes squarely to 
face the problems of this new 
age without regard to denomina- 
tional interests. The discovery — 
and it has been a discovery — 
that a periodical can be religion 
and at the same time free, posi- 
tive and at the same time liberal 
in its hospitality to all enlight- 
ened points of view, has seemed to thousands of un- 
satisfied hearts like coming upon a refreshing spring 
of living water in a desert place. The Christian 


A Journal of Religion 

Charles Clayton Morrison and 
Herbert L. Willett, Editors 


Century has extended its influence into all the com- 
munions of the American church. It is equally at 
home among Congregationalists, Presbyterians, 
Methodists, Disciples, Baptists, Episcopalians and 
other Christian groups. Its subscription list is an 
album of the signatures of the church leaders of the 
nation. Besides, it is gripping 
the minds of thinking men and 
women who have no church con- 
nection. They are astonished 
that from within the church 
which they supposed had be- 
come moribund and incurably 
denominationalized in its vision 
there should emerge a journal 
loyal to the church, devout and 
evangelical, and at the same 
time as free as a university 
class room. And they stand 
amazed to find themselves 
actually enjoying a religious 
paper! Churchmen and earnest-minded non-church- 
men are saying that The Christian Century points 
toward a new day for Christian faith and practice. 

Another Great Feature This Year 


Master Preacher, known throughout Christendom for his ministry at City Temple, London, will pre- 
sent, in The Christian Century, during 1921, a series of interpretations of 

"Some Living Masters of the Pulpit" 


Poet, Artist, Educator, Practical Mystic, 
who built his life into a mighty city. 


Philosopher-theologian, whose sermons are 
lyrics and whose theology is an epic. 

DEAN INGE, of St. Paul'. 

A Christian Cassandra; the one voice to 
which all England listens. 


The Bernard Shaw of Nonconformity; 
leader of the New Catholicism; a God-illu- 
mined preacher. 


The Jane Addams of England ;_the greatest 
woman preacher of her generation, uniting 
the faith of a saint with a flaming social 


A quiet thinker, a wise leader, a great 
preacher who grew up on Broadway. 


An historic ministry at the gateway of the 
South. Today, as in the days of Elijah, 
fire is the sign of God. 

From the City Temple to Westminster; a 
pilgrim soul in a troubled age. 


A man of letters in the pulpit; a preacher, 
who searches like a surgeon and heals like 
a physician. 


A layman who is a Doctor of Divinity; an 
orator with an atrocious elocution; a 
scholar who knows more than any man has 
a right to know. 


A Rooseveltian personality in the pulpit — 
man of amazing industry, fabulous vocab- 
ulary, and infinite brotherliness. 


A Prophet-Bishop; preacher of a vital 
Christianity which is also a civilization. 


A winsome preacher of the winsomeness of 
Christ; a shining figure in the Lone Star 


A compound of Charles Lamb, Oliver 
Wendell Holmes, Isaiah, and much else 

Humor, pathos, literature, life made in- 
candescent by a spiritual genius who is also 
unveneered human being. 

Other names such as Harry Emerson Fosdick, Burris Jenkins, Edgar DeWitt Jones, Frederick F. Shannon, 

Lynn Harold Hough, Studdert Kennedy and still others of the younger set accused of being great preachers — 

arj. each found guilty.' — will be included in the series. 

Fill out one of these coupons and mail today. Addresses outside U. S. must provide for extra postage. 



\n The Christian Century during the year 1921 


508 S. Dearborn St., Chicago 

Please enter my name (a new subscriber) for a year's subscription to The Christian 
Century at your regular rate of $4.00 (ministers $3.00). I will remit upon receipt of bill 
and you will please send me without extra charge a copy of □ "The Daily Altar," by 
Willett and Morrison (in cloth), or □ "Wanted — A Congregation," by Douglas, or □ "Wh=* 
and Where Is God?" by Swain. 

Name. . . 

508 S. Dearborn St., Chicago 

Enclosed please find $1.00 for a twelve 
weeks' acquaintance subscription to The 
Christian Century. 




(Use title Rev." if a minister) 


Prague and 

The Y. FT. C. A. 


IKE AN EAGER LAD just from college, 
Czechoslovakia came out of the war 
into the company of nations deter- 
mined to match its ancient culture 

with a constitution and a legislative program 

of the most modern sort. 

Prague, its ancient capital, turned to the 
American social survey as the first step in 
developing its latent resources into a cour- 
ageous program of human betterment. In- 
vited by the Ministry of Social Welfare and 
by Dr. Alice Masaryk, daughter of the 
President of the Republic, the Young Wom- 
en's Christian Association made that survey. 

The story of their adventure in social ex- 
ploration and foundation-building will be 
told in,a special issue of The SURVEY, to be 
published in cooperation with the Y. Wv 
C. A. 

Ruth Crawford, who was in charge of 
the Prague survey for the Y. W. C. A., 
tells the story of it and of the permanent so- 
cial services that grew out of it. Hers is a 
fascinating tale of social pioneering, and one 
of surpassing interest to students of social 
survey methods. She describes the resource- 
ful ways in which the making of a city-wide 
survey had to be adapted to novel circum- 
stances, including the difficulty of the Bo- 
hemian language and the utter absence of or- 
dinary material, extending even to the lack 
of a city directory. 

In a summary of the main findings of the 
Prague survey reports, BRUNO LaSKER, of 
The Survey staff, gives not only the main 
conclusions, but brings out some of the chief 
contributions of the Czechs to , the world's 
store of ideas and practiee|rt social uplift. 

Prof. Herbert Adolphus Miller, of 
Oberlin College, a warm personal friend of 
President Masaryk, writes on the relations 
of the different national groups within the 

state to each other and of the relation of the 
Republic to its neighbors. Sarka Hrbkova, 
of the Foreign Press Service of the American 
Red Cross, discusses the inter-relation be- 
tween the peoples of Czechoslovakia and the 
Americans of Czechoslovak descent, and 
traces the contributions of the latter to the 
common wealth and common culture of the 
American people. 

TAR. Alice Masaryk, whose leadership in 
■IS social, sanitary and educational work in 
her own country bears the distinct impress of 
the years during which she was a resident of a 
social settlement in Chicago, writes the intro- 
duction. Dr. Bedrich Stepanek, Czecho- 
slovak-minister to the United States, contrib- 
utes a clear-cut description of the new social 
organization and legislation. 

This special Prague issue will be a most 
interesting and colorful example of the 
work'j&rrhfc- Survey's Foreign Service De- 
partment, which enables the American read- 
er to keep himself informed of those develop- 
ments abroad which cannot fail eventually to 
affect the theory and practice of social better- 
ment at home, and the supporter of Ameri- 
can social enterprise overseas to keep in touch 
with his emissaries and to judge of the value 
of their work. 

Sent postpaid for 25 cents a copy, or free as the first num- 
ber in a subscription. If you are interested in any aspect of 
Americanization, immigration or of the relations of foreign- 
born and native-born you will want The Survey regularly, 
for The Survey follows-up. 


112 East 19 Street. New York. 

□ I enclose $5 for a year's subscription beginning with the 
special Prague issue. 


□ I enclose $2.50 for a six months' trial trip including Prague. 


Street, No 

City, State 



• - < f^ / 

•.■••- ■ 

APRIL 23, 1921 


The Work Day in Steel— An International City Club— Toll for the 
County Jail— The Child in Delaware— Labor Agreements Abrogated 
-The Miners Go It Alone— The Bank of North Dakota— What 
Happened at Albany 

The President's Message . . . Edward T. Devine 105 

A Labor Party in Italy ? . . . Giuseppe Prezzolini 105 

Detroit Out of Work Fred R. Johnson 106 

America and China Joseph K. Hart 107 

Opinion in China .... John Stewart Burgess 108 


The Denver Salary Schedule . . . Cora B. Morrison 111 

A Village School David H Pierce 112 

The Corner-Stone of Freedom J. K. H. 113 

Rural Teaching a Profession . . Augustus O. Thomas 114 


A Study of Illegitimacy . . . Katharine P. Hewins 115 

Solving Behavior Problems .... Frederic H. Knight 116 

Recreation in Tennessee . . . Helen Dwight Fisher 117 


Forty-Eighv Hours or Less .... William L. Chenery 118 
Negro Women in Industry .... Alice C. Cheyney 119 
Labor and the Indemnity— Currents in Industry 



15 Cents a Copy 

$5.00 a Year 




ERS — Miss Ida M. Cannon, pres.; Social Service Department, Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.. Miss Ruth V. 
Bmerson, sec'y; National Headquarters, American Red Cross, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Organization to promote development ef social work 
in hospitals and dispensaries. Annual meeting with National Con- 
ference of Social Work. 

Andrews, sec'y.; 131 E. 23rd St., New York. For adequate public 
employment service; Industrial safety and health laws; workmen's 
compensation and rehabilitation of cripples; unemployment, old age 
and health insurance; maternity protection; one day's rest in seven; 
efficient law enforcement. Publishes quarterly, "The American 
Labor Legislation Review." 

TALITY— Gertrude B. Knlpp, sec'y.; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Urges prenatal, obstetrical and infant care; birth registration; 
maternal nursing; infant welfare consultations; care of children of 
pre-school age and school age. 

AMERICAN CITY BUREAU — An agency for organizing and strength- 
ening Chambers of Commerce, City Clubs, and other civic and com- 
mercial organizations; and for training of men in the profession of 
community leadership. Address our nearest office — 
Tribune Building, New York. 
12$ W. Madison Street, Chicago. 
71* Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 

field, pres., C. J. Galpin, ex. sec, E. C. Lindeman, Greensbere, N. C, 
field secretary. Annual conference with annual reports. Emphasizes 
the human aspects of country life. Membership, $3. 

Cooper, sec'y., Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Or- 
ganized for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions 
and community. Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cath- 
edral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY. Founded 1828, labors for an inter- 
national peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate ef Peace, 
$2 00 a year. Arthur Deerin Call, Secretary and Editor, 612-614 
Colorado Building, Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION — Annual Congress of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency. Maintains 
all-the-year-round information bureau on all questions of delinquency 
and crime. Advice and counsel of specialists throughout the country 
available free of charge through central office. Annual proceedings 
published. Next congress, Jacksonville, Fla., November, 1921. Mem- 
bership, Including proceedings, $5. C. B. Adams, pres.; O. F. Lewis, 
gen. sec'y.. 135 E. 16th St., N. Y. C. 

J. Osborne, exec, sec'y.; 86 W. 45th SL, New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and preven- 
tion. Publications free on request. Annual membership dues, $5. 

Bt., New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion of 
sound sex education. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon 
request. Annual membership dues, $2. Membership includes quarterly 
magazine and monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 

tion Against the Saloon. Rev. P. A. Baker, D.D.. General Superin- 
tendent; Rev. Howard H. Russell, D.D., Associate Gen. Superintend.; 
Mr. Ernest H. Cherrimgton, General Manager Department of Publish- 
ing Interests and General Secretary World League Against Alcohol- 
Ism; and Rev. E. J. Moore, Ph.D., Assistant General Superintendent 
National Headquarters, Westerville, Ohio. Mr. Wayne B. Wheeler, 
Esquire, Attorney, 30-33 Bliss Building, Washington, D. C. 

New York. Dr. D. Emmett Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, Di- 
rector. To arouse public Interest In the health of school children; to 
encourage the systematic teaching of health in the schools; to develop 
new methods of interesting children in the forming of health habits; 
to publish and distribute pamphlets for teachers and public health 
workers and health literature for children.; to advise in organization 
of local child health programme. 

to secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to im- 
prove standards and methods in the different fields of work with 
children and to make available in any part of the field the assured 
results of successful effort. The League will be glad to consult 
with any agency, with a view to assisting it In organizing or re- 
organizing its children's work. C. C. Carstens, Director, 130 E. 
22nd St., New York. 

York. Organized In February, 1919, to help people of all communities 
employ their leisure time to their best advantage for recreation and 
good citizenship. While Community Service (Incorporated) helps in 
organizing the work, in planning the programme and raising the 
funds, and will, if desired, serve in an advisory capacity, the com- 
munity Itself, through the community committee representative of 
comimunity interests, determines policies and assumes complete con- 
trol of the local work. Joseph Lee, pres.; H. S. Braucher, sec'y. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y.; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec 
■ec'y. A public service for knowledge about human inheritances, 
hereditary Inventory and eugenic possibilities. Literature free. 

ICA — Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev. Chas. P 
Mecfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l sec'ys.; 105 E. 22 St., New York 
Commision on the Church and Social Service — Rev. Worth 1* 
Tippy, exec, sec'y.; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y. - 
Agnes H. Campbell, research ass't.; Inez M. Cavert, librarian 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE-vL E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenlx vice- 
pres.; F. H. Rogers, treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a Government 
school. Free Illustrated literature. 

Headquarters 146 Henry St.. New York; Etta Lasker Rosensohn. 
chm. Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, guides. Interna- 
tional system of safeguarding. Conducts National Americanizatio* 

Culbert Fanes, dir., 101 E. 23rd St., New York. Maintains free in- 
dustrial training classes and employment bureau; make artificial 
limbs and appliances; publishes literature on work for the handi- 
capped; gives advice on suitable means for rehabilitation of disabled 
persons and cooperates with other social agencies in plans to put the 
disabled man "back on the payroll." 

secretary 70 Fifth Avenue New York City. Object— to promote an 
intelligent interest in Socialism among college men and women An- 
nual membership, $3, $5, and $25; includes monthly. "The Socialiat 
Review." Special rates for students. 

OF L ED -^ E ^«t E r' Moo ^ fleld ^orey. Pres.; James Welden Johnson. 
seCy., 70 Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored Americans the 
common rights of American citizenship. Furnishes information re- 
garding race problems, lynchings, etc. Membership 99.000 with 350 
branches. Membership, $1 upward. 


Rush Taggart, pres. ; Mrs. Robert L. Dickinson, treas ■ Vinril V 
Johnson, sec'y.; 26 West 43rd St., New York. Composed of non-com- 
mercial social agencies which protect and assist travelers, especially 
women and girls. Non-sectarian. 

ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexington Ave., New York. To advance phy- 
sical, social, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young wo- 
men. Student, city, town and country centers; physical and social 
education; camps; rest-rooms, room registries, boarding houses 
lunchrooms and cafeterias; educational classes; employment- Bible 
study; secretarial training school; foreign and overseas work. 

Body of the Catholic Organizations of the country. 

National Executive Offices, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue NW 
Washington, D. C. • 

General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. 

Department of Education— Acting Director, Right Rev. Mer Edw 
A. Pace. 

Bureau of Education— A. C. Monahan, Director. 

Department of Laws and Legislation — 

Department of Social Action— Directors, John A. Ryan and John 
A. Lapp. 

Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin MoGrath - 
Ass't. Director, Michael Williams. 

National Council of Catholic Men — President, Richmond Dean- 
Exec. Sec'y., Michael J. Slattery. 

National Council of Catholic Women — President, Mrs. Michael Ga- 
vin; Exec. Sec'y., Miss Agnes G. Regan. 

National Training School for Women, Washington, D. C. — Dean. 
Miss Maud R. Cavanagh. 
Bureau of Immigration — National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. 

105 E. 22nd St., New York. Industrial, agricultural investigations. 
Works for improved laws and administration; children's codes. Stu- 
dies health, schools, recreation, dependency, delinquency, etc. An- 
nual membership, $2, $5, $10, $25, and $100; includes quarterly, '"Mm 
American Child." 

Powlison, gen. sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and pub- 
lishes exhibit material which visualizes the principles and condition* 
affecting the health, well being and education of children. Cooper- 
ates with educators, public health agencies, and all child welfare 
groups in community, city or state-wide service through exhibit*, 
child welfare campaigns, etc 


Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir.; Associate 
Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and Dr. V. V. Ander- 
son; Clifford W. Beers, sec'y.; 50 Union Square, New York City. 
Pamphlets on mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble- 
mindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war neuroses 
and re-education, psychiatric social service, backward children, sur- 
veys, state societies. "Mental Hygiene;" quarterly, $2 a year. 

pres., New York; W. H. Parker, gen. sec'y., 23 East 9th St., Cincin- 
nati. Ohio. General organization to discuss principles of humanitarian 
effort and increase efficiency of agencies. Publishes proceedings 
annual meetings, monthly bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information 
bureau. Membership, $3. 48th annual meeting, Milwaukee, June 21- 
29, 1921. Main Divisions and chairmen: 

Children— J. Prentice Murphy, Philadelphia. 

Delinquents and Correction — 'Mrs. Martha P. Falconer, Philadelphia, 

Health — Dr. Richard Bolt, Baltimore. 

Public Agencies and Institutions — R. F. Beasley, Raleigh. 

The Family — Frances Taussig, New York. 

Industrial and Economic Conditions — Sophonisba P. Breckinrldfre, 

The Local Community — Howard S. Braucher, New York. 

Mental Hygiene — Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, New York. 

Organization of Social Forces — Otto W. Davis, Minneapolis. 

Uniting of Native and Foreign-Born In America— Graca Ahhet. 




NESS — Edward M. Van Cleve, managing director; George D. Eaton, 
field sec'y.; Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y. ; 130 E. 22nd St., New 
York. Objects: To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lec- 
tures, publish literature of movement — samples free, quantities at 
cost. Includes New York State Committee. 

aec'y; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of comparative 
■tudy and concerted action in city, state and nation, t<tr meeting the 
fundamental problems disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF GIRLS' CLUBS— Jean Hamilton, gen. sec'y., 
ISO E. 69th St., New York. Girls' clubs; recreation and educational 
work in non-sectarian, eelf-governlng groups aiming toward complete 
self-support. Monthly publication, "The Club Worker," 11.60 a year. 

NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE— Publishes monthly the maga- 
zine "National Municipal Review" containing articles and reports 
on politics, administration and city planning. The League is a clear- 
ing house for information on short ballot, city, country and state 
governments. Hon. Charles E. Hughes, pres. ; Mr. H. W. Dodds, 
■ec'y.; 261 (A) Broadway, New York. Dues, $5.00 a year. 

Ella Fhilllps Crandall, R. N. exec sec'y.; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of public health nursing; to 
develop standards of technique; to maintain a central bureau of In- 
formation. Official organ, the "Public Health Nurse," subscription 
Included In membership. Dues, $3.00 and upward. Subscription $3.00 
per year. 

King, mgr., 130 E. 22nd St., New York. A cooperative guild of social 
workers organized to supply social organizations with trained per- 
sonnel (no fees) and to work constructively through members for 
professional standards. 

Charles J. Hatfield, M.D., Managing Director. Information about 
organization, education, Institutions, nursing problems and other 
phases of tuberculosis work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crusade, publishers "Journal of the Outdoor Life," "American Re- 
view of Tuberculosis" and "Monthly Bulletin." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE— For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y.; 
127 E. 23rd St., New York. Establishes committees of white and colored 
people to work out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

A. Gordon, president. Headquarters, 1730 Chicago avenue, Evanston, 
Illinois. To secure effective enforcement of the Eighteenth Amend- 
ment, to advance the welfare of the American people through the 
departments of Child Welfare, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance 
Instruction, and other allied fields of endeavor. Official publication. 
The Union Signal, published weekly at Headquarters. 

Robins, pres.: 64 W. Randolph St. (Room 1102), Chicago, 111. Stands 
for self-government in the work shop through organization and also 
for the enactment of protective legislation. Information given. Of- 
ficial organ, "Life and Labor." 

— H. S. Braucher, sec'y.: 1 Madison Ave., New York City. Play- 
ground, neighborhood and community center activities and admini- 
stration. Special attention given to municipal recreation problems. 

sentation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y., 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
Membership, $1, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

For the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race 
Improvement. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Confer- 
ence, the Eugenics Registry, and lecture courses and various allied 
activities. J. H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— 'For the Improvement of Living 
Conditions — John M. Glenn, dir.: 130 E. 22nd St., New York. Depart- 
ments: Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education. Statistics, 
Recreation, Remedial Loans. Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Stu- 
dies. Library, Southern Highland Division. The publications of the 
Russell Sage Foundation offer to the public in practical and Inex- 
pensive form some of the most Important results of its work. Cata- 
logue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An Institution for the training of Negro 
Youth; an experiment in race adjustment i the Black Belt of the 
South; furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and 
on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren 
Logan, trees.; A. I. Holsey, acting sec'y., Tuskegee, Ala. 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC. — A non-commercial cooperative organ- 
ization without shares or stockholders incorporated under the mem- 
bership law of the State of New York. Robert W. deForest, pres.: 
John M. Glenn, Henry R. Seager, V. Everit Macy, vice-presidents; 
Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y-treas. Publishers of The Survey, weekly. 
The Survey's work is conducted under the following editorial staff: 

Editor, Paul U. Kellogg 

Civics, Foreign Service, Bruno Lasker 

Social Forces, Edward T. Devine 

Industry, William L. Chenery 

Health, Michael M. Davis, Jr. 

School and Community, Joseph K. Hart 

Family Welfare, Child Welfare, Paul L. Benjamin 

Managing Editor, S. Adele Shaw 
Cooperating Subscription (membership) $10. Regular subscrip- 
tion $5 yearly. 112 East 19 Street, New York City. 


Conducted by 


Students in China have struck, together with their teachere, 
in order to enforce the working out of an educational program 
for the future of China. Liberal students in American colleges 
have organized the Intercollegiate Liberal League for the pur- 
pose of studying and developing liberal movements and liberal- 
mindedness in American education. Thousands of students 
staged a "revolt" at the University of Minnesota last week, 
in order to bring pressure to bear on the legislature of the 
state. What right has the individual who is still in college to 
attempt to influence the course of events in the world at large ? 
Does the fact of being a "student" automatically deprive 
the individual of any right to express himself about matters 
at issue in the world at large? Or does the exactly opposite 
proposition hold ? What is the position of the student in the 
civic life of America? Is he a citizen, or is he a "child," still ? 
The Constructive Work of Students. 


-♦ What program or programs have the individual students, 
or groups of students in your community that are worthy of seri- 
ous consideration by the community at large? Are these program* 
important because they are positive and constructive, or because 
they are negative and possibly destructive? Are these programs 
primarily educational, civic or economic? Are the students of your 
community interested in the educational, civic or economic prob- 
lems of your community? As learners, followers or leaders? Are 
their attitudes serious, basic, lasting, dependable, or ephemeral and 
episodic? Are there any noticable differentiations in these respects 
as between students of different races? As between the sexes? As 
between students from varying economic or previous culture levels? 

O Institutional Attitudes Toward Students. 
~*+ What are the attitudes of schools or colleges toward the 
student bodies and the individual students? Is the ordinary atti- 
tude democratic or is it medieval and autocratic? Is attendance at 
school and college preparation for democratic living, or is it train- 
ing in thoughtless obedience? Is the present trend of institutional 
attitude toward a more thorough democracy, or is it becoming more 
militaristic? What have institutions learned as the result of the 
war and the destruction of Prussian militarism? Are they de- 
veloping along the same lines? Or have they adopted programs 
for more democracy in education? Do students submit to the present 
trend or do they show some independence? 

3 The Student as Member of the Community. 
♦ Do young men and women of student ages willingly accept 
responsibility today? If not, why not? What is the attitude of 
the adult world toward giving them an actual share in the com- 
munity life? What is their attitude toward accepting such a share? 
Why does the Chinese student make such a stir in the world? Is 
there any such room in American life for the American student? 
If not, why not? How does the American graduate get from the 
college into the community life? Or doesn't he make the transi- 
tion? Is he wanted in the community life? Does he want to be 
part of it? What is being done by the educational institutions 
you know to make such connections possible? 

Arthur Dean: Our Schools in War-time and After. Ginn and 
Co. Price, $1.25; postpaid, $1.40. 

William B. Forbush: The Coming Generation. D. Appleton 
and Co. Price, $1.50; postpaid, $1.65. 

Randolph Bourne: Youth and Life. Houghton, Mifflin Co. 
Price, $2.00; postpaid, $2.12. 

Harry H. Moore: The Youth and The Nation. Macmillan 
Co. Price, $1.25; postpaid, $135. 
The Survey, pp. 107 and 108. 

The books mentioned above may be obtained through the Survey Book 


The Survey. Vol XLVI, No. 4. Published weekly by the Survey Associates, Inc., 112 E. 19 St., New York. Price $5.00 yearly. Entered as second-class 
matter, March 25, 1909, at the poat-office, New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3. 1879. Acceptance for mailing at a special rate of postage provided 

for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on Ume 26. 1918. 






c R.ef>rintecL 

The 9tew 

The facts on 
Industrial Espionage 

Every American who believes in co- 
operation between capital and labor, 
who would give more than lip service 
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Xne Labor Spy 

the complete series of seven articles in The New 
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form with an introduction by Dr. Richard C. Cabot, 
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This 8o page booklet contains the substance of the 
exhaustive report on industrial espionage made by 
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dustrial relations. The incredible facts of a nation- 
wide practice of commercial spying are here as- 
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For the spy plays one against the other for his own 
profit to the destruction of both. 

Already legislation against spying is pending in 
four states (at least), and the A. F. of L. has called 
upon Congress for a federal investigation. Samuel 
Gompers, testifying before the Legislature of New 
York State, recently declared, "The majority of 
strikes today can be attributed to the system of spy- 
ing employees used on labor. Detective agencies, 
back of corporations, are responsible for this system 
of industrial espionage." 'Except in the light of these 
disclosures such an astounding accusation could not 
be believed — and only by action to meet this menace 
to peaceful relationships, can good will in industry 
be substituted for bad will, provocation and violence. 

This booklet has been printed from 
the same type used in the journal, and 
therefore at a great saving in cost. To 
make it available to everyone it is be- 
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Single copies 15c; in bundle orders 
of 50 or more 10c. Use the blank be- 
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For the enclosed $ * send me copies of 

The Labor Spy Booklet. 



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to The New Republic and The Labor Spy FREE. 


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Rand School of Social Science, Author of "The American 


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Vol. XLVI 


No 4 




Associate Editors 




S. ADELE SHAW, Managing Editor 
Published weekly and Copyright 1921 by Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 Street, New York. Robert W. deForest, president; Arthur P. 
Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

Price: this issue, IS cents a copy; tS a year; foreign postage, $1.25; 
Canadian, 65 cents. Changes of address should be mailed us ten days in 
advance. When payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon 

Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post office, New 
York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at d 
special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorised on June 26, 1918. 


JUDGE Gary has made another pronouncement on the 
twelve-hour day in the steel industry — this time before the 
stockholders' meeting held in Hoboken, N. J., last Mon- 
day. He says: 

The officers of the Corporation, the presidents of the sub- 
sidiary companies, and a majority of others in positions of 
responsibility are in favor of abolishing the twelve-hour day, 
and for this reason and because of the public sentiment re- 
ferred to, it is our endeavor and expectation to decrease the 
working hours — we hope in the comparatively near future. 

The principal difficulty, Judge Gary says, "arises from the 
fact that the workmen themselves are unwilling to have the 
hours of labor decreased for the reason that they desire the 
larger weekly compensation resulting from the longer hours." 
A way out of that difficulty seems to have been reached in the 
case of the seven-day week which Judge Gary at the same time 
announced had been discontinued by the subsidiary companies. 
"Indeed," he says, "they [the workers] are not permitted to 
work more than six days per week notwithstanding many are 
desirous of doing so." 

Two other important announcements affecting the twelve- 
houi day in the steel industry have been made during the week. 
The Committee on Waste of the Engineers' Council of the 
Federated American Engineers' Society i* about to enter upon 
a comprehensive study of the two-shift system in continuous 
processes in various industries. This will include a technical 
study of three shifts in steel. Such a study should go far to 
aid those steel officials who regard the twelve-hour day as 
indefensible from the standpoint of the worker but who 
state that they have not yet found a practical means of 
eliminating it. 

An "educational drive" among the unemployed workers in 
the industry has been announced by the steel committee of the 
American Federation of Labor. This committee, organized 
last January, headed by M. J. Tighe, president of the Amalga- 
mated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers, succeeds 
the National Committee for Organizing Iron and Steel Work- 

ers, headed by John Fitzpatrick, which carried on the steel 
strike of 1919. 


AFTER forty years of activity in the municipal reform 
movements of New York, Dr. Felix Adler, head of the 
Society for Ethical Culture, feels more than ever that 
the foreign-born groups, so far as they interest themselves at 
all in the improvement of their city, are too much under the 
leadership of the native-born, and that their first-hand knowl- 
edge of conditions that need to be remedied is not exerting a 
sufficient influence on the shaping of reform programs and 
policies. Some previous efforts on Dr. Adler's part to get rep- 
resentatives of the foreign groups to form a progressive organi- 
ation of their own have remained unsuccessful — the last one, 
a cosmopolitan club under the auspices of the Ethical Culture 
Society, failed owing to the sharpness of nationalist antagon- 
isms during the war. But a new effort is being made to 
establish an international city club in New York city. In 
addition to serving the purpose mentioned, it is hoped that 
this club will bring together in pleasant social intercourse men 
and women of different national and social antecedents, to- 
gether with native Americans, to learn each other's view- 
points and, by working together on some definite civic pro- 
jects, to increase their value as good citizens. Committees to 
study and make recommendations on such matters as housing, 
the reception of immigrant newcomers, the schools, etc., are 
contemplated^ It is hoped the membership will justify the 
renting of club premises in the new Town Hall. 


REPORTS of the hearings before the special joint com- 
mittee which the Massachusetts legislature has created 
to investigate the county jail indicate that the county 
officials have a weak case on the merits of the problem itself, 
and that although the fight is bitter, probably the county jail 
will disappear from that state. 

The local institutions are rusty with inactivity. From an 
average of 3,531 inmates in 1910, the population fell off in 
ten years to 66 per cent of that number in 1920. In the 
same interval the total net cost of maintenance jumped from 
$626,065 to $832,678. That the shortage of alcohol de- 
creased the number of petty offenders is indicated by the fact 
that even in the heavy unemployment of this winter, so acute 
that relief agencies like the Family Welfare Society of Boston 
are reporting a heavier intake than in the seasons of 1914 
and 1915, the seasonal increase in county jail population was 
little more than the average. This winter it jumped from 
994 in September to 1,453 in March. Ordinarily the total 
for March might be estimated at 1,350. 

However, the county office holders are not wholly without 




argument. They point to the defects of the state system it- 
self; to a series of special reports to the legislature, covering 
fifty years, in which the evils of the state's prison system are 
detailed. Nevertheless Robert W. Kelso, executive secretary 
of the Boston Council of Social Agencies, writes: 

The defects of the state system are not a sufficient answer 
to this great issue. County influence has undoubtedly done 
much to retard the best development of the state system. When 
those defects have been freely admitted there still remains the 
real question: Shall the care and treatment of law breakers in 
a state, comprising but 8,000 square miles, continue to be 
broken up in the hands of fourteen sets of officials with a pos- 
sible variety of fourteen views as to the best methods to be 
employed? Shall this continue, even though that state has 
already taken over almost wholly the institutional care of ju- 
venile delinquents; has established a reformatory for younger 
adults; looks after all the criminal insane, all capital offenders, 
and long term convicts? So completely has this process of cen- 
tralization been carried out that, if juvenile offenders be in- 
cluded, four-fifths of all convicts are now cared for by the state. 
Massachusetts has reached a stage in her public social ser- 
vice, where the care and treatment of law breakers must be 
systematized in such a manner as to give her the opportunity 
and the means to classify her offenders and to specialize their 


DELAWARE has relegated the bound out child to the 
limbo of the scrap heap. The state legislature has 
recently repealed an old law providing for an apprentice 
system whereby children could be bound out by the justice 
of the peace. However, of even more moment than the re- 
peal of this old statute is the passage of another bill which 
strikes at the heart of the child-placing problem within the 
state. In substance this bill provides that any society or 
individual wishing to place a child in a foster home in the 
state must first give a bond of $3,000 to the state board of 
charities. Under the terms of such a bond a child shall not 
be sent into the state who is incorrigible, of unsound mind 
or body, or mentally subnormal. The provisions of the bill 
also enable the state board to remove a child from a home 
when it is ascertained that it has been placed in an improper 
one. The crux of the situation seems to rest in the power 
of enforcement, $2,000 being appropriated to carry out the 
provision of the bill. Further, the state board of charities 
is largely made the final arbiter since any person or associa- 
tion placing any child in the state must abide by all rules 
made by the state board "pertaining to the rejection, impor- 
tation, placing, supervision, education, health, removal and 
general welfare of all such children." In spite of the con- 
dition of the placed out children in the state as disclosed in 
the study made by Jessie Logie for the Delaware Children's 
Bureau [see the Survey for April 16, p. 81] this bill has 
not as yet been signed by the governor. 

The New York Children's Aid Society, one of the prin- 
cipal societies placing children in Delaware in the past, active- 
ly opposed this bill at the hearings. At the time, that Miss 
Logie's study was made, the society had 178 children in the 
state received from such sources as orphanages or institutions, 
lodging homes and shelters for homeless boys, and overseers 
of the poor. As far as can be ascertained, the organization 
has placed at least fifty mentally backward children within 
the state. Furthermore, R. N. Brace, superintendent of the 
society, has stated that "another point to take into consider- 
ation in these backward cases is that this sort of boy will 
stay with people who bring him up and treat him kindly 
for years and years, when a bright, ambitious boy would be 
striking out for himself." 

Until 1914 this organization made no mental or physical 
examination of the child by specialists. Now, such examina- 
tion is made upon acceptance of the child by the society. 

The majority of the 178 children placed in Delaware by 
the society are boys who have been placed upon farms. In 
many instances their attendance at school has not been en- 
forced and they have been allowed to work long hours. 


IN its decree of April 14 abrogating the national agree- 
ments which bind the railroads and a number of the unions, 
the Railroad Labor Board made a compromise decision. 
The plea of the Association of Railway Executives for the 
annulment of the working agreements which were a heritage 
of the United States Railway Administration was granted, 
but at the same time in prescribing certain conditions to 
which new agreements between the individual railroads and 
the unions must conform, the board upheld the workers' 
contentions. It furthermore announced that penalties would 
be applied both to the railroads and to the unionists in the 
event of obstructive tactics. 

The working agreements are scheduled to continue until 
July 1. By that date new contracts must be negotiated. 
Sixteen principles are outlined as basic to the new arrange- 
ment. These call for such an organization that honest, ef- 
ficient and economical service may be rendered and the spirit 
of cooperation between management and employes developed. 
The board while insisting that the new rules be not made 
subversive of necessary discipline stated that "the right of 
railway employes to organize for lawful objects shall not be 
denied, interfered with or obstructed." Discrimination be- 
tween unionists and non-unionists was forbidden and the 
board added : "Espionage by carriers on the legitimate ac- 
tivities of labor organizations by labor organizations or the 
legitimate activities of carriers should not be practiced." The 
right of employes to be consulted before wages or working 
conditions are changed was affirmed, and the rule was laid 
down that no employe should be disciplined without a fair 
hearing. The board approved the principles of the eight- 
hour day but expressed the belief that it should be limited 
to work "requiring practically continuous application during 
eight hours." The majority of any craft or class of employes 
were also guaranteed the right to determine what organiza- 
tion should represent them. 


THE general strike in Great Britain has this similarity 
with the revolution in Spain that the country again 
and again seems to stand on the brink of it but does 
not take the jump. As Arthur Gleason has pointed out 
repeatedly in the Survey, the British have a way of enjoy- 
ing life as a series of emergencies which sometimes approach 
disaster; but the saving grace of common sense usually 
averts catastrophe; some new level of compromise is reached 
which eventually becomes part of the accepted tradition. 
The origin and causes of the present nation-wide miners' 
strike were recorded in the Survey for April 9. Since then, 
the threatened sympathetic strike of the other two members 
of the "triple alliance," the railwaymen and transport work- 
ers — joined by the general laborers' union of over a million 
members — was practically assured; and the most detailed 
preparations for a long siege were perfected by all depart- 
ments of government, by the local authorities that had to 
fear an interruption of services essential to the welfare of 
the people, and by the business community. All efforts of 
the prime minister and the cabinet to bring miners and mine 
owners together for a last minute arbitration of their differ- 
ences failed for the simple but sufficient reason that on the 
major points at issue the government had placed itself un- 
reservedly on the side of the employers against the unions. 
The miners' strike was called and, according to the 
most recent news, is likely to be fought to a bitter and de- 
vastating end. 

Important as it is in its effect upon British industry and 
shipping, the miners' strike as a national calamity has been 
overshadowed by the events which during the last week led 
to the breaking up of the "triple alliance," so far as the 
fulfillment of its program of action is concerned. The repre- 
sentatives of the "triple alliance" had declared that they 



looked upon the miners' demands as minimum requirements 
if the advances made by trade unionism as such were not to 
be lost ; national settlement of wage differences was the great 
achievement by which groups of struggling, under-paid work- 
ers had been able to improve their status, and the endeavor 
of the mine owners to throw over the machinery for national 
adjustment and settle wages upon a regional basis was 
tantamount, if successful, to the abandonment of the safe- 
guard against exploitation which the workers of all the major 
industries had by decades of struggle and sacrifice built for 
themselves. The miners' spokesman, Frank Hodges, as a 
last concession, on Thursday, April 14, expressed to a number 
of members of Parliament the willingness of the miners to 
discuss wages with the owners and the government with a 
view to an immediate armistice, if the larger issues, connected 
with the national pooling of profits and a national wages 
board, were left over for later consideration. This offer, it 
seems, was immediately repudiated by other miners' represen- 
tatives; and when the prime minister, banking upon it, 
invited masters and men to come together for another con- 
ference, the labor men did not turn up. Whether Frank 
Hodges actually resigned as a result of this divergence of 
views on the miners' executive, is not clear at the time of 
writing. In any case, the refusal of the miners to meet the 
employers on the new terms undermined the militant attitude 
of their colleagues of the alliance. After many exits and 
alarms, the railwaymen and transport workers broke away 
and announced their unwillingness to proceed with a strike 
which, as it then seemed, was going to be waged for tactical 
political advantages and not for a straight issue of wage ad- 
justment. In some places, notably in Wales, the transport 
workers had already gone on strike ; and the cancellation of 
the general strike order for a time produced confusion and 
intense local disputes which, it is expected, will in some cases 
lead to the splitting up of local unions and strengthening of 
the ultra-radical groups with whom "direct action" is not 
one of a number of possible trade union methods of defense 
but almost a religious doctrine. 


ANEW turn to the financial difficulties of the Nonpar- 
tisan goTernment of the state of North Dakota was 
given by the recent decision of the Supreme Court of 
that state concerning the right of banks or other creditors- of 
the Bank of North Dakota to garnishee that institution, i. e. 
to stop, by legal process, money due to it to satisfy the claims 
of third interests. The court, by a four to one decision, sus- 
tained that right on the ground that the state and the bank 
are not one and the same entity or authority, and that the 
bank possesses none of the powers and prerogatives of the state 
government since in creating it the state had made it a separate 
legal entity and placed it under the management of a distinct 
corporation. It therefore has authority in financial matters 
to the extent that the state determines and no further. The 
state gave it power to bond and go in debt to the extent of 
two million dollars; and the bank may not obligate the state 
beyond that amount. It operates undi-i the management of 
the Industrial Commission which is authorized to issue and 
sell $7,000,000 of state bonds. The Commission may do so by 
way of the bank and use the latter as an agency in all its trans- 
actions. According to legal authorities in North Dakota, the 
general powers of the bank have not been touched by the deci- 
sion of the Supreme Court. It may be garnisheed by its credit- 
ors ; but on the other hand it has the right to go to any of its 
depositories in the state and close them up if they are in bad 
condition or to collect all the given depository owes the state 
bank. In a recent garnishee proceeding instituted by a bank 
in a western county of North Dakota, the local bank collected 
about $32,000 from the state bank, but the latter in its turn 
collected about twice that amount from the local bank. 
The Supreme Court decision, therefore, does not affect the 

attempted bond issue which, since it is offered by the state 
government, using the bank as an agency, and not by the bank 
itself, still may be and is claimed to have behind it all the re- 
sources of the state as security. 

Having broken away from what they described as "the grip 
of Wall Street," by establishing their own banking system, 
and by substituting for the dominant policies of the country's 
banking interests one more favorable to producers — combin- 
ing some of the features of the federal reserve system with a 
generous provision for rural credits — the legislators of North 
Dakota unexpectedly came up against a snag when they at- 
tempted recently so simple a transaction as a bond issue for 
$6,000,000 to develop further the state's program of direct 
ownership and operation of public utilities. There is no doubt 
that, issued at 6 per cent, with all the state's resources for 
security, these bonds would have been readily absorbed by the 
investing public had they been given the chance. But owing 
to the inability of the people of North Dakota themselves to 
do so, since they were faced with an exceptionally unfavor- 
able market for their produce — a market, indeed, that could 
only be kept alive by selling at considerable loss — a small 
group of outside banks were in the strategic position of being 
able to block the issue. The significance of this opportunity 
evidently was not lost on them. 

To secure first-hand information on a conflict which so 
closely affects the prospects of progressive social legislation as 
exemplified in North Dakota, the Survey has obtained the 
following statement from a citizen of that state in whose 
reliability it has the utmost confidence, but whose name in the 
present "really awful situation of hate and psychological as- 
sassination" must be withheld. 

The financial situation in the state is not different from that 
in the Northwest and throughout the nation generally. Money 
is close, but it is certain that the worst has past. The tight 
conditions that existed in North Dakota were largely induced by 
financial forces outside and inside the state. Thus, Dr. Ladd, 
United States senator-elect, publishes figures which show that 
the per capita loans made by the District Federal Reserve 
Bank of this district on December i, 1920, were as follows: 

To Minnesota, $ 27 

To The Twin Cities, $112 

To South Dakota, $ 18 

To Montana, $ 14 

To North Dakota, $ 8 

Thus it appears that the "financiers" in control of the reserve 
bank did their utmost to cripple the farmers of this state who 
were dependent on borrowed capital to move their crops or to 
hold them for a better price. That bank issued supposedly secret 
orders to the banks of the Northwest to force the farmers to 
"liquidate" and this caused the serious havoc seen in a number 
of bank failures. 

The false information issued to the public and copied by the 
press of the country emanates from the political and business 
enemies of the league administration who are perfectly willing 
to wreck the state, so they accomplish their purpose of killing 
the farmer movement. A part of this information relates to the 
status of the Bank of North Dakota. The effort is made to 
show that this institution is bankrupt. The audit of its accounts 
made by the auditing committee employed by the political ene- 
mies of the state administration shows that on December 3, 
1920, the Bank of North Dakota had a reserve of $7,608,063.37. 
On the basis of the law applicable to state banks of the state 
generally, the necessary reserve would be $1,412,831.58. This 
is the audit of Bishop, Brissman, and Co. of Minneapolis. In 
the inquiry under way in the Lower House of the State Legis- 
lature, an inquiry conducted by the opponents of the league, it 
is sought to show that on a recent date the cash on hand in the 
Bank of North Dakota was only $46,767.73, and that this was 
the sole reserve. Yet the cash items alone, on that date, which 
were in transit for collection amounted to $1,087,000, an amount 
above the reserve demands by some $75,000. Compared with 
this, the state bank examiner shows that on December 31, 1920, 
the reserve of the state banks as a whole throughout the state 
was only 59.4 per cent of the amount of cash reserves required 
by law. They had but $2,487,000 on hand whereas they were 
required to have a cash reserve of $4,188,000. 

The Bank of North Dakota has taken two interesting steps just 
recently. One of these is to open its accounts to individual de- 
positors and to establish depositories for such purposes in the 




different parts of the state. Since the enemies of the farmers 
have made it impossible to sell state bonds to carry out the in- 
dustrial program without making a compromise that would 
cripple the program, it is hoped that by this means sufficient 
funds may be obtained to see the program through. The other 
step is to send an order to all local depositories of the Bank of 
North Dakota that after thirty days they must pay into that in- 
stitution the amount due it. As a result of their continued 
refusal to check in, the Bank of North Dakota. is compelled to 
pay out faster than it takes in money. One of the initiated 
measures calls for this, something the backers of the measure 
now oppose. They created the present situation and now want 
to pass the buck to the league and its bank. 


UNDER the cloak of "efficiency and economy" the legis- 
lature which adjourned in Albany on April 16 suc- 
ceeded in curtailing many of the social functions of 
the State. 

Legislation in the field of education was almost totally nega- 
tive or even repressive. Continuation schools are kept but re- 
duced in number by lowering age and educational require- 
ments. The Americanization work of the department of edu- 
cation is reduced by lowering the annual appropriation from 
$240,000 to $40,000. The one very widely approved piece 
of educational legislation was the repeal of the military train- 
ing law [see the Survey for Oct. 16, 1920, p. 84], and that, 
it seems, was done not because of opposition to the law on the 
part of the legislature but merely as a measure of economy. 
The most repressive feature of the legislature's work was 
the passage of the two Lusk "anti-sedition" bills, both of which 
were vetoed by Gov. Alfred E. Smith, in a scathing message 
last year. One of these provides "additional qualifications for 
teachers," as follows: 

In addition to the requirements for teachers and certification 
prescribed as provided in this article, each teacher employed 
in the public schools of each city, union free and common 
school district in the state shall obtain a certificate of qualifica- 
tions from the commissioner of education as herein provided. 
Such certificate shall state that the teacher holding the same is 
a person of good moral character and that he has shown 
satisfactorily that he is loyal and obedient to the government 
of this state and of the United States ; no such certificate shall 
be issued to any person who, while a citizen of the United 
States, has advocated, either by word of mouth or ii\ writing, 
a form of government other than the government of the United 
States or of this state, or who advocates or has advocated, either 
by word of mouth or in writing, a change in the form of gov- 
ernment of the United States or of this state, by force, violence 
or any unlawful means. 

This bill makes it necessary for all of the 54,000 teachers of 
the state to pass examinations to determine their loyalty. 

The second bill provides for the control of private educa- 
tional enterprises: 

No person, firm, corporation, association or society shall con- 
duct, maintain, or operate any school, institute, class or course 
of instruction in any subject whatsoever without making applica- 
tion for and being granted a license from the university of the 
state of New York. 

The bill makes stringent provisions for the absolute control 
of all education in the state. It seems to be particularly 
directed against what its author conceives to be schools that 
teach "the overthrow of government by violence." The license 
of such school "shall be revoked when it shall appear to the 
satisfaction of the regents that there is being taught in such 
school, institute, class or course the doctrine that government 
should be overthrown by force." 

As in the case of every other proposal made by Gov. Miller 
•in his message to the legislature, that body effected his proposed 
reorganization of the state Industrial Commission. Disregard- 
ing suggestions of organized labor, of disinterested public 
groups, and of two of the members of the Industrial Commis- 
sion, the plan was pushed through early in the session, and 
weeks later was amended by adding features too extreme to 
have been passed while such general attention was focussed 
on the measure. The commission of five was abolished, and in 

its place today are one commissioner in charge of the adminis- 
trative end, and three commissioners on a quasi-judicial board 
to hear compensation cases. The head commissioner is given 
freedom to abolish and consolidate what bureaus he desires — 
bureaus which have heretofore been statutory; he can remove 
officers or employes from their positions, consolidate, transfer, 
or abolish their positions. All requirements that careful rec- 
ords of the action of the Industrial Board be accessible to the 
public are omitted. The appropriation for the commission 
was reduced from $2,613,737 to $1,500,000. The effect will 
be to curtail the enforcing powers of the department. 

Pa3TTients of compensation, under the Workmen's Compen- 
sation law, are now by action of the legislature to be made 
directly by the employer to the employe, unless contested by 
the employer. In any case, notice of payment is made to the 
commissioner and before any case is closed a hearing before 
the board is permitted the injured employe. Employers are 
permitted to pay their workers by check, instead of in cash 
payments. Women over twenty-one may be employed at 
grinding operations, and as proofreaders in newspapers at night 
work. Factory workers over sixteen are to be given "courses 
of instruction" at factories. 

One of the most closely contested measures passed was the 
bill to make illegal price-fixing contracts, a measure aimed 
directly at agreements of the employing photo-engravers and 
their employes in which the selling price of their products is 
fixed. Publishers maintained an active lobby at the capital 
. and succeeded in reversing a negative vote of the Senate only 
by inducing the governor to urge the passage of the bill in an 
emergency message. Up-state publishers are to be credited 
with this success. 

The efforts of a Maryland casualty company to operate in 
the state as an anti-strike insurance agency were foiled at the 
last moment by the Senate. A bill making the employment 
of counsel by trade unions practically prohibitive failed also. 
Numerous measures introduced at the request of "equal op- 
portunity" women, striking out limitations on the working 
hours of women, were killed. 

The so-called welfare bills were defeated this year as last, 
notably a minimum-wage bill, a bill providing for an eight- 
hour day for women, and one requiring the total abolition of 
tenement house labor. 

Censorship of motion pictures by a state commission was 
one of the governor's measures to receive the endorsement of 
both houses, despite the combined opposition of authors, play- 
ers, and producers of "movies," and organized labor. The 
commission of three members, at salaries of $7,500 each, will 
examine all pictures and issue licenses at a nominal cost. 

Practically no changes in the laws governing child welfare 
boards were enacted into law. A bill making it a felony for 
a man to abandon his wife while she is pregnant and in desti- 
tute circumstances or liable to become a public burden, was 
passed. The health centers bills were not reported out of 
committee. These bills provided in the main for medical care 
in rural communities and in industrial centers in the state. 

Two constitutional amendments which have attracted wide- 
spread attention were passed near the close of the session : 
One would provide for the establishment of separate chil- 
dren's courts throughout the state, the other would require 
of all new citizens a reading and writing knowledge of Eng- 
lish. The first received its second passage and goes to the 
people next autumn for confirmation. The literacy test 
amendment passed for the first time this year. 

A bonus commission has been created, at the suggestion of 
one woman assembly member, to distribute the $45,000,000' 
bonus to the service men of the late war. A constitutional 
amendment passed would give preference in all civil service 
positions to veterans of the late war. In addition, a bill passed 
gives preference in civil service positions to wounded soldiers. 
The Cotillc bills drawn to protect immigrants in trans- 
mitting money to foreign lands were passed by the assembly. 


1 05 



The President's Message 

THE President recommends officially to Congress in 
April what the candidate promised to Mrs. Ray- 
mond Robins and her associates in October. Presi- 
dent Harding in his message makes an admirable 
statement of the general idea that the social welfare is a 
legitimate object of governmental concern, like the national 
defence, finance, the mails, business, or agriculture. The 
conception underlying the paragraph which develops this idea 
is that of individual well-being, fostered and protected by 
community action : 

Government's obligation affirmatively to encourage develop- 
ment of the highest and most efficient type of citizenship is 
modernly accepted, almost universally. Government rests upon 
the body of citizenship; it cannot maintain itself on a level 
that keeps it out of touch and understanding with the com- 
munity it serves. Enlightened governments everywhere recog- 
nize this and are giving their recognition effect in policies and 
programs. Certainly no government is more desirous than 
our own to reflect the human attitude, the purpose of making 
better citizens — physically, intellectually, spiritually. To this 
end I am convinced that such a department in the government 
would be of real value. It could be made to crystallize much 
of rather vague generalization about social justice into solid 
accomplishment. Events of recent years have profoundly im- 
pressed thinking people with the need to recognize new social 
forces and evolutions, to equip our citizens for dealing rightly 
with problems of life and social order. 

The President's endorsement of the maternity bill is hearty 
and unequivocal and has called forth instant appreciation from 
Mrs. Maude Wood Park and others who have been cam- 
paigning for that excellent measure. 

Evidently the President does not favor a separate depart- 
ment of health or of education and evidently he does not 
consider the existing Department of Labor the proper agency 
for dealing with child welfare or even with general "con- 
ditions of workers in industry," as all of these, as well as 
proper amusement and recreation, and the elimination of 
social vice, are mentioned as illustrations of the functions of 
the proposed new department. It is intimated that besides 
the many subjects already handled by bureaus within govern- 
ment departments which logically have no apparent relation 
to them there are "other subjects which might well have 
the earnest consideration of federal authority" but "which 
have been neglected or inadequately provided for." 

President Harding believes that 

... to bring these various activities together in a single depart- 
ment, where the whole field could be surveyed and where their 
interrelationships could be properly appraised, would raase for 
increased effectiveness, economy and intelligence of direction. 
In creating such a department it should be made plain that there 
is no purpose to invade fields which the states have occupied. 
In respect of education, for example, the federal government has 
always aided them. National appropriations in aid of educa- 
tional purposes the last fiscal year were no less than $65,000,- 
000. There need be no fear of undue centralization or of 
creating a federal bureaucracy to dominate affairs better to be 
left in state control. We must, of course, tvoid overlapping 
the activities by the several states, and we must ever resist 
the growing demand on the federal treasury for the perform- 
ance of service for which the state is obligated to its citizen- 

One-sixth of the new executive's first message to Congress 
is devoted to this subject and to the related issues of the 
welfare of ex-service men and the race question, notwithstand- 
ing the obvious urgency of such matters as the railways, the 
war debts, the peace treaties and the League of Nations. 

In this President Harding shows a commendable sense of 
proportion. Maternity aid, child welfare, education, the pub- 
lic health, compensation to disabled soldiers and sailors, social 
justice, do in fact rank in importance with or outrank tariffs, 
merchant marine, the funding of war debts, and the replacing 
of technical war by technical peace. All honor to the chief 
executive of the nation for insisting upon this and for striving 

to make the federal activities affecting the public welfare 
more effective, to crystallize vague generalizations into solid 

Advocates of a separate health department and educators 
who have been encouraged by the general response to their 
demand for a separate department of education will of course 
feel disappointed that the President has thus committed him- 
self to a plan which gives them only half or a third of a 
loaf; and representatives of organized labor who feel a sort 
of proprietary interest in the Department of Labor may take 
alarm at the suggestion that "conditions of workers in in- 
dustry" are to become a special charge of a new department. 
However, it is entirely possible that the new department may 
in fact give more actual service, more solid achievement, in 
behalf of health than the Treasury Department ; in behalf 
of education than the Interior Department; in behalf of child 
welfare and the conditions of workers in industry than the 
existing Labor Department. Much depends on the way in 
which the new department is organized. Brigadier-General 
Sawyer, the President's personal physician, has been asked to 
work out a plan for the department. The details will be 
awaited with the keenest interest. Edward T. Devine. 

A Labor Party in Italy? 

Rome, March 25. 
URING the last days of February and the first three 
I days of March, the National Congress of the Italian 
General Federation of Labor, the first to take place 
since the war, was held at Leghorn. The general 
federation, organized in 1906 after barely twenty years of 
unionist agitation, is the greatest labor organization in Italy. 
In 1906 it had 150,000 members. Today it has two and a 
half millions, though the Catholic and Republican organiza- 
tions, the associations of ex-combatants and the Federation of 
Sailors, which combine bolshevist and nationalist tendencies, 
still remain outside it. 

The general federation has a two-fold organization: one 
local with the Chamber of Labor (numbering 127), the other 
national, arranged according to industries, in the different 
trade federations (of which there are 55). The most impor- 
tant of these latter is that of the argicultural workers (it 
happens also to be the largest single federation in Europe) 
with 850,000 members. The federation movement is sup- 
ported by the National League of Cooperatives. The increase 
in membership of the federation was particularly rapid after 
the war. In fact in 191 1 there were only 93 chambers of 
labor with 500,000 members. During the war itself the 
membership diminished considerably. These phenomena of 
rapid growth are particularly important, as a lively struggle 
developed at Leghorn between the "new" elements — Com- 
munists and Revolutionists — and the "old" members — Social- 
ists and Reformists. 

The names of Misiano and Terracini, for instance, were 
unknown to former congresses, as opposed to the old familiar 
ones of D'Aragona, Rigola, Buozzi, and so on. The former, 
the "new men," accuse the latter of trying to keep the syndi- 
calist movement in its old rut just to hold their own places 
and salaries ; to which the old heads answered that the revolu- 
tionaries pretended to be working instantaneous miracles 
whereas labor organization is a slow process of gradual trans- 

The same struggle which two months ago led to the break 
of the Communists from the Socialist Party was reproduced in 
the Federation of Labor, but with this difference: The indus- 
trial Communists decided not to separate from the old organi- 
zation, but agreed to remain in it as a critical minority. The 
Communists have criticized the management for its too 
bureaucratic attitude. They think that the men who are 
running it have the spirit of bureaucrats. The working 
masses are not "acting" any more; they are not putting any 




spirit, any life, into their struggle. They are no longer the 
protagonists in the social drama. "Mandarinism" has suf- 
focated them. A strike is not an act of revolution but a mat- 
ter of office routine. The leaders of the movement, in con- 
stant contact with manufacturers, government officials, the 
ministry — with the middle class and its organs in short — have 
been caught by the spirit of the middle classes, talk in middle 
class terms, and are actually the pampered pets, of the middle 
classes, who see in them the real saviors of bourgeois interests. 

The Revolutionists and Communists say that the emanci- 
pation of the proletariat, in a revolutionary period like the 
present one, can be accomplished only through a violent over- 
turn ; and for this reason they would like to devote all the 
energies of the workers to revolutionary (or even military) 
organization; and to the "factory councils," organs directly 
representative of the workers that are set up in each factory, 
always subject to recall, and in close and continued contact 
with the laboring masses. 

The leaders of the federation answer that the revolution- 
ists talk of revolution but know very well that they cannot 
bring it about, that during the occupation of the factories in 
Turin the Communists, themselves recognized that they would 
be quickly defeated if they turned it into a revolutionary 
movement ; that when they worked as organizers they adopted 
the same methods as the old federation ; and as for the posi- 
tions and salaries which they are accused of defending — the 
excess of bureaucracy in the labor movement — they reply that 
their sacrifices, their small pay, and the limited number of 
salaried organizers, is a sufficient justification. 

The majority of the representatives at the Congress re- 
jected the resolution of censure, and approved of the work 
of the management, by 1,435,873 votes to 432,588 (17,371 
not voting). The chambers of labor, which are political 
rather than industrial organizations, revealed stronger Com- 
munistic tendencies, with 588,941 votes for the management 
and 293,438 against; while the federations, with laboring ele- 
ments predominant, gave the Reformists an enormous ma- 
jority — 836,932 against 139,136. The Communists had 
minorities in the textile, metallurgical, chemical and agricul- 
tural federations. Only in the Federation of Carpenters and 
Woodworkers did the extremists triumph. The others are all 
either wholly or in large majority in favor of Reformist 
methods. Regionally the Left had majorities in Piedmont 
and showed considerable strength in Julian Venetia and in 

This vote shows that the laboring masses have faith in the 
Socialist Party and in "gradual conquest," avoiding "plunges 
in the dark" and "catastrophic" solutions by small revolts. 

Above all the congress asserted the necessity of the work- 
ers' presenting a united front to reaction. The speech which 
succeeded in gaining the attention and applause of all factions 
was that of Rinaldo Rigola, a wonderful organizer, although 
blind, who was for many years secretary of the federation, and 
who has made a great impression on everybody by his high 
moral character and the uncompromising disinterestedness of 
his work. He made the congress feel that the gains which 
seemed most secure, such as the "control of industries" and 
the eight-hour day, were in danger at this very moment. His 
speech was of a pessimistic turn, showing faith in the distant 
future rather than in the immediate present. Socialism in 
Italy is indeed, as Rigola said, going through a crisis of moral 
decadence, above all because of the slight capacity for reaction 
which it shows against Fascisti outrages and other signs 
of combativeness on the part of the middle classes. After the 
war a series of agitations, strikes, violence, and a rapid growth 
of labor organizations gave the masses the illusion that the 
middle class was surrendering and the government abdicating. 
But when the first and bitterest post-war crisis was over, the 
controlling classes showed that they were disposed to defend 
themselves at all costs; while the Socialist masses,, on the 
other hand, revealed extraordinary weaknesses, especially in 
the matter of morale. 

Rigola openly denounced these deficiencies. He said that 
after the war the situation was favorable enough for the 
proletariat and that much could have been gained if the work- 
ers had developed any daring. Instead nothing was, accom- 
plished. The proletariat carried on a war of words against 
the ruling classes and now finds itself unarmed and face to 
face with counter-revolution. 

The congress re-voted adherence to the Italian Socialist 
Party ; but, at the same time, voted to participate in the Mos- 
cow Internationale. The Internationale, it will be remem- 
bered, has excommunicated the Italian Socialist Party, recog- 
nizing the new Communist Party as its authentic representa- 
tive in Italy. The action of the Leghorn Congress has been 
interpreted as a political maneuver to force the hand of the 
Moscow Communists, who, if they wish to have the support 
of the two millions and a half of organized Italians, must 
accept the Italian Socialist Party which the workers of Italy 
have declared for. Separation from the Internationale of 
Amsterdam was voted conditionally, depending on the de- 
cisions reached at Moscow. If Moscow refuses to accept the 
federation with all its baggage, Socialist Party and all, the 
federation will remain in the Internationale of Amsterdam. 

Another matter of great interest was the vote to transform 
the weekly of the federation, the Battaglie Sindicali, into a 
daily newspaper. Some saw in this the germs of an Italian 
labor party separate from the Socialist Party. 

The congress of the federation showed, in fine, that only 
a minority of the Italian working classes are talking of revolu- 
tion, which they moreover are not in a position to attempt. 
The Italian revolutionary and socialist movement, which went 
through a period of rapid expansion after the war, is now 
falling back to defend its old positions which are under heavy 
fire from middle class reaction. Giuseppe Prezzolini. 

Detroit Out of Work 

DETROIT, the dynamic, was in January and Feb- 
ruary a city out of work. The buyers' strike had 
extended to automobiles. Manufacturers were 
caught with high-priced inventories contemporan- 
eously with a sharp decline in the demand for their product. 
A few figures tell the story. The Employers' Association 
reports that on March 31, 1920, 79 factories of the city had 
200,765 employes on the pay roll, and throughout May, June, 
July, and August of last year, the number was well above 
180,000. On December 29, 1920, the same factories em- 
ployed only 25,339. The number had risen to 88,572 on 
March 31, 1 92 1. These are trustworthy statistics based on 
regular reports furnished weekly by the factories themselves. 
Careful estimates indicate that the 79 factories included in 
these reports of the Employers' Association represent two- 
thirds of the industrial population of Detroit. If we accept 
these estimates it means that on March 31, 1920, the number 
employed was in the neighborhood of 301,000; on December 
29, 1920, this number had fallen to 38,000; and on March 31 
of this year it was approximately 133,000, or about 44 per 
cent of those similarly employed a year ago. 

The factories endeavored to meet the crisis in a variety of 
ways. Many reemployed married men in preference to those 
who were single. Some alternated shifts. The Ford factory 
when it resumed operations in February worked one shift of 
men for two weeks and then laid these off for another two 
weeks in order to give work to another shift. Many establish- 
ments operated on a part-time basis. 

Detroit has witnessed some suffering, but the situation 
would have been infinitely worse if it were not for the caliber 
of the men themselves. Thousands are tiding themselves 
over this lean period by means of savings. Other thousands 
have left the city, many temporarily. Some well-informed 
persons believe that as many as 75,000 men have left since 



last fall. The nature of the population makes this process 
less difficult in Detroit than in older cities. A large propor- 
tion of the population having but recently left their old homes, 
the ties which bind them to their old friends and associations 
are still strong. The recent census figures show Detroit to 
have an excess of almost 100,000 men, the figures being 540,- 
397 men and 453,281 women. This fact confirmed what 
was already known through draft statistics compiled during 
the war, that Detroit was a city with an abnormally high 
percentage of young and single men, attracted by the rapid 
growth and by the high wages of the automobile industry. 
One of the most interesting side-lights is furnished by the 
increase of jitneys on all the main thoroughfares. Hundreds 
of unemployed workmen with cars have taken this means of 
securing ready cash while work is scarce. 

The municipality itself has endeavored to meet the situa- 
tion in two ways, by stimulating public employment and by 
entirely revamping its machinery for public relief. As has 
already been noted in the Survey, a municipal free employ- 
ment bureau was organized especially to qualify workmen for 
public departments. This employment bureau is operated by 
the Department of Public Welfare, and through it men are 
certified for work in street cleaning, on sewers, and in the 
water . works department. To an even greater extent than 
other cities, Detroit has fallen behind in public works because 
of the war and of its abnormal growth, and at the present time 
an increasing number of men are employed in the construc- 
tion of sewers and water mains. The city recently entered 
upon an ambitious municipal street railway project, and new 
lines are being built through poorly served sections of the 
city, giving employment to considerable numbers of men. 

The Department of Public Welfare was voted ample funds 
to meet the general problem of relief. The department found 
it necessary to decentralize and, in place of a single central 
office, divided the city into five districts with three outlying 
district offices. It established a city barracks for single men 
to supplement provision made by the McGregor Institute. 
It was necessary to increase its staff by leaps and bounds from 
25 a year ago to no today. The task of enlisting new work- 
ers was partially simplified by the employment of 22 from 
the recently discontinued educational department at the Ford 
factory. As an indication of the task faced by the Department 
of Public Welfare, last year in February the amount of money 
spent in public outdoor relief was $24,057; in February of this 
year the amount was $213,736. The figures for March will 
exceed those for February. The number of new families 
applying for assistance in February of last year was 742; in 
February of this year there were 7,334. Happily the peak 
was passed in February, and March witnessed a rapid reduc- 
tion of new families in difficulty although not in the total 
amount of relief necessary to provide for old and new families. 

Private organizations affiliated with the Detroit Com- 
munity Union have bad an experience different only in de- 
gree. While the Department of Public Welfare was under- 
going reorganization, it was necessary r^r Home Service of 
the American Red Cross to make provision for a considerable 
number of civilian families, since the city of Detroit has no 
private family welfare society of a general character. Home 
Service during January and February a year ago spent $4,526 
in material relief while in January and February of this 
year it spent $25,493. 

The St. Vincent de Paul Society was called upon to make 
provision for a large number of Mexicans who were destitute. 
Many of these had come to Detroit in the fall after working 
in the sugar-beet fields of Michigan. The St. Vincent de 
Paul Society has furnished transportation for 238 of these to 
Mexico. All of the arrangements for the return of these 
migrants have been worked out with the Mexican consul, 
and the Mexican government takes charge of them after 
their arrival at the border. Catholic church authorities in 

Mexico have evidenced their interest by sending substantial 
amounts for the care of their fellow countrymen who are in 

One of the special problems arising out of the unemploy- 
ment situation is being met by the Housing Bureau of the 
Detroit Community Union. This is a case-working organi- 
zation which specializes in endeavoring to prevent eviction 
and in re-locating those who are evicted, originally established 
a year and a half ago to help provide for the homeless in a 
city where housing accommodations were totally inadequate 
for the rapidly growing population. It also helps to safe- 
guard the interests of families buying houses on a land con- 
tract basis who, because of unemployment, are unable to keep 
up their payments. 

One fact is constantly being driven home to those in in- 
timate touch with the situation. Charitable relief is a totally 
inadequate instrument by which to meet the results of a 
business depression such as Detroit has experienced during the 
last few months. The fact that thousands of families because 
of involuntary unemployment should find it necessary for the 
first time to resort to charity is indefensible. The best remedy 
is a resumption of industry, and as this article is' written this 
resumption is happily progressing. Fred R. Johnson. 

America and China 

ON a single day, recently, the papers carried two 
stories, one from an American university, the other 
from the Chinese schools, setting forth elements of 
the most notable educational contrast in the world 
today — the contrast in matters educational between democratic 
America and China, land of immemorial autocracies. Of 
course, no one will assume that these stories establish perma- 
nent trends; but wise men will consider carefully the straws 
that show which way the winds are blowing. 

The American story, carried in a full column on the front 
page of the papers, told of the proposed election of Maj. Gen. 
Leonard Wood to the presidency of the University of Penn- 
sylvania. The actual election was set for April 18, at which 
time "the title of president will be conferred upon the general, 
and that of provost upon Dr. Penniman" (Dr. Josiah H. Pen- 
niman, at present acting provost of the university). The 
board of trustees are hopeful that this arrangement will make 
for administrative effectiveness. They want Dr. Penniman 
to remain as "educational head" of the institution and they 
expressed the "earnest hope that the university will be served 
by both these distinguished men through years of hearty and 
effective cooperation." 

There is some uncertainty as to the actual relationship of 
the offices of president and provost. The trustees seem a little 
uncertain as to the outcome, but they declare that "important 
as is the administrative aspect of the office of head of the uni- 
versity, the purely educational aspect is of no less importance, 
and the university would be untrue to its great traditions if it 
were ever to mistake the educational machinery for intellectual 
life." General educational and journalistic comment, how- 
ever, seems to agree that the office of provost will necessarily be 
subordinated to the prestige of the presidential office, in the 
long run. This development will be in line with American 
drifts. The general tendency in American universities has 
been toward making them great institutions, first, and educa- 
tional agencies as a by-product of their institutional develop- 
ment. The fact that Pennsylvania has now selected a major 
general of the United States Army to head up this institutional 
development is an item of more than immediate and local in- 
terest. But its full meanings will be revealed only as the 
years go by. 

The story from China, carried in a brief paragraph on an 
inside page of the papers, tells of the resignation of the min- 
ister of education, Fan Yuen-Lien, as the result of a strike of 




all the teachers and officials in the eight higher institutions of 
learning in Peking. This strike was called, nominally, be- 
cause of the failure of the government to pay the salaries of 
the teachers. Eight hundred teachers and 6,ooo students 
joined the strike. But back of this nominal story is the real 
story. China is at the great critical "cross-roads" of its civili- 
zation. Two fundamental trends are observable. One such 
trend urges the awakening nation toward military power and 
glory and the expenditure of ever larger sums of the national 
revenue in the promotion of the spirit and machinery of such 
a military program. That trend has been largely in the 
ascendency with the officialdom of the republic; and moneys 
that should have been used in the payment of the salaries of 
teachers have been diverted to the uses of the militarists. Hence 
the strike of teachers and students is not merely against a pres- 
ent condition, but against one of the possible futures of the 
whole Chinese people. It is a strike against the militarizing 
of the nation and the correlative and necessarily contemptuous 
neglect of education. 

For China faces, today, the fundamental question whether 
her civilization is to become primarily militaristic, modelled 
upon the civilizations of Japan and Europe, or educational 
and intelligent, modelled upon ideals, and in line with the 
more essential spirit of the Chinese people. This struggle 
finds its active leaderships in the students of the nation. Prof. 
John Dewey, who has been in China for two years, says of 
the students, in an article on Old China and New, in the May 

Asia: "They are the one self-conscious class in China wholly 
awake to the ills that flow from the recent system of 'govern- 
ment.' They are the enemies, natural and avowed, of both 
existing and would-be officials," because they know that Chi- 
nese officials are continuously corruptible. These students de- 
clare, according to the dispatches, "that they will not return 
to their studies until they are assured of the safety of the 
financial future of higher education, even though the salary 
arrears are paid and the teachers should be willing to return 
to their labors." 

Evidently the student movement in China is not of the 
nature of a "junior promenade," a "swell event" in the pro- 
gram of a bored student body. There is nothing like this move- 
ment in American educational institutions, at present. Some 
years ago, in certain western universities, such movements were 
not unknown. But the tightening of the bonds of administra- 
tion has largely taken the old fighting spirit out of the student 
bodies. Aside from small groups of "liberals," American 
students are largely engaged in "getting their lessons," or in 
having "those wonderful times." 

They are being told that the "president and board of regents 
are quite capable of running this institution," and that if they 
do not like the way it is being run they "may feel perfectly 
free to go elsewhere." An innocent bystander might well 
ponder the question: Is America going-one way and China 
another ? And which is the better way ? 

Joseph K. Hart. 

Opinion in China 

By John Stewart Burgess 


The reported strike of teachers and officers in the colleges and high schools of Peking [see p. 
107] gives special timeliness to this article by Mr. Burgess, the first of a series on Changing 
China. The bewildering sequence of news reports on revolutionary movements in China and the part 
played in them by students is illumined by this historical account of the happenings of the last two years. 

— The Editor. 

MAY 4, 1 919, is known to every student of the 
modern colleges and high schools of China as 
the day when real democracy commenced in 
that republic. Up to that date a corrupt, mili- 
taristic, pro-Japanese cabinet had reigned supreme in Peking. 
The influences which had made this militaristic government 
strong, dated back to the very earliest days of the revolution 
in 1912, when the wily Yuan Shih Kai robbed the young 
revolutionary leaders of the fruits of their efforts and got 
control of the new republican government. This clever 
statesman of the old school had years before, when he was 
viceroy of the metropolitan provinces of Chihli, formed what 
was then known as the model army. He had trained this 
first, efficient fighting machine of China himself, and had 
selected his own officers, many of them men chosen from the 
ranks, illiterate but forceful. 

When Yuan gained control of the Peking government, he 
brought about a deadlock between the upper and lower houses 
of the new constitutional assembly and finally dismissed that 
body. He instituted at that time the vicious system that up 
to the present date has been the principal curse of China; 
namely, the system of tu-chun or military governors, whom 
he appointed to parallel the civil governors in each of the 
important provinces. These men were largely selected from 
the officers of his own army and from other personal friends. 
From 1913 to 1919 the power of these military chiefs, 

each one maintaining his own private military establishment, 
gradually increased. These tu-chun formed cliques and 
gradually brought it about that politics in China consisted 
merely in the personal intrigues of these military leaders. 
The so-called revolution in the south had long before 191 9 
lost all of its real constitutional significance for politics in 
Canton were also controlled by these military chieftains. 

Even more sinister was the intriguing of Japan with these 
military leaders. In the North the An-fu party, controlled 
by a group of the military governors of several northern 
provinces, became the principal instrument of Japanese influ- 
ence in China. The majority of the cabinet early in 1919 
were members of this party. Through the influence of these 
corrupt officials loans amounting to over two hundred and 
fifty million dollars, contracted within two years with Japan, 
had mortgaged many of the natural resources of China in- 
cluding forests, mines and railroad concessions. Immense 
sums received from Japan had not been used for national 
improvement, but had gone into the coffers of these military 
chiefs to pay their troops or into their personal bank ac- 

This An-fu party, controlled by Japan, also favored the 
signing of the Paris Treaty which would give China's most 
sacred province — Shantung, where Confucius lived and 
taught — to the virtual control of Japan. 

The three members of the government who were most 


closely complicated with these Japanese intrigues were Tsao 
Ju Lin, minister of communications and ex-minister of finance, 
Chang Chung Hsiang, ex-minister of China to Japan, and 
Lu Cheng Yu, director of the Currency Bureau. 

On May 4, 191 9, some three thousand students in Peking, 
representing the various colleges of that city, the majority 
coming from the National Government University and the 
Higher Normal College, marched in a body to the legation 
quarter to present a petition to the British and American 
ministers, protesting against the giving over of German rights 
in Shantung to Japan. These students were prevented by 
the Chinese guards of the legation quarter from entering that 
section of the city, and turning back, made for the residence 
of Tsao Ju Lin, arch-traitor of China. They broke into 
his house and found that he had escaped over the back wall 
when he heard them coming. They found, however, Chang 
Chung Hsiang, ex-minister of China to Japan in Tsao's house. 
They gave him a good beating and broke up a good deal of 
the furniture in Mr. Tsao's residence. Thirty-three of these 
youthful patriots were arrested. This started the student 
movement, and with it began a great popular movement in- 
cluding many more than students, the inauguration of which 
marks the birth of democracy in China. 4k 

Because of protests coming from all over the nation in the 
way of telegrams and petitions to the government, and be- 
cause of fear of revolution, these thirty-three students were 
released on May 7, which was the anniversary of the presen- 
tation in 1 91 5 of the infamous twenty-one demands from 

A Student Union was soon formed in Peking, with repre- 
sentatives of every one of the colleges of that great educational 
center. Soon similar unions were formed in every large city 
throughout China. This newly organized student movement 
soon called a general strike of the students of the nation, the 
object of which was to secure a promise from the government 
that they would not sign the Paris Treaty, and to boycott 
Japanese goods. On June 4 and 5 the students of Peking 

who had been prevented from their activities by well orgai 
ized detachments of soldiers started lecturing throughout 
Peking on the political crisis. This was done clearly ag'.inst 
the recently issued mandates of the government that had 
spoken in a most violent manner against the efforts of the 
students to meddle in politics. On every prominent street 
corner in the capital would be seen bands of three or four 
students, one speaking, explaining a map that told the story 
of Shantung, and the others distributing literature among the 
gathering crowd and exhorting the people to oppose the 
traitorous government. Strong detachments of cavalry with- 
in two days arrested nine hundred of these young patriots 
and put them in the Government Law College as a temporary 
prison. As many of these young men were the sons of promi- 
nent Chinese officials and men of affairs in the nation, the po- 
sition of the government soon became most embarrassing. 
Moreover, popular opinion was strongly with the students. 
Within five days, the troops that were guarding the law 
school were removed, and a message was sent to the nine 
hundred prisoners to go home. Their reply was that they 
would not go home until they were informed why they had 
been arrested. The following demands were made upon the 
government : 

First, that the three most corrupt officials in the govern- 
ment should be dismissed. Second, that the students should 
be allowed freedom of speech. Third, that the students should 
be allowed a parade through the streets of Peking on being 
released from prison, and fourth, that a public apology should 
be made to them by the government. All these demands were 
granted with the exception of the last one. 

The sudden collapse of the strong position taken by the 
Peking government was not merely due to fear of the stud- 
ents themselves. The student unions throughout the country, 
when they heard of the arrest of the Peking students, had 
made approaches to the industrial and commercial organiza- 
tions in all the large cities. They had also got on their side 
such non-political groups as lawyers' associations, educational 


^ 4 



associations, and agricultural associations. These different 
groups in each city formed citizens' unions which on June 15, 
after the Peking students had been arrested, presented a 
solid front against the government. 

In nearly every large city in Central and Northern China 
a general strike was instituted. All places of business were 
closed. There was a threatened strike of railroad employes 
and ship hands. The feeling ran so high that even personal 
servants refused to work. The American consul-general in 
Shanghai, when he started to go to his office one morning, 
was told by his Chinese chauffeur that he was very sorry he 
could not take him that day because there was a strike on. 
The students: had said the officials in Peking were corrupt. 
In a general strike called in Shanghai, representing all com- 
mercial and industrial organizations, the beggars' and thieves' 
guilds also refused to work for four days! 

The formation of these citizens' unions in each city has 
given to China for the first time an instrument outside of 
Chinese officialdom, through which public opinion can be 
powerfully expressed. 

During these weeks of student strike and anti-government 
demonstration there had been the stimulation of a systematic 
boycott of Japanese goods. Large Japanese trading ships 
went up and down the Yangtse empty. When Japanese car- 
goes were landed at Chinese ports the coolies; refused to un- 
load them. Public opinion often forced Chinese merchants 
to burn large stores of Japanese-made goods. 

The students, moreover, desiring a more fundamental policy 
han merely boycotting Japan, acting as peddlers, went around 
tie streets of big cities selling "national goods" such as soap, 
maThes, paper, towels, etc. They listed carefully all im- 
ports on the retail market from Japan and tried, in coopera- 
tion with the industrial guilds, to stimulate the manufacture 
of these goods in China. 

The demonstration of the students late in June forced the 
Chinese government to announce definitely that they would 
not sign the Versailles Treaty. 

A second and third strike were carried on early in 1920 
but were not so successful as those of the previous summer. 
A re-alignment in China politics had given the militarists the 
upper hand once more. The students the first half year of 
1920 devoted themselves most particularly to the quiet propa- 
gation of revolutionary and democratic ideas, especially 
through the modern periodicals, organs of the so-called Ren- 
aissance Movement, which will be described in our next ar- 

The results of the great national movement started by 
these young men, however, were directly reflected in the 
political activities of last summer. In July, 1920, President 
Hsu Shih Chang made a definite attempt to overthrow the 
power of the An-fu party. What immediately brought on 
the political crisis was the dismissal by President Hsu of the 
infamous General Hsu Shih Cheng, popularly known as Lit- 
tle Hsu, who was in charge of the Frontier Defense Army. 
This army, which was the successor of the War Participation 
Army and under the practical control of the Japanese gov- 
ernment, had been for - some time independent of the Board 

of War. President Hsu dismissed this general and ordered 
his soldiers to be placed directly under the control of the 
War Department of the Chinese government. Marshal 
Tuan, the leader of the An-fu party, immediately protested 
and took control of the city. With a detachment of soldiers 
he marched to the president's palace and demanded and was 
granted the retraction of this order. 

In the meantime, two armies were converging on the capi- 
tal, one from Tientsin and one on the Hankow railroad. 
These troops were under the control of another group of 
military governors who were determined to cast out the An- 
fu party. 

The public opinion which had been aroused by the stud- 
ents throughout the country was the principal strength of 
these armies that were marching to the capital. General Wu 
Pei Fu, the division commander who led the ten thousand 
troops that came up the Peking-Hankow railroad, was the 
idol of the Chinese students. At the stations along this main 
line he was joined by many Chinese youths who wished to 
play their part in this patriotic movement. Most of the fight- 
ing which was instrumental in overthrowing the corrupt An- 
fu government was done by General Wu's small army. Be^ 
tween ten and twelve thousand soldiers, thirty miles from 
Peking, defeated, in two days, between forty and fifty thou- 
sand of the troops of the An-fu party, in spite of the fact 
that the defenders of the capital had an almost unlimited sup- 
ply of Japanese-made ammunition, 120 large guns and the 
aeroplane fleet of the Chinese army, and General Wu's men 
had only two field guns and about ten rounds of ammunition 
for each soldier. The spectacular victory was brought about 
by the hard fighting of this small army who believed that 
they were fighting not only the corrupt government of Peking, 
but indirectly Japan, and by the splendid strategy of General 
Wu and by the fact that a large number of the opposing sol- 
diers deserted to General Wu in the middle of the battle. 

After a few days of fighting by the other army that came 
up from Tientsin, the main forces of the An-fu party were 
completely defeated, and the capital was taken over by a new 
set of military rulers, a great improvement on their prede- 

The new government is composed of a strange mixture. 
Several of the cabinet members, including the minister of 
state, Dr. W. W. Yen, represent young, progressive China, 
while in the same cabinet sits the ex-station master of Mouk- 
den, appointed by the military chief of Manchuria, General 
Chang Tso Lin. 

While the present government cannot be said to be incor- 
ruptible or entirely outside the influence of Japan, it is a 
great improvement on the last one. What is far more signifi- 
cant, due to the influence of these college students, most of 
them between the ages of sixteen and twenty years, the non- 
political civic groups of China have for the first time been 
organized together to fight for a common cause. United 
public opinion has for the first time shown its power. All 
who know this largest republic intimately are convinced that 
the future is ultimately with young, progressive, democratic 




Conducted by 

The Denver Salary Schedule 

IN the issue of September 15, 1920, the Survey published 
a report of the new salary schedule for teachers just 
established in the public schools of Cleveland, and the 
open and democratic method of obtaining it. The report 
stated that Cleveland had apparently "secured the best sched- 
ule that can be hoped for." 

Denver has a superior and progressive salary schedule for 
the teachers in her public schools which became effective De- 
cember I, 1920, and which was obtained by an open, demo- 
cratic and unusual method. The plan was developed and 
carried forward by the Grade Teachers' Association, an or- 
ganization of 925 elementary and junior high school teachers. 
The conventional salary schedule is "stratified" to a greater 
or less extent; that is, teachers on different levels of the 
school course, from the kindergarten upward, receive, re- 
spectively, higher salaries as the groups advance to the high 
school, at which point the stratification is usually wide, some- 
times amounting to $1,000 or more on the maximum salary. 
The Denver schedule has always had but one stratification, 
the differential between the salaries of elementary and high 
school teachers; that differential, however, has been exces- 
sive, ranging at different periods from $1,440 downward. 

For several years the elementary teachers in Denver have 
been studying this problem from a local standpoint, compar- 
ing the salaries paid to the elementary teachers with those 
paid to the high school teachers in this city, endeavoring to 
find the basis for the high differential, and, incidentally, do- 
ing some simple but interesting figuring. As a fundamental 
proposition, the elementary teachers assumed that the public 
pays salaries to teachers solely in return for service rendered 
in the schoolroom. This led to the deduction that equally 
valuable service should receive equal reward. If, therefore, 
the existing schedule was unjust, as they believed, their prob- 
lem was to prove the equality of service of the two groups. 
This they confidently set out to do. 

They reasoned first, in general terms, that a .child in order 
to enter college must be trained or educated on each successive 
level of the regular twelve-year course, and that, in his or- 
derly progress from the kindergarten toward the high school, 
no grade or level could be omitted, and on all levels he should 
have efficient instruction, otherwise the high school teacher 
could not build on the right foundation. This necessity for 
a beginning and a regular sequence in education justified the 
conclusion that the work of the elementary teacher is not only 
absolutely essential to any degree of education, but that it is 
fundamental to all secondary and higher education. 

Investigating further, they discovered that about 90 per 
cent of the children of a community never reach the high 
school, and that the school education of the average citizen 
does not extend beyond the sixth grade. In other words, the 
responsibility of educating the masses as well as they are 
educated in our schools today rests in an overwhelming de- 
gree upon the basic group of teachers; and to this group is 
chiefly entrusted the task of Americanizing the foreigner, and 
of socializing and democratizing the community life, a tre- 
mendous undertaking and responsibility. 

The teachers concluded their research by making a care- 
ful comparison of local conditions of work in each group, 
the hours, size of classes, number of subjects taught, types of 
children handled, supervision, and so on, and proved to their 
own satisfaction that the work of the grade teacher is as 
arduous, as exacting, as exhausting, and far more detailed, 
than the work of the high school teacher; that it requires as 
much native ability and specialized skill, and should, because 

of its basic and universal character, demand as careful and 
extended training and preparation. 

This decided, they turned their attention to the schedule. 
They here discovered that an elementary teacher and a high 
school teacher, entering the service of the Denver schools at 
the same time on salaries of $1,000 and $1,200 respectively, 
would have received, at the end of twenty-five years, sums 
which gave a balance of $12,000 in favor of the high school 

Of course all this reasoning and investigation could have 
but one result. The association openly and positively adopted 
the platform that there should be established in Denver one 
salary schedule for all classroom teachers, men and women, 
from the kindergarten to the twelfth grade, inclusive, the 
salaries to be based upon training and experience, and not, as 
in the existing schedule, upon the level of the school course 
on which the teacher works. 

This type is known as the single-salary schedule. It is en- 
dorsed by the National Education Association as one of its 
fundamental principles which must be "accepted as a public 
policy if the ideals of the association are to be realized." 
This schedule recognizes the service of the elementary teachd 
of whatever grade or subject as having a value to the com- 
munity equal to the service of the high school teacher of what- 
ever grade or subject, provided the preparation and experi- 
ence are equivalent. Moreover, it recognizes the fact that 
the elementary teacher, in order to meet efficiently her vital 
responsibility to' the public, should be as well trained and 
educated as the high "school teacher and it endeavors to pro- 
vide a salary which will not only enable her to make that 
preparation but which will hold her permanently in the serv- 
ice of the elementary school. On the other hand, it protects 
the right of every elementary child to a skillful, well educated, 
adequately paid instructor, and, by so doing, advances the 
educational interests of the masses of the people which in 
every community depend so largely upon the elementary 

In May, 1920, a simple form of single salary schedule was 
presented by the salary committee of the association to the 
Board of Education, which for three years has been managing 
the affairs of the Denver schools in an unselfish, efficient, 
and progressive manner. This board belongs to the modern 
type and is unhampered by the standards of school boards of 
the past who too often were elected on a platform of economy 
and pledged to protect the pocketbook of the public at any 
cost — to the schools or the teachers. Under the leadership of 
the late Carlos M. Cole, it has surveyed and reorganized the 
Denver school system and placed it upon a modern efficient 
business basis. 

The simplicity of the schedules presented by the teachers 
attracted attention. Lucius F. Hallett, president of the board, 
declared that it was the first teachers' salary schedule he had 
ever seen which he "could understand as soon as he looked at 
it." Nothing could be done about salaries, however, until 
the fall of 1920, owing to the sudden death of Mr. Cole, the 
superintendent, in June, which left the cause of the elemen- 
tary teachers without a leader in the administration. In 
August, however, Jesse H. Nevvlon, who had just established 
the single schedule in his own school system in Lincoln, Neb., 
was elected to succeed Mr. Cole. 

Mr. Newlon espoused the teachers' cause from the first. 
The salary committee of the board, Mr. Cowell and Mr. 
Schenck, studied salary schedules and figured cheerfully to de- 
termine the amount necessary to provide a generous increase 



for the teachers, holding open minds as to the form of the 

To the teachers the method followed by Mr. Newlon was 
most interesting. He did not arrive in Denver with a form 
of schedule fixed in his own mind. He examined the sched- 
ule prepared by the teachers, suggested that it would be well 
to have a joint meeting of the salary committees of the High 
School Teachers' Association and the Grade Teachers' Asso- 
ciation and decide there if a single salary schedule would 
work in Denver, and then report to him — a suggestion which 
was promptly carried into effect, and which resulted in an 
agreement on the part of the high school teachers to endorse 
the principle of the single schedule. In the meantime, then, 
Mr. Newlon presented the matter to the Association of 
Principals and Directors which unanimously endorsed ■ the 
plan as just and democratic and conducive to the best inter- 
ests of the schools. Then the salary committee of the board 
were asked to meet the teachers. They also approved, but 
made suggestions improving the schedule which were gladly 
accepted by the joint committee of teachers. The Parent- 
Teacher Association and the Civic Association endorsed the 
schedule. The Tax Commission considered favorably the re- 
quest of the school board to raise the tax levy two mills to 
produce $800,000, and granted it without any of those for- 
malities of closed and open hearings usually observed by tax 
commissions. These preliminaries having been attended to, 
Mr. Newlon presented the schedule in detail to the Board of 
Education, who, after discussing its merits, adopted it. 

The following is the schedule as it stands for entering 
teachers only: 


Normal school graduate 
(high school plus two 
years) or less 




school plus three I 

$i,2oo $2,040 71120 

[2 x 120 
2,280 \ above $2,040 
I maximum 

High school plus four 
years. (For teachers with 
four years of professional 
training not organized so 
as to obtain a degree from 
a standard college, or uni- 

A.B. degree from standard I 
college or university | 

A.M. degree 




2 x 120 

above $2,280 

8 x 150 
1 x 180 

[2 x 100 
3,080 \ above A.B. 
I maximum 

Teachers appointed in last ^ 

few years who have less I 

than the minimum require- [ 1,800 6 x 100 

ment as to preparation J 

Teachers already in the system will be adjusted upon the 
new schedule on the basis of experience in the Denver system 
and the administration hopes in these adjustments, which are 
now being worked out, to meet as nearly as possible in so 
large and complex a problem the requirements of justice to 
each individual teacher. Every member of the corps received 
an increase varying from $200 to $600 per year. 

The single schedule greatly increases the cost of the schools 
to the public for it means higher salaries to the largest group 
of teachers, but it means immeasurably better schools. In 
time the American public will be convinced that "the product 
of superior teaching is real" and then the cost will become a 
matter of secondary consideration. 

In conclusion, I beg the privilege of using with slight 
change the closing sentences in the report on the Cleveland 
schools. With higher wages granted on a just and democratic 
basis, with a school board which holds the confidence an^ 

respect of ,the community, and with a superintendent whom 
the teachers like and are willing to follow, the Denver 
schools enter a new year and a new era of progress and 
achievement. Cora B. Morrison. 

President, Denver Grade Teachers' Association. 

A Village School 

AFTER I had secured my position in the high school 
at Camington, I had to use an atlas to locate the place. 
I found it to be a village of some seven hundred inhabitants 
in the oil country. Its importance can be judged by the 
fact that the conductor on the B. & O. had to ask me where 
I changed cars. He excused his ignorance on the ground that 
he had been running on that road for only twenty-five years. 

When I got there I found a straggly town in a narrow 
valley. A few three-story brick structures made up the busi- 
ness section. The houses extended along the valley, or rested 
in clusters on the tops of the hills. . Gas wells and oil der- 
ricks were scattered at intervals and could be seen for miles. 
The houses were well constructed and the living quarters 
were by no means unsatisfactory. 

Inquiry revealed the fact that all the social life of the 
village centered in three sleepy churches, an ice-cream parlor, 
the school and a pool-room (children under sixteen not ad- 
mitted). To these should be added the cigar factory, which 
employed many of the young women of the village. 

The schoolhouse was a three-story brick structure built on 
the side of the hill. This building was a pleasant surprise. 
A gymnasium and chemistry laboratory occupied the base- 
ment; an auditorium the third floor. "There must be z 
progressive element in this town," I thought. My satisfac- 
tion was slightly alloyed, however, the first time I sat down 
to dinner. A workman opposite me questioned the advisabil- 
ity of hiring out-of-town teachers when cheaper ones could 
be obtained nearer home. He raved at some length over the 
extravagance of the school authorities. I made no defence. 
This was his country, not mine. I was hired help. I was 
merely the principal of the high school. 

At the first meeting of the faculty, the district superinten- 
dent announced: "There are two boys in your senior class 
who have never been known to work in school and who never 
will, but they come of a good family and must graduate." 
Not being acquainted with the boys I could say little. I was 
conceited enough to believe that my personality would be 
able to overcome any difficulties, that might arise. Besides, 
I was still possessed of the youthful notion that one person 
could change a system in short order, if he only had strong 
enough desires. For this I must thank Benjamin Franklin 
and Frank Crane and other liberal manufacturers of epi- 

After three weeks of uneventful existence, we had news 
that a prominent athlete would enter school in order to 
qualify for the basketball team. As he must work mornings, 
it was necessary to arrange three afternoon classes for him. 
This seemed impossible. I suggested to the superintendent 
that the boy be asked to spend the whole day in school. But 
the boy's father was president of the school board ; so the 
superintendent did not agree with me. Our schedule was 
upset, and a new one arranged to meet the needs of this 
one boy. Then the boy decided he would rather work, but after 
a month's coaxing by the coach he finally entered school and 
gave his whole day to us. Naturally the children knew 
where the real authority resided. 

The superintendent retained his position by appeasing petty 
village factions. Raising educational standards was a good 
aim provided you trod on no one's toes. Consider one in- 
stance. The state of West Virginia requires children of 
school age to be in school at least seven months each year. 
Our school term was nine months. One father promptly re- 



moved his son from our care at the end of the seventh month. 
The boy had "served his time" and that was all we could 
ask. He could farm just as well without the two extra 
•months. To overcome such situations, to uproot such a 
philosophy from the minds of our patrons requires leaders 
and idealists. 

It was difficult for me to accept the superintendent's view 
of what constituted an academic credit. For instance, a 
student was deficient a half year in algebra. "Work six 
cases of factoring and it will be satisfactory," said he. A 
girl had failed to take a year of high school mathematics. 
"Go down and observe the class in eighth grade arithmetic 
a few times," was his solution of the problem. 

The athlete mentioned earlier had entered eleven weeks 

was worth if he dared prevent a boy from taking part in 
an important game. In many a small West Virginia high 
school, a teacher who attempted honestly to enforce the rules 
laid down by the West Virginia State High School Athletic 
Association would be blacklisted. 

The great sport of the state is basketball. In a moun- 
tainous state, football and baseball fields are hard to find. 
But basketball is, a gymnasium game. At the same time the 
sport is very interesting. It calls for nerve, courage, quick 
thinking and high powers of physical endurance. I have 
heard a preacher spend two-thirds of a sermon on the glories 
of basketball, and close with an earnest prayer for victory 
in an approaching game, though he prayed but incidentally 
for teachers or education in general. 


FOUR hundred years ago, this week, 
on April 18, 19 and 20, 1521, Martin 
Luther appeared before the imperial Diet, 
in the ancient city of Worms, to answer 
to the established authorities for his pre- 
sumption in writing certain books and 
teaching certain doctrines. John Eck, 
unknown to fame save as the persecutor 
of great men, put to Luther the decisive 

"Martin Luther, his sacred and invin- 
cible majesty has cited you before his 
throne ... to require you to answer 
these questions. First, do you acknowl- 
edge these writings which bear your 
name to have been composed by you? 
And second, are you prepared to retract 
the words and propositions contained 
therein, or do you persist in what you 
have therein advanced?" 

Luther answered : "As to the first, I 
acknowledge the books, the names of 
which have been read, to be of my writ- 
ing; I cannot deny them. . . . 

"As for the second, I cannot submit 

my faith to any external authority. 1 1 | i 
I neither can nor will retract anything; 
for it cannot be right for a Christian to 
speak against his conscience !" 

Then he turned a look on that assembly 
which held his life or death in its hands, 
and he said: "I stand here and can say 
no more: God help me. Amen." 

It is recorded by witnesses that the 
assembly was motionless with astonish- 
ment. Several of the princes present 
could scarcely conceal their admiration. 
But the Bourbon Charles was obdurate. 
Luther must be destroyed: "I will sacri- 
fice my kingdoms, my power, my friends, 
my treasures, my body and my blood, my 
thoughts and my life to stay the further 
progress of this impiety," he declared. 

But through the immediately succeed- 
ing events Luther moved with the dignity 
of assured achievement. The possibility 
of a free, Teutonic civilization as opposed 
to the older Latin civilizations of the 
East and South was definitely established 
by Luther's reply. He laid the corner- 

stone of liberty and democracy in the free 
conscience of the individual. In his reply 
to the emperor, the voice of the young 
and vigorous West was speaking to the 
older, tradition-bourtd East. He said, "I 
know no authority higher than my own 
conscience!" Two hundred and fifty-five 
yedrs later that confession came to com- 
plete expression in words that cannot be 
too often brought to the attention of 
Americans and the world: "Governments 
instituted among men derive their just 
powers from the consent of the govern- 

Should not all lovers of liberty and de- 
mocracy pause one moment, this memor- 
able week, to renew their own faith in 
the things for which Luther stood "like a 
rock" at Worms? The Bourbon Charles 
and John Eck may be forgotten among 
men; but the Bourbon spirit still lives, 
with its willingness to sacrifice friends, 
treasures, body, blood, life, thought, to 
stay the progress of "impious" movements 
toward freedom. Does Luther still live? 

J. K. H. 

late, yet he was granted full credit for an eighteen-week 
semester. If a lazy boy, such as one of the two brothers 
"of good family" whom we were told to pass, had not com- 
pleted the minimum requirements the superintendent exer- 
cised the rule that permitted graduation under exceptional 
circumstances with less than the minimum. Once when I 
remonstrated with the president's son because of his truancy, 
he retorted, "Aw, what the hell difference does it make? 
I've been guaranteed graduation a year from June." 

The most elementary health regulations went unenforced. 
Whooping cough was a common disturbance. One child con- 
tracted it, but when I attempted to force her from school, 
the superintendent held that to be unnecessary, since most of 
the children had had it. "Besides," he added, "someone 
might set up a knock against the school if we took such 

School athletics are by far the most important extra-cur- 
ricular activity; and frequently the most important curricular 
activity besides. The villages and towns demand winning 
teams. The blatant element in the population agrees that 
the end justifies the means. It is the duty of the principal, 
the coach and the superintendent to secure good men and hold 
them, whoever they are. 

In many cases the athlete runs the school. I have known 
of athletes engaging in physical combat with instructors with 
no ill results to their positions in the school. They are 
privileged characters. They obey only such rules as they de- 
sire. It would be as much as principal's or teacher's position 

When the game schedules were being made out, I wanted 
all out-of-town games to be confined to week-ends. But the 
coach was aroused. He wanted athletics first and intellectual 
development second. The noisy element in school and town 
agreed with him. Sport must not be killed. Though I car- 
ried my point temporarily, it led to an estrangement between 
the boys and myself. The coach said, "It ain't the way we 
do things in this section." His conception of athletic honor 
was interesting. When the girls of our school were to play 
the state champions, a game in which they were certain to be 
beaten, he advised them: "Girls, you'll be up against a 
stiff team tonight. Go in and foul for all you're worth. Re- 
member a goal made from a foul counts one, while a goal 
made from the open floor counts two." The girls carried 
out his instructions until the matter became so offensive that 
the game had to be stopped. After a change of referees, the 
game was finished ; but the affair gave the team a bad name 
in all near-by towns, and the people began to see that such 
methods were not wholly desirable. 

I cannot here go into the social life of the children, except 
to say that it was narrow and rough, with most normal ac- 
tivities either forbidden or frowned upon. Nor can I do 
more than mention the churches, which were seemingly ac- 
cepted as a part of the scenery. The preacher of the church 
I attended held three charges and the length of his discourses 
was dependent upon the time of trains. 

Village life, such as is here described, is a tragedy. The 
children are doomed to an existence characterized by ignor- 



ance and stupidity. Illiterate preachers and uncultured teach- 
ers shape their lives. They lose contact with the outside 
world. They are content to think as their fathers and grand- 
fathers have thought before them. 

Can the situation be improved? Yes; but aside from the 
many social agencies which are helping to re-create life in 
most American communities, yet which are so largely lack- 
ing in these remote towns and villages, the task of education 
must be more clearly understood in its social relationships, 
and the responsibility of the state and even of the nation 
for a more socially intelligent program must be seen and felt. 
These communities are not wholly to blame. They are part 
of the state and the nation; and the state and nation can- 
not lay on them the blame for a general neglect. 

As for education, the remedy lies in a more enlightened 
public opinion. West Virginians are mountaineers accustom- 
ed to struggle and a certain independence. They are assertive. 
Their self-reliance appears in their desire for local control 
of schools. There is, perhaps, too much of this. The county 
and state authorities must take a firmer stand and evolve 
some form of supervision that will raise standards. But at 
present these county and state offices are dominated by cheap 
politics. The state is rich in natural resources;, rich in men 
and women and sturdy children. It must divorce its school 
system from cheap politics. It must secure good teachers and 
grant them longer contracts and secure tenure. 

I do not suggest that standards from other sections be im- 
posed upon West Virginia. But I assert that it is criminal 
to neglect the social life of small towns, to keep from them 
everything that helps to make life worth while, to allow 
ignorance and disease to fester in them. A concerted effort 
of all interests would draw out the best that is in each hamlet 
or town. The teachers need help. David H. Pierce. 

Rural Teaching a Profession 

MAINE is endeavoring to improve her rural schools by 
developing a rural teaching profession. After all, the 
matter of school progress is pretty much embodied in the 
teacher. No matter what the other factors are the teacher is 
the vital consideration. Consolidation, centralization and 
standardization and all of the other means of rural school im- 
provement are futile unless teachers are properly equipped 
with spirit and with the knowledge of the work they are to 
accomplish. You may have all of the foregoing require- 
ments and a poor teacher and you will still have a poor 
school. I do not wish to minimize what may be done through 
consolidation and proper equipment of schools, but these are 
well established in many sections of the country and a neces- 
sity for them is being recognized in others. 

Thus far in the educational history of the United States 
we have had no rural teaching profession. Few teachers go 
into the country school for the purpose of making it a life 
work. The ambitious, well prepared, well endowed teacher 
who finds it necessary to begin work in the rural school hopes 
to be rescued by the end of the term or the year by some en- 
terprising superintendent and taken out of solitary confine- 
ment for the rest of her teaching experience. Maine is at- 
tempting directly to develop a rural teaching profession, first, 
by dignifying the work and giving it the proper meaning; 
second, by taking into the rural school the best talent of the 
teaching profession ; third, through offering an opportunity 
for service in the most vital phase of modern education; 
fourth, by demanding the highest type of preparation for this 
service; and fifth, by making the rural school the best paying 
position in education. 

The legislature in 1919 gave the state superintendent of 
schools of the state of Maine the privilege of selecting 100 
outstanding rural teachers, based upon such qualifications as 
the superintendent might name, and placing them in special 
training schools for leading rural teachers. Two groups have 

thus far been trained and have given sufficient service to 
demonstrate the success of the plan. 

In order to be eligible to appointment to this special school 
teachers must be graduates of normal schools or have an 
equivalent education and preparation, must have two years' 
successful experience, must have accomplished something 
worth while, must have reached the age of twenty-one, must 
be rural-minded and willing to serve a rural community, must 
have ability in leadership and organization, must be of un- 
blemished character, and must be physically fit. Needless to 
say it was difficult to secure 100 of this type in one year for 
not a great many of our normal graduates have taken their 
places in the rural schoolroom. We were, however, able to 
secure ninety-three for the first year. Since the plan has been 
established many young people of the finest ability are prepar- 
ing especially in our normal schools for entrance into this 
school of rural leaders. 

The school is conducted in the summer and covers six weeks 
of intensive training such as our young men received in the 
military training schools for officers Muring the war, but ap- 
plied to rural teaching and leadership. All of the expenses 
are paid by the state, including board and car fare. Teachers 
appointed to such positions are equipped by the state with 
everything necessary to carry on the work. 

The instruction is conducted on the unit plan, one unit for 
each of the six weeks. To each unit is given a full half day 
for one week's time. These unit courses include: 

1. Rural Life Conditions. 

2. Elementary Rural Surveys. 

3. Rural Economics, Sociology. 

4. The Country School as a Center of Community Activity. 

5. The Subject of Leadership and Methods of Standardiza- 
tion and Improvements of Rural School Conditions. 

6. Medical Pedagogy (This includes the elements of school 
nursing, home nursing, first aid, school and community hygiene 
and general health work). 

The afternoons are given over to conferences and round 
tables on various subjects, dealing with such matters as the 
improvement of rural school conditions, rural criticism and 
connecting the school with the community, which enhance the 
value of the teacher. 

Paralleling these unit courses is a complete physical educa- 
tion program including dramatic forms, formal exercises with 
recreational plays and games. Each teacher is expected to 
take the entire course and to qualify by actual participation 
as an umpire, referee, or general manager of games and field 
meets. The question of organization of boy scouts, girl 
scouts, camp-fire girls and such matters as interest young peo- 
ple also receives attention. Hiking parties are organized, camp 
fires are conducted, woodcraft and all matters which give 
the teacher a broader viewpoint and more definite knowledge 
or means of interesting young people are strongly emphasized. 

Teachers trained in the manner mentioned above go back 
to their towns as helping teachers. Each teacher is in charge 
of a school where she teaches. Practically all of these teach- 
ers have sessions five days in the week, generally Saturday in- 
stead of Monday. Her Mondays may be spent in visiting 
other teachers of her town. There may be from three to 
twelve other teachers in the town. On Saturday the other 
teachers may visit the helping teacher. The helping teacher 
also assists in the matter of conferences, teachers' meetings, 
school improvement leagues, parent-teachers' associations, helps 
in putting over the physical education program and performs 
various other essential functions. She draws a regular salary 
as a teacher in her town and at the end of the year receives 
a state bonus of 25 per cent of her salary. If her salary is 
$1,000 she receives at the end of the year a check for $250. 

These young people are going out with great enthusiasm 
for the work they are to do and their reports read like won- 
derful stories of a new profession. Already the plan has 
more than justified itself in definite results. 

Augustus O. Thomas. 

State Superintendent of Public Education, 

Augusta, Me. 




Conducted by 

A Study of Illegitimacy 

ILLEGITIMACY is world wide. More than that, it is 
on your street. It is as old as human nature itself. Some 

say it will always be with us so long as the passions of men 
and the weaknesses of women remain. Perfectly true, so long 
as we placidly accept the situation and do nothing about it. 
We think that way because the maudlin sentimentality that 
is the basis of much of the literature on the subject fosters the 
attitude of mind that the girl is always innocent and the man 
always guilty. Neither statement is true. 

It is high time that we seriously considered facts, not 
fictitious heart throbs. Illegitimacy is a complex problem 
with roots that go down and down into the heredity and the 
environment of both boys and girls. Nobody really knows 
whether the evil is increasing or decreasing. Ten or perhaps 
fifteen years from now, if we continue to note the relations 
of feeble-mindedness, of broken homes, of the influence of lack 
of recreation, we shall know better than we do today what is 
needed to make this country of ours a safer place for our 
children and our neighbors' children to live in. The best 
available data is the recently issued report of the federal 
Children's Bureau. 

The report deals with causes rather than treatment. It 
js an analysis of the situation in Massachusetts in 191 4, the 
last year in which normal pre-war conditions prevailed, but 
the conclusions are general and applicable to all sections of 
the country. The report is both comprehensive in scope and 
conservative in statement. The findings and conclusions are 
as pertinent today as they were in the period covered by the 
study. The same constant factors appear — excessive infant 
mortality, poor physical and equally poor mental equipment, 
the prevalence of syphilis and gonorrhea, earlier and longer 
dependency as contrasted with that of legitimate children, 
broken homes, bad heritage (back to the third generation), 
lack of early educational opportunities for the mothers and 
its corollary of unskilled employment, the youth of the 
mother as well as of the father, inadequate support from the 
father. The emphasis is now on this factor now on that, but 
always in every group and from every section of the state 
(the most sparsely settled as well as the most densely popu- 
lated) comes the same sort of testimony, startlingly cumula- 

The first reaction is frankly one of depression — the prob- 

lem is so vast, the chance of survival for these children so 
much less than that for legitimate children, and the appalling 
cost of their care to the community so great. Fortunately 
the conclusions modify this original impression and leave one 
stimulated by the assurance that illegitimacy, like other hard 
problems, when approached in the same fearless and scientific 
spirit will be better understood and better controlled than it 
is at the present time. 

Certain very definite and far-reaching, constructive meas- 
ures by means of which the effects of illegitimacy may be 
minimized and by which, if not wholly removed, illegitimacy 
itself may be materially reduced, are proposed in the report. 
Among these are the following: 

Improvement of industrial and economic conditions. 
Better educational opportunities for all, including better train- 
ing in morality and conduct standards and better opportunities 
for more spiritual development. 

More and better supervised recreation, including commercial- 
ized amusements. 

Adequate provision for the diagnosis and care of the mentally- 
subnormal both in institutions and under supervision in the 

Improved standards of case work with families and children. 
Investigation by a public agency of all cases of proposed 

More adequate birth registration with the inclusion of the 
father's name whenever adjudication is made. 

The great waste of human effort as shown in the duplica- 
tion of care of children is strikingly brought out. In addi- 
tion to the number of agencies dealing with the children 
during the period studied, from two to five other agencies 
were known to have cared for a considerable portion of these 
same children or their immediate families. The Boston group 
for example showed that more than one-third of its children 
had received prolonged agency care other than that given 
by the agency in charge during the period studied. In con- 
sidering figures of this sort it should always be borne in 
mind that advantages are derived from certain transfer? be- 
tween agencies, such as services offered by maternity homes, 
health centers, schools for the feeble-minded and the like. 
Other things being equal, however, a transfer, especially when 
it involves a physical transfer, is a hardship to a child. With 
an infant the hazard is largely a physical one. With an 

TLE children" 
A reproduction 
of one of a set 
of six posters 
drawn by Aus- 
trian school 
child ren now 
being sold by 
the A m e r ican 
Friends' Service 
C m m ittee at 

twenty - five 
cents each, for 
the b en efit of 
general relief 
work. This ex- 
am p I e, drawn 
by a girl of fif- 
teen, port rays 
the deeper im- 
pulse which 
animates child 




older child mental and moral complications occur. Every 
transfer, even for investigation, necessarily involves a certain 
amount of lost motion and an added expense to the com- 

From the illustrative cases quoted in the report one gathers 
fresh evidence which tends to the conclusion that the selec- 
tion of an agency for treatment is many times guesswork. 
There is, for instance, the story of one mother with two 
illegitimate children at the time of her first application. Sub- 
sequently she proved to be intemperate and after deserting 
her children served several terms in a correctional institution. 
This case was first helped by a private society and later was 
transferred to a public agency. Could all the facts have been 
ascertained at the outset it is probable that the children would 
have gone directly to the public department in the first in- 
stance. Another story illustrates how an agency may dismiss 
children with insufficient assurance that a good plan has been 
made and how the same cases become re-applications to the 
same or a different agency. One must conclude that our 
follow-up work is defective when this occurs as often as the 
report indicates. Agency responsibility for a child or a 
family is weak when a transfer is made to another agency be- 
fore it is clear that the second agency has something special 
to offer in the way of service that it is outside the province 
of the first agency to provide. 

Although the connection between mental defect and il- 
legitimacy is no new thought, the report stresses it, however, 
with such reiterative force that we ask ourselves anew why 
do we still leave so many pathetic girls at large in the com- 
munity to become the prey of vicious men. From 12.6 per cent 
to 19 per cent mental defect is found in the different groups 
studied. No common standard of mental testing was applied 
to these cases, which must be borne in mind in making any 
comparison of the figures. Allowance should also be made 
for the fact that some agencies examine a larger proportion 
of cases than others. Some agencies examine only those cases 
which bear marked stigmata of mental defect. Others have 
a more or less routine examination for all their unmarried 
mother cases. With all allowances for this difference in 
standards, what can we claim is our defense for the charge 
that 12.5 per cent girls and women of child-bearing age 
now in the schools for feeble-minded have been illegitimately 
pregnant from one to ten times before their commitment; and 
that 22 per cent of those who were awaiting commitment to 
the schools who were also of child-bearing age, most of them 
under 21 years, had also been illegitimately pregnant one to 
five times? These girls, it must be borne in mind, are all 
definitely diagnosed feeble-minded. Some of them had been 
on the waiting list from two to four years and over. What 
a bailing of the ocean with a sieve it is to attempt any pro- 
gram for the reduction of illegitimacy that does not first make 
provision for this group of irresponsibles. 

From one-fourth to one-third of the mothers studied had 
had more than one child. Little or nothing is known as to 
how "repeaters" vary from their sisters who have had but one 
child. The report indicates, however, that the mentality is, 
on the whole, poorer for this group of second offenders. At 
present maternity homes rarely take a girl with her second 
child. What a valuable contribution it would be if some 
maternity home would specialize with such a group or if one 
of the child-caring agencies would undertake a similar study, 
which need not preclude other types but would furnish a 
fund of information now lacking on the subject. Who will 
be the first to volunteer for this adventure? The girl of 
border-line intelligence is a great problem. Remove the ob- 
viously feeble-minded from the community and the way is 
clear for more study of this baffling group. Here again some 
agency might specialize to the great advantage of all. 

Another interesting group that needs more study is that 
of the delinquents. How far, for example, does the knowl- 
edge of the fact of illegitimacy cause a mental conflict that re- 

sults in delinquency? The report hints at such a complex, 
and our experience inclines to the belief that there is a re- 
lation between the two not fully understood and perhaps only 

If illegitimacy is to be attacked at this source we cannot 
be content with only a fair standard of care for children who 
become wards of society. The very fact of dependency puts 
them into a danger zone. They bear the ear-marks of poor 
heredity, of bad environment. It is our obligation to offset 
these disadvantages with such positive things as better health, 
better education, yes, and better clothes, if we are to salvage 
these children constantly under the handicap of a lack of nor- 
mal home influences. We are learning to prevent feeble- 
mindedness, and some day we shall deal as constructively 
with the problem of illegitimacy — a far more subtle and dif- 
ficult problem centering as it does in the sex life and the emo- 
tional realms. Katharine P. Hewins. 

General Secretary, The Church 

Home Society, Boston. 

Solving Behavior Problems 

There can be but one valid test of which opportunity for 
study of the personality and capacity of the child to be placed 
out is the better, namely, which the better serves the child. 
Dr. Knight here describes the method of one progressive in- 
stitution of bringing specialists to the service of the child 
while he is a member of a larger group which is in effect a 
continuous clinic. In a second article Dr. Knight will de- 
scribe some of the actual case problems handled in his institu- 
tion. — Editor. 

THE personnel and equipment required for the study, 
observation and diagnosis of behavior problems, as far 
as this is possible, are brought together under one roof and 
one management in the New England Home for Little 
Wanderers. In addition to being a highly specialized insti- 
tution, it is also a child-placing agency. At the present time 
it is receiving children presenting behavior problems from five 
different child-placing agencies in various parts of New Eng- 

The facilities for dealing with postural defects, the con- 
ducting of feeding classes, the performing of minor surgical 
operations, the maintaining of a dental clinic are among the 
factors enabling the institution to discharge its children into 
homes of a somewhat higher type than would otherwise be 
available, and thus render the placing of the children rather 
more secure. 

The method of procedure is somewhat as follows: First, 
as complete and satisfactory a case history as possible is se- 
cured. In the kind of case history insisted upon there are in- 
cluded all the data that are of interest to those who are con- 
tributing to the solution of the problems. At least seven of 
the staff carefully study this case history; namely, the social 
worker, the physical examiner, the mental examiner, the head 
of the department of observation, the psychiatrist, the head of 
the placing-out department and the director of the depart- 
ment of child study. Whenever it becomes necessary to call 
in other specialists, the case history is open to them. 

It is found that the pediatrician .who is to be responsible for 
all physical examinations, whatever his previous experience 
may have been, recognizes at once the value of a case history 
of the child whom he is to examine. The work of the psy- 
chologist demands all that is of interest to the pediatrician and 
also certain other facts in her special field. The desires of the 
psychiatrist in this same direction must also be scrupulously 
met. It will be seen at once that the case history containing 
all that the social worker, the pediatrician, the psychologist, 
the psychiatrist and other interested parties demand can be 
secured only at the expenditure of much time and skill. 

The chronological order in dealing with cases is usually as 
follows: First, a thorough physical examination is made. 






This is reported in detail with suggestions as to securing the 
services of any further specialists in the medical field, together 
i with a very careful statement of the child's physical needs. 
There are two chief pediatricians, a man and a woman, whose 
division of work suggests itself. 

The mental examination comes next. This is conducted 
by a thoroughly competent psychologist of long experience, 
with an excellent social viewpoint. The findings are care- 
fully written down with suggestions in the field and with 
a diagnosis, definite or deferred, as the facts warrant. 

Following this examination is a period of observation last- 
ing usually about four weeks, but in certain types of cases a 
much longer period. This observation is carried on quietly 
by people instructed in methods of observation, without the 
knowledge of the child concerned. Observation is consid- 
ered to be of the utmost importance. It is supposed to cover 
the child's life in the study home, as viewed from various 
angles. The child's reaction to the ordinary stimuli of the 
dining room, the schoolroom, the dormitory, the den and the 
playground are carefully noted. The child is observed when 
with other children and when alone, when his play is super- 
vised and when it is free. This system is carried throughout 
the twenty-four hours of each day. One person is designated 
to receive and edit data gained from such observation. Then 
the result is given as called for at the weekly house confer- 

During the period of observation or at its close all children 
presenting behavior problems are seen by one of the psychia- 
trists, of whom there are two, a man and a woman. 

The case history, the results of the examinations given by 
the medical and mental examiners and the observation report 
are placed at the disposal of the psychiatrist to whom the 
child in question is assigned. The psychiatrist interprets the 
child's reaction to his environment as shown in the case his- 
tory and as shown also in the child's life in the study home, 
determines the child's ethical code and his attitude toward it 
and the degree to which the child has met and probably will 
meet the requirements of social adjustment. This officer 
also evaluates phenomena which may indicate psychoses and 
I attempts to characterize the child's life as a whole. 

The director of the department welcomes suggestions made 
by the pediatrician, the psychologist, the psychiatrist and 
others interested as to the type of home or institution which 
it is thought a child may need. At some point during the 
child's stay in the study home, an attempt is made in a some- 
what informal way to ascertain the child's present mental 
content, his interpretation to his own deeds and his wishes 
regarding the future. 

When the pediatrician, the psychologist, the chief observer, 
and the psychiatrist have completed their tasks the results are 
brought together at a staff meeting presided over by the di- 
rector of the department. In this meeting there is the give 
and take of free argument. An attempt is also made to dove-' 
tail the findings of the various departments and to reach, if 
possible, a unified diagnosis. 

When all this is accomplished, the task is not finished. Sat- 
isfaction does not rest in any given case when the real diffi- 
' culty has been found as well as the causes which have con- 
tributed to it. In fact, those who have the actual care of a 
child who has thus far presented serious problems wish to 
know not only what the problems are but just what to do 
about them. Diagnosis without suggestions at least of the 
outlines of treatment may be stimulating and interesting but 
is not all that is needed. Therefore, the best knowledge and 
experience of the whole group is brought to bear upon the 
problems. An effort is also made to mark out a definite and 
practical regime which promises to contribute to the child's 
social adjustment. 

Indeed, there is a conviction that the final decision as to 
what to do about it is within the province of the social-worker 
group. This is unquestionably true when the behavior prob- 
lem once understood is found not to be embarrassed by seri- 

ous pathological conditions. Whenever the problem is so 
embarrassed and institutional care is not recommended, or if 
recommended is not available, even then the working out of 
the details of a regime for the child can be done by social 
workers. Frederic H. Knight. 

Superintendent , New England Home for 

Littte Wanderers, Boston. 

Recreation in Tennessee 

THE people of Tennessee, or a great many of them, not 
only do not have a chance to play but also see no reason 
for wanting these chances. They do not know what play 
means. Instead they are liable to confuse play with idleness 
and to remember the adage about Satan and the idle hands. 
In the latest state survey made by the National Child Labor 
Committee, Child Welfare in Tennessee, a chapter is devoted 
to recreation. Curiously, the major part of this is given over 
by Raymond G. Fuller, the writer of this special part of the 
report, to a general discussion of recreation and play, their 
meaning, their value, and especially their relation to child 
labor. The explanation for this lies, however, in the recrea- 
tion situation in Tennessee, a state which is lacking in any 
traditions of play. Faced by such a condition, the first step 
toward building up a constructive recreation program in the 
state, says Mr. Fuller, is the creation of intelligence on the 
whole subject of recreation. 

As to existing conditions, the State Department of Educa- 
tion, the Parent-Teachers' Association, the Red Cross in 
Madison County, the Y. M. and Y. W. C. A's, the Boy 
Scouts and Campfire Girls, and so on, are alive to recrea- 
tional needs and are making attempts in various places to fill 
them. But "the people do not appreciate the value of play" 
and so all these efforts are limited and sporadic. Memphis 
has a recreation commission which has a broad program but is 
hampered by lack of funds. Nashville and Knoxville have 
park boards and parks, but lack trained supervision. Knox- 
ville has an interscholastic field and Chattanooga an annual 
play festival. In Shelby County schools are used as recrea- 
tional centers, and in Williamson County nearly every school 
has some playground equipment. Yet in even these more 
progressive communities school playgrounds are too small and 
city playgrounds not properly supervised. The state lacks "play 
traditions" and the ability of the teachers to teach play. In 
the country the "lack of the spirit of play creates dissatisfac- 
tion with the country," for of course in the cities, not only 
are there more community recreational facilities, but there are 
commercial amusements besides, the movies, dance halls, and 
street-carnivals, which, incidentally, Mr. Fuller says need 
special control through city statutes. 

Yet, for all of this, there is plenty of play material in 
Tennessee, even in rural Tennessee. Its history is full of 
pageant material ; its mountains are full of old ballads and 
stories. The children have their own games, handed down 
of course from one generation to another. Prof. John G. 
Smith, who has been studying plays and games in the South, 
has counted 300 different games known and played there. 
Mr. Fuller himself has listed 116 games known in Tennessee. 
What is most needed is "state propaganda to make people 
want playgrounds" and play. First of all there must be an 
educational campaign, probably under the Board of Educa- 
tion and the State University. This will lead, it is hoped, 
to a state recreation commission with a far-reaching program 
and adequate appropriation, but Tennessee is not yet ready 
for that. Preliminary to it Mr. Fuller suggests the require- 
ment of physical training in the schools; the requirement of 
sufficient playground space in the specifications for new school 
buildings; county appropriations for recreation; laws mak- 
ing it permissible to use all schoolhouses for community cen- 
ters ; and such laws as may be necessary to allow communities 
and counties to exert home rule in the matter of appropria- 
tions and recreational activities. Helen Dwight Fisher. 




Conducted by 

Forty-Eight Hours or Less 

THE National Industrial Conference Board has lately 
published a study of Practical Experience with the 
Work Week of Forty-eight Hours or Less. This 
has been quoted as an argument against the eight-hour day. 
By way of summary the board stated that the majority of 
the plants it investigated produced less during forty-eight 
hours than during a longer week. This statement, however, 
was qualified in a way which lends comfort to the advocates 
of the short working day. For while the board reported that 
in factories where machines determined production, a decrease 
in time was followed by a decrease in output, it also an- 
nounced that where human beings governed their own pro- 
duction, a decrease in working hours was often followed by 
an increase in output. That is as much as any circumspect 
advocates of the short working day would anticipate. For 
it is the behavior of human beings and not the capacity of 
machines which is the unascertained factor to be illuminated 
by an inquiry of this kind. The staff of the Conference Board 
did inquire into this relevant subject and concluded that their 
observations corresponded generally with those of the chief 
inspector of factories and workshops of Great Britain as sum- 
marized in the report for 1919. This official has, however, 
not yet been counted among the enemies of the eight-houf day. 
The board sought the practical experience of manufactur- 
ers with the work-week of forty-eight hours or less. The 
problem was to determine whether or not forty-eight hours or 
less "would yield the same, or practically the same, weekly 
output per worker as the previous longer schedules in the 
same plants and under substantially similar conditions." The 
inquiry also "attempted to ascertain what, if any, were the 
effects of such change in work hours upon the quality of 
production and upon the health and morale of the workers." 
Little of significance was reported concerning the health and 
the morale of the workers under the shorter shifts although 
meager reports indicated an improvement in health. The 
scope of the inquiry was thus in effect narrowly limited to the 
question of productivity. It is, however, fair to point out 
parenthetically at least that the public argument for the 
eight-hour day is not grounded on the belief that men and 
women produce more in eight hours than in a longer period 
despite the fact that such an assertion has often been made 
with reference to particular plants. Social workers and 
spokesmen of organized labor have based their case on the 
need of protecting workers against the hazards of accidents 
and of disease which come from too much work and on the 
national need of providing citizens with adequate leisure for 
social and political life. Normal families are not to be 
attained, it has been observed, when all the energies of men 
and women are turned to the production of material com- 
modities. No more are men and women, stripped by toil of 
every resource of intelligence and of energy able to share 
equitably in the social and political activities of a free re- 
public. But these considerations essential to any adequate 
appraisal of the eight-hour day may be passed. The prac- 
tical experience of the manufacturers questioned by the Na- 
tional Industrial Conference Board was concentrated upon 
the matter of output and it is sufficient here to reserve atten- 
tion for that. 

By way of general conclusion the investigators do say that 
"in 87.2 per cent of the establishments studied a reduction to 
a work week of 48 hours or less was accompanied by a de- 
crease in weekly output per worker. In 8.7 per cent of the 
plants the workers were able to maintain weekly output, and 

in a very few cases, weekly output was increased." This 
summary statement would appear to support the general im- 
pression created by the publication of the report which was 
that the workers produced less during the short than during a 
longer work day. The reason is that industries were taken 
in which the speed of production was largely determined by 
the rate of motion of machines and not by the zeal of the 
individual workers. 

This is frankly stated in the report. In cotton manufac- 
turing highly automatic processes dominate and "the output 
was limited almost entirely by the speed of machines." It 
was inevitable in such a case that "a reduction in hours was 
accompanied by a decrease in output." The investigators 
hastened to add, however, that in industries where handwork 
predominated, that is where the human factor was more 
nearly free to express itself, "it was possible to increase the 
hourly output of the workers, in some cases to the extent 
of entirely compensating for the loss in working time or even 
exceeding the previous weekly production." That finding is 
highly important. It substantiates the argument of the ad- 
vocates of the short day. In general the conference board 
report shows that to the extent that the rate of production is 
fixed by machinery a shortening of the work day does not 
augment production but that to the degree that workers de- 
termine their own rate it is possible through a shortening of 
the work day and the elimination of fatigue to enhance pro- 

The investigators for the board were not, however, so un- 
sophisticated as to think that the hours of labor were the 
only factor in production even where handworkers were at 
liberty to regulate their own output. Numerous other in- 
fluences intervened. For example they reported that 
"whether or not a plant increased hourly output, where the 
character of the work made such increase possible, seemed to 
depend largely upon the general attitude and characteristics of 
the working force." That is manifestly true. Good-will 
indisputably is an important factor. If the relationship be- 
tween the management and the men is pleasant, the will to 
produce may be present. If an autocratic system is in vogue 
which the workers resent production ordinarily suffers. That 
observation is almost as old as human effort but it need not 
be forgotten today. 

Again it is illuminating to remember that the data on 
which the study was based was collected between March and 
June, 1920. That was the time of the most acute labor 
shortage. The investigators draw attention to the fact that 
"scarcity of skilled labor in a number of cases resulted in an 
inferior quality of production and of reduced output, both 
because of the unskilled workers necessarily employed in part, 
and because of the lessened ability of management to enforce 
discipline under the circumstances." This was a temporary 
condition attributable to the disordered condition of tl 
labor market. But surely no scientifically minded person 
would conclude because unskilled workers produced less in 
' eight hours than skilled workers had been producing in nine 
or ten or longer that it was reasonable to say that the shorter 
shift was in itself less productive. The investigators who 
produced the study were clearly under few illusions concern- 
ing what they really found. For as previously noted they 
said on page 16: "The findings in this report correspond gen- 
erally to those in the report of the British Inspector of Fac- 
tories recently issued wherein it was stated : 

The reports disclose wide differences of experience as to 
the effect of the shorter hours on production. Frequently it is 


i was 
if i 


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i the 

' It 

an is 
; tie- 



The survey for a p ri l 23, 192 i 




impossible to make a fair comparison of output before and 
after the shortening of the hours of work, owing to changes 
in conditions. Among these changes may be mentioned altera- 
tions in machinery or organization, extensions of work neces- 
sitating the employment of much untrained labor, scarcity of 
workers (particularly of skilled workers), irregular supplies of 
materials, changes in quality or class of product and in systems 
of payment. 

When production depends almost entirely on the speed of ma- 
chinery — as in cotton or woolen spinning — the output is said to 
be reduced in a proportion nearly, if not fully, corresponding to 
the reduction in hours. In other machine operations which 
call for constant alertness on the part of the operator (e. g. 
weaving) output has not suffered to this extent, and, in ex- 
ceptional cases, has scarcely been affected at all. In a third 
class of process where output is largely or entirely dependent 
upon the exertion there is frequently no loss in production. 
Indeed in one wholesale tailoring establishment an increase of 
40 per cent is reported (partly due to reorganization) ; while in 
a boot factory, where the hours of work were reduced from 
52 to 48 hours per week, there was a considerable increase in 
output. Unfortunately a few of the reports indicate an ex- 
tremely unfavorable result in some works, where the shorten- 
ing of hours has been followed by a reduction in the hourly 
rate of production, and for this result no adequate explanation 
has, as a rule, been given." 

A conclusion such as that is hardly a foundation on which 
to build a campaign against the shorter working day. On 
the contrary the facts presented by the National Industrial 
Conference Board materially enrich the cause of those who 
believe that even the tenders of machines are human beings 
entitled to a share in the leisure which is prerequisite to a 
good life. William L. Chenery. 

Negro Woman in Industry 

THE colored woman's position in industry compares with 
the white woman's as the white woman's compares with 
the man's. Such is the general conclusion a reader may draw 
from the study of Colored Women as Industrial Workers 
in Philadelphia just published by the Consumers' League of 
Eastern Pennsylvania. 

The colored women, like the white before them, found in- 
dustrial positions open to them when employers had to tap a 
new labor supply — in this instance, during the war. They 
were, in the nature of the case, inexperienced. Their only 
superiorities as employes were those which white women have 
most commonly had over men. They were cheap and they 
were docile and sometimes they were even available as strike 
breakers. Their relative treatment was the same as that re- 
ceived by white women. Where there were both new and 
old machines, better and poorer sanitary facilities in the same 
shop, the poorer equipment was, as a matter of course, as- 
signed to the colored workers. The principle of equal pay 
for equal work formulated to correct injustices between men 
and women is as much needed where colored women are 
started at $i less than white, simply because they are colored, 
or colored applicants offered $7 by an establishment declaring 
an initial wage of $io, or white girls at $12.50 replaced by 
colored at $10 doing, according to their employer, quite as 
good work as their predecessors. Where there is a union, 
they, of course, get the standard wages, but they suspect the 
unions of including them only in grudging recognition that it 
is a necessary measure for self-protection and giving them no 
encouragement to active participation and doing nothing 
directly for their benefit. 

One would be tempted to conclude that the report points 
to social rather than industrial disabilities were it not that 
the social handicaps are result as well as cause of the indus- 
trial. Women getting less than a living wage temporarily 
leave industrial employment to return for a while to better 
paid but less coveted positions at housework; or they are 

irregular at their job because they are also housekeepers, at 
work only to supplement the less-than-living wage of other 
colored workers. Then the colored workers are offered a 
low wage because they are considered independable and the 
vicious circle is complete. Eighty per cent of them earn 
less than the $16.50 which has been declared a minimum wage 
by the District of Columbia (and is a few cents less than the 
Consumers' League's estimated minimum wage for Philadel- 
phia) ; fifty per cent get actually less than $10 a week. Out 
of this lesser wage those who try to secure themselves in some 
degree of self-support by insurance must pay higher rates than 
white persons because of their greater morbidity. 

The study concludes by recommending to employes, em» 
ployers and the public a few simple, far-reaching policies but 
the proposal which especially aims to break the vicious circle 
is for a minimum-wage law which would force the admission 
of colored women's labor to competition for a place in industry 
on better grounds than cheapness and submission. 

Philadelphia. Alice S. Cheyney, 

Labor and the Indemnity 

A SPECIAL report has been issued by the British Labor 
Party on Unemployment, the Peace and the Indemnity. 
It is the first authoritative statement, from a labor point of 
view, of the relation of international politics to the problem 
of involuntary idleness and, as much, has received consider- 
able attention. It is interesting to note that the only resolu- 
tion on the topic of unemployment passed av the last annual 
conference of the party, in June, 1920, referred to the 
stoppage of unemployment pay by the government to dis- 
missed civilian war workers. 

The report discusses more especially two aspects of foreign 
trade which hamper British industry: the blockade of the 
Russian market (since lifted by the new trade agreement) and 
the "fantastic" indemnity imposed upon Germany. "We de- 
sire that justice be done to France and Belgium for the cruel 
devastation which they have suffered." But the actual burden 
imposed upon the workers of Germany, says the report, goes 
far beyond a consummation of that desire. "Even if the 
Allies do, when it comes to the point, postpone and modify 
their demands in the usual way, the prospect is one of un- 
ending disturbance and perpetual militarism, with the ever 
present incitement either to revolution or to military revenge." 
Even supposing that the "fairy gold" can be paid by forced 
internal loans, by printing money, by American credits, by 
pawning assets or selling businesses to foreign capitalists, the 
prospect is one of gloom to the industrial classes of countries, 
that have to compete with German labor, for, "the indemnity 
can only be paid by the export virtually of prison-made goods, 
produced under threats of invasion, by sweated workers." 
Germany, it is further argued, during the period of restitution 
can and will import practically nothing manufactured by for- 
eign labor. 

Never in all our economic history have we been faced with 
competition of this kind. Skilled labor in Germany is paid 8, 
7 or 6 marks an hour; unskilled women's labor may receive 
as little as 2. The mark at present is on the average a 
penny. In other words. German workers with the same skill 
as our own, are receiving less than one-third of the English 
rates of pay. . . . 

Capital will demand that we in our turn shall accept the 
present Continental standard of living, the standard of a little 
less than a bare subsistence, on pain of seeing all our trade 
gradually slipping from us. 

Revision of the treaty, a rationing of the world's raw 
materials, according to each nation's needs, by an international 
authority, disarmament and the giving up of imperialist ad- 
ventures in Persia and Mesopotamia are put forth as the main, 
lines along which the impending catastrophe of British in- 
dustry and social welfare can be averted. 



A Tax Against Accidents 

ARE there too many industrial accidents in California, 
is the question asked by the industrial accident commis- 
sioners of that state in an open letter addressed to the 
state legislature in an effort to have passed adequate safety and 
compensation legislation. According to this letter, there are 
in California two industrial deaths a day, amounting to 
an average in excess of 6oo a year, and 300 injuries each day 
amounting to 100,000 yearly. Nor do the records show that 
these injuries are solely confined to hazardous occupations but 
"come to all industrial activities." Therefore, "with a full 
knowledge of the importance and need of an extension of 
safety work" in their state, and a belief in the "inherent right 
that the industries that cause deaths and injuries should be 
charged with the cost of safety and the retraining of those 
crippled," the commissioners are urging the legislature to 
"levy a tax on employers equal to 2 per cent on the premium 
of each compensation insurance policy, for the purpose of 
safety and rehabilitation, the tax to be collected by the in- 
surance companies. Self-insurers will be called upon, if the 
recommendation is approved, to pay the same amount, estimat- 
ed on what the premium would be if a policy were purchased." 

The experiences of other states [concludes the letter] and of 
employers of large groups of men in the United States show 
that it is impossible to foretell the far-reaching reductions in 
the casualty lists that will follow an intensive safety cam- 
paign with the state of California leading the way through 
the Safety Department of the Industrial Accident Commission. 

As yet reports from California have not indicated the action 
taken by the legislature on the matter. 

Shop Councils in Canada 

REPRESENTATIVES of the larger employing companies 
in Canada which have established joint councils with their 
employes were called to conference at Ottawa, the last of 
February, by Senator G. D. Robertson, minister of labor, to 
ascertain the results of their experiments and for an exchange 
of views on the best methods of procedure and the most ac- 
ceptable forms of industrial councils. The mushroom growth 
of industrial councils in the Dominion within the last two 
years is due in large measure to the recommendation of the 
Royal Commission on Industrial Relations, which, in 1919, 
was appointed by the Canadian government to investigate 
the labor situation in that country with a view to establish- 
ing more harmonious relations between employer and worker. 
Those present at the conference, were, for the most part, 
company officers in charge of industrial relations. In addition 
to the Canadian representatives, the conference had for its 
guests representatives of the International Harvester Company 
and the United States Rubber Company, who outlined, in 
addresses, the best American procedure along these lines. It 
was very generally conceded that the joint councils had de- 
cidedly improved the understanding and sympathy between 
the management and the employes in the shops where they 
were operated. 

Pennsylvania's Sanitary Code 

INDICATIVE of the popular acceptance of modern sanita- 
tion principles is the manner in which, practically without 
opposition, the comprehensive and rigid rulings relative to 
sanitation in industrial plants were adopted on April 5 by 
the Pennsylvania Industrial and Labor Department. The 
rules include strict specifications for modern and highly sani- 
tary equipment and accessories in wash rooms, retiring rooms, 
and toilet rooms, the location of these, ventilation and clean- 
ing, heating and lighting, and add the very desirable requisite 
of cots and certain hospital facilities. Another interesting 

Currents in Industry 

feature of this code is the requirement of shower baths in all 
factories where the workers are exposed to heat, humidity, 
odors or dust. Clothes hangers on pipe rods sufficiently high 
to prevent clothes from dragging the floor must also be pro- 
vided. Posters calling the attention of employes to the need 
for care in the use of the new conveniences are furnished by 
the labor department. The orders carry fine and imprison- 
ment penalties for violators. 

Trade Union Women to Meet 

TRADE union women are planning a conference at Wau- 
kegan, 111., to be held during the week beginning June 6. In 
sending out the call for the convention, the National Women's 
Trade Union League of America points out the exceptional 
importance of the convention at this time due to the critical 
economic situation, faced especially by women workers, against 
whom there have been unfair discriminations in rates of pay 
and industrial opportunity. The particular task of the con- 
vention will be to develop further ways and means to continue 
the four chief purposes of the league : 

1. To organize all working women into trade unions. 

2. To make possible for women an equality with men in in- 
dustrial and professional opportunity. 

3. To make equal pay for equal work regardless of sex a 
fact and not a theory. 

4. To make citizenship mean actual equality of liberty, status, 
opportunity between men and women. 

Granite and Disease 

STATISTICAL and medical investigations of granite- work- 
ing plants were recently undertaken by the physical chemistry 
service of the United States Bureau of Mines, for the pur- 
pose of learning methods for prevention, better methods 
of treatment, and conditions which most readily lead to the 
serious lung disease very common among workers, in mineral 
industries where the air is dusty with particles or rock. One 
of the practical objects of the investigation was to test the 
comparative effectiveness of the various vacuum systems and 
dust-removing devices used by stone manufacturers. Barre, 
Vt., the principal granite-producing town in America, was 
selected for experimentation and the work was carried out 
with the cooperation of the Granite Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion and the Barre branch of the Granite Cutters' Interna- 
tional Association of America. 

Personnel Research 

PERSONNEL research organizations of which there are 250 
in this country were federated on March 15 under the auspices 
of the National Research Council and Engineering Foundation 
in Washington. The federation is a result of a preliminary 
conference held last fall at which were represented national' 
organizations of scientists, engineers, labor, capital, managers, 
educators, economists and sociologists. The function of this 
new Personnel Research Federation will be: 

To promote efficiency of all personnel elements of industry — 
employer, manager, worker — and safety, health, comfort and 

To harmonize endeavors and minimize duplication of work. 

To collect and disseminate research information. 

To stimulate and initiate research through individuals, or- 
ganizations and governmental agencies. 

Mexico's Representative 

MEXICO has named the International Association of Ma- 
chinists, with headquarters at Washington, its official com- 
mercial representative in this country. Under the agreement 
made, the machinists' organization will act as advisor to the 
Mexican government which has bound itself to use only pro- 
ducts of union shops in establishments under its control. 



The Woman's Work Day 
"IN fixing a standard [of hours of labor] for women, the 
fact that they are women should be taken fully into consider- 
ation." Dr. George W. Webster, member of the Illinois 
Industrial Survey, appointed by the governor in 1918 to in- 
vestigate "all industries in Illinois in which women are engaged 
as workers, with special reference to the hours of labor for 
women in such industries and the effect of such hours of 
labor upon the health of women workers," made this the 
burden of his theme in addressing the Illinois Women's Legis- 
lative Congress at their meeting in December last (address 
just reprinted by the federal Women's Bureau in pamphlet 
form, A Physiological Basis 

cooperate with the federal Employment Service, establishing 
cooperative bureaus under joint administration of the cooper- 
ating parties. Management of the service is under the super- 
vision of the Department of Agriculture and Labor and the 
chief of that department is the executive officer. It is the 
duty of officials of the local bureaus established throughout 
the state to post notices of lockouts and strikes and to inform 
any applicant for a vacancy in an industrial establishment 
affected by such strike or lockout of the existing conditions. 
No fee may be charged for services under heavy penalty for 
violation. A ten-thousand-dollar appropriation is designated 
to carry out the provisions of the act. 

Poster drawn for federal Women's Bureau by C. Le Roy Boldridge 

for the Shorter Working Day 
for Women). The problem, 
as Dr. Webster sees it, is the 
fixing of a minimum number 
of hours of labor in which the 
worker may produce the maxi- 
mum output and remain well, 
so far as injury from overwork 
is concerned. Nor is the prob- 
lem one with which only labor 
and capital are concerned but 
it is of utmost importance to 
the state and society as an or- 
ganic whole to see to it that the 
women of the race are so pro- 
tected that they may enjoy 
their inalienable rights to de- 
velop into normal, healthy, val- 
uable members of society ; and 
the race must protect itself 
from "any of the sinister ef- 
fects" connected with the la- 
bor of women since its very 
perpetuity is at stake. The 
complete survey of industries 
in Illinois proved conclusively 
and beyond the shadow of a 
doubt that, other factors be- 
ing equal, women working an eight-hour shift average a higher 
production than do the same women working ten and twelve 
hours per day. Furthermore, statistics from all countries 
which have recorded the hours at which industrial accidents 
occur show that the number of accidents tend to increase with 
fatigue, and the health of the worker and his susceptibility 
to disease is directly proportionate to fatigue. "Physical de- 
bility follows fatigue. Laxity of moral fiber follows physi- 
cal debility." 

The sciences of physiology and psychology, the law, the de- 
cisions of the courts, the police power of the states, the example 
of the Peace Conference, the joint interests of both employer 
and employe, the rights of society expressed in the voice of 
an enlightened social conscience, [Dr. Webster sums up] all 
unite in favoring the establishment of the eight-hour day as 
the maximum which should be required of women in industry. 
For upon women depends the vigor of the race and the vigor 
of the race must not be exploited for present-day purposes in- 
stead of for racial conservation. 

Free Employment Bureau 
SHUTTING the door after the horse is out of the stable, 
but perhaps still not too late to prevent a second runaway, 
is what some of the states are attempting to do in connection 
with the employment emergency. North Dakota is, however, 
one of the first to actually make effective an act establishing 
a free employment service which will aim to handle the move- 
ment of labor throughout the state, preventing congestion at 
any one point and endeavoring to supply labor wherever it is 
needed. The new Bureau of Free Employment will also 


The Night- Work Law 
THAT dismissal of women 
from the car lines of New 
York was not made nec- 
essary by the night law, is, ac- 
cording to the federal Wo- 
men's Bureau, proved by the 
fact that women are employed 
as conductors in Kansas City 
without ever having had to 
work at night, and women 
ticket sellers are employed in 
Chicago without night work 
and without any handicap in 
any degree. This statement, 
made by the bureau in connec- 
tion with its report on Wo- 
men Street Car Conductors 
and Ticket Agents based on 
investigations in Kansas City, 
Detroit, Chicago and Boston, 
is, coming at this time, most 
opportune in its relation to the 
situation now obtaining in 
New York State, where the 
gains of recent years, made by 
organized women fighting for 
legislative restriction of hours 
of employment and of night work for women in industry, 
have been unsuccessfully fought in the recent legislature. 
The measures slated for passage would have permitted 
women over twenty-one years of age to work between the 
hours of 10 P. M. and 6 A. M., contrary to the present night- 
work statute, and give power to the new state Industrial 
Commission to increase or decrease the hours of women and 
minors, working in factories, industrial plants and mercantile 
establishments, at will. 

The report of the Women's Bureau further states that 
women employed in the street railways like the work because 
they are paid so much better than are women in many 
other occupations, such as waitresses, seamstresses, tele- 
phone operators, laundresses, factory workers, saleswomen, 
teachers and office workers. Comparison with pay in former 
occupations in the case of thirty-four women who were in- 
terviewed showed that the street railways paid them from 
$27 to $30 a week whereas most of them had received but 
$5 to $18 in their former occupations. While "better wages" 
was the principle explanation for preferring the conductors' 
work, the women gave many other reasons: They like the 
outdoor work, and their health is better; the worker can ar- 
range for break in day and time off for personal matters; they 
are not on their feet all day as in numerous other occupations ; 
the work is not so straining, nor is it difficult to please employ- 
ers ; there is constant change in scenery and interest ; it is not 
lonely nor monotonous; they have shorter hours than formerly 
and no responsibilities when off duty. 





By J. H. Thomas, M. P. Harcourt, Brace & Howe. 197 pp. 

Price $2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

J. H. Thomas, the general secretary of the National Railway- 
men's Union, and a leading labor member of Parliament, has been 
much in the mind of the reading world during the last few days. 
Thomas has been the spokesman of the railwaymen, one of the con- 
stituent unions of the Triple Alliance which for a time seemed 
about to initiate a general strike in Great Britain in order to sup- 
port the cause of the miners. One of the plain possibilities of 
such a struggle has been the resignation of the coalition govern- 
ment and the creation of a labor ministry. Almost inevitably 
Thomas would be an important member of such a cabinet, and it 
is within the range of the possible that he should be prime min- 
ister "when labor rules." Thomas is a conservative among radi- 
cals and a leader from his group would almost certainly be the 
first trade unionist premier if indeed a labor government is destined 
to be tried within the next few years. These facts give his book, 
which seems to have been completed late last September, a peculiar 

In this brief volume the author sketches his own views of how 
labor should govern Britain. He addresses himself not to the 
working classes but to outsiders who are curious, or disquieted, con- 
cerning the potentialities of the near future. The doctrines he ex- 
presses are accordingly phrased tactfully, too tactfully his more 
advanced comrades will doubtless comment. Nonetheless, the course 
of the Triple Alliance in the miners' strike shows that the veteran 
author of this book understands well the temper of a majority of 
the working people of his country. 

Concerning the angry question of nationalization he says: "When 
labor rules, land, the mines, the railways, canals, shipping and 
probably also, through the municipalities, the supply of milk and 
bread — these essentials must all be under the absolute control of 
the state." That program is far-reaching enough for the present 
and incidentally will serve, he thinks, to eliminate the strike which 
has now become so serious an evil in the essential industries. He 
does not envisage nationalization as a class measure. All classes 
will be benefited, he urges, and especially the clerk and the small- 
salaried professional man. 

On matters of foreign policy it is difficult to draw a clear line 
between Mr. Thomas' program and that of liberals. He is in 
favor of dominion rule for Ireland. He would like to see India 
given self-government within the empire. He would administer 
the colonies — not the self-governing dominions which are already 
effectually independent — for the sake of the inhabitants rather than 
in the interest of imperialist industry, but he would retain the 
colonies. As to foreign relations, he believes in open diplomacy but 
would maintain the army and navy. There is reform, highly im- 
portant reform, but assuredly no revolution in these principles. 
The difference between a labor government of the variety Thomas 
expounds and the present Lloyd George government in creed would 
be hardly greater than the distance which separated liberalism of 
the pre-war days from the Tory government which preceded it. 
There would be no conspicuous break in the British tradition. The 
fundamental change would be the shift in the center of political 
gravity. Workers would formulate government policies in their own 
interests, just as landowners ruled England in their own behalf a 
century ago and just as industrial and financial leaders have pos- 
sessed the real power during recent generations. Mr. Thomas has 
performed a valuable service in describing with such wide scope 
the national policies to which his dominant section of the Labor 
Party is now committed. His book is thus a valuable picture of 
the England which, it may be, lies just over the horizon. 

William L. Chenery. 

By Richard O. Johnson. Wm. B. Burford, Indianapolis. 262 
pp. Price, $3.50; by mail of the Survey, $3.65. 
In 1914 the Conference of Superintendents and Principals of 
American Schools for the Deaf and the Convention of American 
Instructors of the Deaf appointed a committee of five to study the 
question of efficiency of schools for the deaf and further instructed 

that committee to evolve a general scheme for the measurement 
of mental tests and age and class-year norms. This committee con- 
sisted of five superintendents of state schools for the deaf with 
the author, Mr. Johnson, as its chairman. The present report is 
the outcome of this committee's activities and includes much valu- 
able data of interest to the teacher, the medical specialist, the 
psychiatrist and the publicist There are chapters that have no 
direct bearing on the actual end-results of the committee's work, 
but these may be considered to be of reference value. 

The thirty-six years' experience with the work of educating the 
deaf qualifies Mr. Johnson to speak authoritatively on many phases 
of this subject, but some of the paragraphs in this report, in which 
distinctly medical subject matter pertaining to the deaf is consid- 
ered, are inadequate either for reference' or instruction. But four 
pages are devoted to the consideration of the methods of instruc- 
tion of the deaf child, a very vital phase of the work assigned to 
the committee, and even in these limited pages the author refers to 
the motto selected by the state school of which he was superinten- 
dent: "Any method for good results — all methods and wedded to 
none." We would have preferred to see an impartial analysis of 
the several methods used in the instruction of the deaf so that ul- 
timately when a survey of schools is made some definite and im- 
partial guidance could be obtained from this report. 

The Binet-Simon and other tests and scales for mental classi- 
fication of the hearing child have been found inadequate in their 
application to the deaf child; and the Pintner tests, with their 
adaptability and modifications for the deaf, have been carefully 
studied and favorably recommended by the author. The Pintner 
tests shown at the Joint Convention of Teachers of the Deaf at 
Mt. Airy, in June, 1920, corroborated the opinion of the committee 
that these were more adaptable to the deaf child than those of 
Binet-Simon, but there was still a question whether the Pintner 
tests would be all-sufficient as a standard for measurement of pupil- 
efficiency, for mentality test and age and class-year norms. 

Taken as a whole, the report of this committee, under the chair- 
manship of Mr. Johnson, may be regarded as a very valuable ad- 
junct and preparatory measure to the more vital question — a sur- 
vey of schools for the deaf throughout the country. An efficient and 
impartial survey of all schools for the deaf is actively and seriously 
under consideration by the several national organizations of super- 
intendents, principals, and teachers of the deaf, and an authorized 
committee is now at work to develop this problem as an active and 
vital entity. Should such a survey be accomplished in the near 
future, it will no doubt be of inestimable value to every school for 
the deaf throughout the land, to every deaf child under instruction 
and will assist materially in the better understanding of all prob- 
lems of the deaf. M. A. Goldstein, M. D. 

St. Louis. 


By Charles F. Higham. Alfred A. Knopf. 201 pp. Price, 

$2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

As in his earlier book on Scientific Distribution, the author, who 
is a well known English advertising man, here explains some of the 
things that make for success and failure in his profession. But 
more consecutively and purposefully he applies in this book the 
lessons of business advertising to social needs. As such chapter 
headings as Public Opinion, The Need for a State Publicity Bureau, 
Civic Publicity, Labor and Publicity will indicate, this book is a 
plea for a correct use of publicity methods in public affairs, and, 
chief of all, for the creation of a national publicity bureau as a 
permanent organ of the state. Many of his ideas have already 
proved themselves in the war time publicity practice of the British 
government; others have long been practiced in the United States. 
He knows all the arguments in opposition to governmental "propa- 
ganda" but is able to answer them — very effectively on the whole. 
It is noteworthy that of four men of a nationally representative 
character, to whom he submitted his suggestions, only one thorough- 
ly agreed with him on the necessity of permanent popular education 
in the affairs of the state by modern publicity methods, and that 
was a Labor member of Parliament. Nevertheless, in a sympa- 
thetic though critical analysis of labor publicity, Mr. Higham shows 
how far that party is itself falling short of taking full advantage 






r, Kin 


i is I 

i, a | 



of its opportunities. In a brief adlendum he states that in the 
recent railway strike for the first time both the government and the 
trade union used scientific, paid publicity to state their case to the 
community. Mr. Higham is much impressed with the potentiality 
of the kinematograph as an instrument of popular education and 
foresees a revolution, by its means, of current methods of appeal- 
ing both to the emotions and the sound sense of the people. 

B. L. 


By Alice A. Chown. Cornhill Co. 340 pp. Price, $2.00; by 

mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

In a very readable journal, extending from 1906 to 1919, is set 
forth the gradual emancipation of a modern, educated woman from 
the shackles of convention and' current prejudices. Intellectually, 
many of the steps of her stairway are slippery; some are so steep 
that only few will want to follow her; others— like some stairs in the 
Public Library of New York — lead nowhere unless one descends 
again on the other side. The unconventional has an attraction for 
certain temperaments that is apt to blind them to the attainment of 
larger aims. For them there is often a self-deception in steps which 
they feel bound to take as evidences of sincerity but which, unknown 
to them, are motivated rather by an unconquerable desire to shock. 
Montreal and New York, Letchworth, a Devonshire village and a 
number of American and Canadian country homes and new thought 
colonies are the milieus in which the author moves. The egotism 
of her narrative is veiled by humor and charm of diction; it is en- 
tirely forgiven by the fascinating portraiture of the men and women 
she meets and who, sometimes, go a stretch of the ascent with her. 
There we meet labor leaders, Jewish working girls, settlement work- 
ers, immigrant farmers, young people striving for self-development, 
old people looking back upon lives of neighborly helpfulness, women 
who have cut themselves loose from marriage bonds, and men who 
suffer for their ideals of economic readjustment, nature lovers, chil- 
dren ; advanced types of our complex society and remnants of a 
freer and more wholesome country life— a brilliant company of 
folks who matter, not because their aim is right but because they are 
sincere in the expression of their convictions through the relation- 
ships of daily life. A book well worth reading. B. L. 


By Shalom Aleichem. Alfred A. Knopf. 280 pp. Price, $2.00; 

by mail of the Survey, $2.20. 

This volume seems to be Mr. Knopf's contribution to the monu- 
ment that "Shalom Aleichem" preferred to any other, according to 
his will, which was widely published in the newspapers after his 
death in 1916: "The best monument of me will be if my works be 
read or if there be found among the better-to-do classes Maecenases 
who will publish and distribute my works in Yiddish or in other 
languages." "Shalom Aleichem" (Solomon J. Rabinowitsch) is the 
most loved of modern Jewish writers, and yet, except for his happy 
pseudonym and that curiously inadequate pigeon-holing of him as 
"the Jewish Mark Twain," he is unknown to the English-reading 

The social isolation of the Jew, says Dr. Isaac Goldberg, "has 
preserved to them traditions, customs and habits of thought which, 
with but slight variation, have persisted from the earliest period of 
recorded history and are alien to the people among whom they 
dwell." The stories in this volume are of Jewish children in the 
Tillages of the Russian pale, but only rarely does the Russian setting 
enter to affect the narrative. They are tales of Jewish home life, 
religious observances, Jewish schools, told with the simplicity of an 
artist whose method is Gogol's but whose master is the people of 
whom he wrote and whom he sought to entertain. Jewish love of 
the symbolical, the thoughtful humor that turns so easily upon 
Jewish foibles, are in these stories. Florence Fleisher. 


By J. H. Friedel. J. B. Lippincott Co. 224 pp. Illustrated. 

Price, $1.75; by mail of the Survey, $1.85. 

Why should anyon-* want to become a librarian, is the obvious 
reaction to a first glimpse of this book. For, there is no worse paid 
profession. "In the past," says Mr. Friedel, "the belief has at times 
prevailed that the library was a sinecure which one incapacitated 
by accident or other infirmity, too old, or incapable of other work, 
might fill competently." Unfortunately, that belief is far from be- 
ing in the past; but what is worse, the need for special preparation 
— entitling those who have such preparation to more than an un- 
skilled laborer's wage — is not always recognized even where library 
work is conceded to require an alert and intelligent man or woman. 

Nevertheless, Mr. Friedel is able to demonstrate that librarianship 
as a profession has a great future. Already, the number and 
variety of special libraries has created a demand for trained work- 
ers which is far from being easily filled. In the general library 
field "positions ranging in salary from $1,500 to $3,000 have been 
vacant for months because of the difficulty in finding the right 
person for each position." The book, in fact, is a glowing account 
of possibilities and of actual, progress achieved in recent years. 
It touches upon, and in most cases illumines, every important aspect 
of library work, and tells candidates for the profession how best 
to prepare themselves for it. The admirable work done by the 
library commissions, associations, and training schools is described 
in detail. B. L. 


By John Gordon. Dorrance & Co., Inc. 270 pp. Price, $1.90; 

by mail of the Survey, $2.05. 

Mr. Gordon conceives it the task of the novelist to be a propa- 
gandist. Therein he follows such eminent models as Charles Kings- 
ley and Charles Dickens. The subject of his propaganda is the 
question of capital and labor. So far as he presents the miseries 
that labor must contend with, he does his task passably; in depicting 
the luxuries of capitalist existence, he is not so happy. Some of 
his descriptions are ludicrous — seeming to draw upon his imagina- 
tion rather than knowledge. 

The author has a solution to propose. We are prepared for that 
solution through many pages of exposition and narration, only to 
be introduced in the end to the old formula of "a better under- 
standing between capital and labor." These are not the words of 
the text, but the unravelling of the plot leads to them inevitably. 
This is the most disappointing feature of the book. 

The author evidently wishes to preach "Americanism" through 
his novel. This, however, is so superfluous that it becomes annoy- 
ing. Annoying, too, is the sense of something big to come, that 
pervades the book, and the disappointment when nothing of con- 
sequence happens. Mr. Gordon set himself a big task — and failed. 

W. M. Josopait. 

Selected Articles. Compiled by Julia E. Johnsen. H. W. Wilson 

Co. 279 pp. Price, $1.80; by mail of the Survey, $1.95. 

This volume is a convenient addition to the Debaters' Handbook 
Series. It first outlines, in the form of a brief, the leading argu- 
ments for and against a national defense program consisting of an 
enlarged regular army, compulsory military training and service, 
and a navy equal to that of any other nation. A classified list of 
references precedes the selected articles composing the body of the 
book, which deals in order with the army, the navy, military train- 
ing, military service, disarmament and peace. A list of organizations 
"for or against national defense" is giyen also. One wonders 
whether such eminently respectable organizations as the American 
Peace Society and the Church Peace Union are working "for" or 

The compiler has done her work well and presented both sides of 
the case fairly. Her compilation should be useful to others than 
debaters, now that we are rushing full tilt into a policy of imperial- 
istic navalism. We specially need information about the cost of 
such ventures, and we need to understand better the relation be- 
tween economic policies and their naval expression. Lacking such 
knowledge and understanding, no popular movement stands much 
chance of resisting successfully the forces that are now driving us 
on toward armament and war. H. R. Mussey. 


By Lucien Souchon. Preface by Albert Flament. Bossard, Paris. 

22i pp. Paper. Price, Frs. 3.30; by mail of the Survey, $ .90. 

This book is an impassioned plea for military preparedness. The 
author arraigns a whole generation of Frenchmen for their neglect 
of physical preparation for the great war with Germany which they 
ought to have anticipated and for what he considers half-hearted 
action during and since the war. The chief object of his denuncia- 
tion, however, is the League of Nations in which he sees nothing 
but a new sleeping draught designed to confirm his compatriots still 
more in their attitude of laisser ja'ire. This extended pamphlet is 
noteworthy for its outspokenness and logical consistency which lead 
the writer to denounce social legislation and the adoption of western 
ideas of industrial democracy. For pacifists and near-pacifists it is 
wholesome to have the arguments of their opponents stated with 90 
much sincere conviction and directness. B. L. 





To the Editor: In a recent Survey you criticized the immigra- 
tion restriction measure approved by the Conference Committee of 
Congress (afterwards passed by Congress but killed by the non- 
action of President Wilson) as only a temporary makeshift be- 
cause, as you say, it does not provide for the regulation of immi- 
gration "in conformity with the changing requirements of this coun- 
try," meaning our varying economic capacity to absorb additional 

But is the question of immigration only an economic one? May 
there not be reasons other than economic for limiting the flow of 
aliens to this country? Was not the recent "Deutschland go 
Brag'a" meeting in New York an indication that questions of citizen- 
ship as well as questions of economics are involved? 

And even as an economic question, just what do you mean by the 
"capacity of the country to absorb further additions to the labor 
supply?" To absorb at what rate of wages? Is the question sim- 
ply how great a burden we can stagger under? Is it not rather a 
question of what number will promote the highest standard of liv- 
ing and so best serve the present and future interests of this coun- 
try and enhance its service to the world? 

The Survey believes in the legislative regulation of wages through 
the establishment of minimum wages. I as a liberal do not believe 
in fixing wages by legislation but rather in allowing them to find 
their level through free competition. I do believe however in doing 
everything that can be done to raise the actual competitive rate of 

I would restrict immigration, especially of the lower paid classes 
of labor, because increased immigration tends to depress wages. 
All the big employers of labor agree with me on this point and 
many of them are constantly lobbying for "liberal immigration" 
for this reason. Restriction of immigration can do far more to 
keep wages up than any law taxing the better paid to give a dis- 
guised handout to the less efficient. 

I do not think that "the changing requirements of this country" 
are ever such that we want less restriction than the suggested bill 
provides. There will never be a time when we shall want wages 
depressed below the present level or retarded in any upward ten- 
dency, unless of a very temporary and artificial nature. There 
may, it is true, be times when entire exclusion would be the better 
policy, and for that reason there should some time be an addition 
to the present bill making provision for that contingency. But the 
present bill should be our minimum requirement and its passage 
should not be hindered or delayed by this or any other counsel 
of perfection. 

The worst possible policy in regard to immigration is the one 
frequently suggested by opponents of restriction to the effect that 
the congestion caused by immigration to our cities should be re- 
lieved by distributing the immigrants in the country districts. The 
result of this policy, if carried out, would be to sterilize the Ameri- 
can in the last place in which he still breeds and to maRe certain 
the substitution of other races for the Anglo-Saxon. 

I personally have nothing against the races of Southern and 
Eastern Europe, but I have enough pride in the old stock and 
enough respect for its ability in the carrying on of a successful 
democracy as compared with these other races and with Asiatics to 
dislike the prospect of its disappearance. 

What immigration tends to do for us is to make us candidates 
for the next obituary. I see no need of hastening the process. 

Boston. Joseph Lee. 

To the Editor: The relation between the needs of our philan- 
thropic organizations — which are admitted on all sides — and the 
financial support by private persons and public authorities is more 
and more becoming one of sad discrepancy. Even the well known 
Zentralstelle fuer Volkswohlfahrt (Central Bureau of Social Wel- 
fare) which has done so much, especially for the improvement of 
industrial conditions, and used to receive a national subvention, has 
been dissolved. For all such things no more money is to be had ; 
the only hope is that industry will eventually support them to de- 
monstrate its good-will and, incidentally, to counteract the trend 
toward socialization. 

Our Garden Cities Association has been severely hit; not only 
has its membership been depleted by war losses but the actual 
contributions received represent only from one-fifth to one-tenth 
of their pre-war purchasing power. Hence we have been forced 
to discontinue the publication of our journal which is more needed 
than ever and would, moreover, meet today with much more sym- 
pathetic understanding. We no longer are able to employ even 
half-time paid officers. I myseli am only able to give my spare 
time, and the only thing that holds the society together is the 
probably vain hope that times will mend. We cannot appeal for 
support from the great employers which would destroy our in- 
dependence. The employers who are socially active, are busy 
providing homes for their own people or give their money for 
political purposes. 

It has occurred to us that an appeal for aid to Americans, and 
perhaps especially German-Americans might meet with success, the 
more so since with the present rate of exchange the value of con- 
tributions on their part is multiplied. Our report to the annual 
meeting in May will not be cheerful reading. Our literature has 
found appreciation because it is more honest than the talk, some 
of it on the part of public authorities, about wonderful housing 
projects— which come to nothing. Even a planned society for the 
promotion of urban land cultivation has not yet been organized 
because it has been impossible to secure enough funds. For this 
useful organization, likewise, I should wish to make a special plea 
in America. 

An individual undertaking hampered by lack of funds is the 
cooperative land school of my colleague Leberecht Migge who, on 
his own account, has bought a holding at Worpswede near Bremen 
where he has difficulty in supporting his adult students. Not until 
next year will there be any appreciable returns on which to bank. 
His is the only settlement on an economically transformed basis 
apart from more romantic but less practical experiments of which 
there are several in Germany. 

Of course, we are prepared to send budgets and proofs concerning 
the use of any money that might be entrusted to us. 

I myself am at present vice-president (engaged in technical ques- 
tions) of the land settlement bureau of German public employes; 
but this enterprise likewise is threatened with extinction since the 
national grant which we hitherto had has not been renewed in this 
year's budget. If the comparatively few men who, without thought 
of their own advancement or interest, have through all these diffi- 
cult times remained loyal to the cause of progressive housing reform 
are not all to be lost to it, early aid is an indispensable necessity. 

General Secretary, Adolf Otto. 

German Garden City Association, 



r J PON the call of the National Information Bureau, about sixty 
^ of the leading national social agencies met April 14 at the New 
Willard Hotel in Washington to consider some form of coordina- 
tion. The "emotional" stage of coordination, as Prof. E. C. Linde- 
man called it, was largely eliminated, the preliminary meeting held 
last October having accomplished that. The intellectual stage had 
been reached ; there was an evident desire to find out what could 
be done and how to do it. 

There was evidenced unanimity of opinion as to the desirability 
of coordination. There was much friendly discussion over such 
details as the form and purpose of the organization. But democracy 
accomplishes its results slowly. The tangible results of this meet- 
ing may, therefore, seem small. In the far view they loom up with 
more significance. 

There were a number of definite accomplishments. It was de- 
cided to organize those in attendance into functional groups. After 
brief reports from similar groups organized upon a functional basis 
such as the National Child Health Council, the Council of National 
Agencies Engaged in Rural Social Work, the National Council of 
Community Organization and the National Health Council, the con- 
ference proceeded to discussion and organization upon the basis of 
functional groups. These groups also made considerable progress in 
cleaning up problems of technique and the field covered. The group 
dealing with community organization defined the term and brought 
misunderstandings into the open. In health, propaganda was differ- 
entiated from the more intimate, scientific treatment of health prob- 



lems. In rural service, it was realized that the classification had 
been made as a cross section of the method and the subject matter of 
the other functional groups, and that the basis of organization of 
the rural group is geographical. 

Raymond B. Fosdick, elected by the functional groups as chair- 
man, appointed two members in addition to the chairmen of the 
functional group to establish a general committee to determine 
plans of future procedure and the date and program for the next 
conference. The appointees of Mr. Fosdick were Gustavus D. 
Pope, and Josephine Schain. The National Information Bureau 
was asked to conduct certain local studies of the work of national 
agencies. Although the details of this plan were not worked out, 
it seemed probable that this intensive study would be made in se- 
lected local communities with the object of ascertaining what op- 
portunities exist for joint action on the part of national organiza- 
tions among themselves and the part of such organization in con- 
tact with local agencies. Such studies are to furnish in part the 
basis for discussion at the next meeting. Walter Pettit. 


THE Richmond Conference on Social Hygiene, March n and 12, 
was an effort to have a regional conference on lines similar to 
those held in Washington last December. It was held under the 
auspices of the Bureau of Social Hygiene of the State Board of 
Health of Virginia in cooperation with the United States Bureau of 
Education, United States Public Health Service, Interdepartmental 
Social Hygiene Board, American Social Hygiene Association, the 
Virginia Social Hygiene Association, the medical profession, and the 
organizations in the state interested in religion, education, public 
welfare and industry. It embraced the city of Richmond and twenty- 
five counties, of which Richmond is the natural railroad center. 

Resolutions were passed on law enforcement, on the teaching of 
social hygiene in schools, colleges and normal schools, endorsing the 
establishment of a detention home and shelter for women in Rich- 
mond and urging the establishment of a state institution for delin- 
quent women, recommending the establishment of supervised com- 
munity recreation in towns and cities and rural communities, con- 
demning "immoral styles of dress," dancing, and movies, and recom- 
mending the supervision of dance halls and commercialized recrea- 
tion "pending the disposition of the question of the appointment of 
police women." 

The resolution referring to the problem among Negroes is of suffi- 
cient interest to quote in detail: 

WHEREAS, in certain localities, it is deemed necessary or 
advisable to have a dual system of service and regulations in 
community affairs because of the differences in race, language, 
customs or other variant conditions; 

BE IT RESOLVED, that, if practicable in the program for 
venereal disease control and the promotion of the preventive 
measures of social hygiene, (1) conscious and adequate provi- 
sion be made for groups thus classified, and (2) interested and 
trained members of these groups be secured to assist, by counsel 
and service, in the carrying out of the full program for the 
whole community. H. H. Hibbs, Jr. 


IN a discussion of financial federations at the Fifth Florida State 
Conference of Social Work held at Jacksonville, Fla., April 1-4, 
Edward T. Devine advocated the alliance of all agencies into one 
for the best interests of all. The entire social world, he stated, 
is interested in taxation as one of its vital functions. He referred 
to an investigation made of Philadelphia social agencies which 
showed that 60 per cent of the donors to welfare work there are 

Joseph C. Logan, assistant manager of the Southern Division, 
American Red Cross, emphasized the fact that the organization 
stands ready to help other agencies. He pointed out that the 
enthusiasm for unselfish service developed by the Red Cross dur- 
ing the war should not be scrapped but should be used for further- 
ing social progress. 

Marcus D. Fagg, superintendent of the Children's Home Society 
of Florida, outlined v.hat he had seen come to pass in social serv- 
ice work in Florida during his ten years there. 

Among other papers were those given by Lee Walters, play- 
ground supervisor, Jacksonville; A. S. MacFarlane, chief scout 
txecutive, Jacksonville; B. F. McClane, superintendent, State 
Industrial School for Boys, Marianna; and C. C. Carstens, 
director of National Child Welfare League, New York city. The 
following officers were elected: Mrs. Edgar Lewis, president; 
Vilona Cutler, treasurer; W. S. Criswell, executive secretary. 




Fifteen thousand copies sold in less 
than three months. There are two 
reasons for this phenomenal success, — 

1. The book is filled with vital in- 

2. It is priced so that people can 
afford to buy it and to give it 

Prices, — Cloth, $1 ; three for $2.50; ten for $7. 

Paper, 50 cents; three for $1.25; ten for $3.50. 

All postpaid. 


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Will Popularize the Theory of Relativity. 

This 150-Page Book By 


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If you want accurate news and 
first-hand information on social and 
industrial movements. 

If you are interested in any of the 
subjects discussed in this issue — for 
the Survey "follows up." 

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Listing! fifty cents a line, four weekly instr- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Second Report of the Committee on Foreign 
Inquiry. Social Insurance Department. From 
the National Civic Federation, Floor 33, Metro- 
politan Tower, New York city. $2.50. 

The Second Generation of Immigrants in the 
Assimilative Process (Reprint from The 
Annals of The A. A. of P. & S. S. January 
1921) by T. Sleszynski, 510 State St., Erie, Pa. 

Layout and Equipment op Playgrounds. Play- 
ground and Recreation Association of America, 
One Madison Avenue, New York City. Price, 
25 cents. 

Pioneering por Play. Community Service, One 
Madison Avenue, New York City. (Suggestions 
for conducting campaigns for community recre- 
ation). Price, 30 cents. 

Immigration Literature sent on request by the 
National Liberal Immigration League, Box lib. 
Station F, New York City. 

Credit Unions. Free on request to Mass. Credii 
Union Assn., 5 Park Square, Boston. 

Colored Women as Industrial Workers in Phi- 
ladelphia. From the Consumers' League of 
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The Trend op Jewish Population in Boston: A 
study to determine the location of a Jewish 
Communal Building, by Ben Rosen, Vol. 1, No. 
1, Monographs of Federated Jewish Charities of 
Boston, 25 Tremont St. Price 75 cents. 

How to Meet Hard Times. Edited by Bruno 
Lasker. A summary of the report of_ the 
Mayor's Committee on Unemployment, appointed 
by Mayor Mitchel of New York during the 
Unemployment crisis of 1914-1915. The Com- 
mittees report is now out of print. But this 
summary makes available all of the essential 
parts and the Recommendations. Reprinted 
from The Survey of February 5, 1921. 25 
cents a copy postpaid. 100 or more copies post- 
paid to one address, $20.00. The Survey, 112 
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Prohibition and Prosperity: What Freedom 
from Unemployment, Low Wages and Drink 
means to a Representative American City 
(Grand Rapids, Mich.) A reprint of the en- 
tire November 6, 1920, issue of The Survey. 
Quoted throughout the entire English-speaking 
world. Invaluable for speakers, debaters, col- 
lege and high school class use and to all who 
are interested in any aspect of. the subject. 25 
cents a copy. The Survey, 112 East 19 Street, 
New York. 


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«4he Arbitrator effers "The Jolly New World" 
for 25 cents — a primer of liberalism. $1 a 
year. Sample free. P. O. Box 42, Wall St. 
Sta., N. Y. C. 

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Order. By L. H. Koepsel. The Human Com 
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Employe Training. By John Van Liew Morris 
McGraw-Hill Book Co. 311 pp. Price, $3.00 
by mail of the Survey, $3.20. 
The Capitalization of Goodwill. By Kemper 
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francs 20.00; by mail of the Survey, $4.50. 
Le Travail Industriel aux Etats Unis. Rap> 
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Psychoanalysis, Sleep and Dreams. By Andre 
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Mayfair to Moscow. By Clare Sheridan 

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Social Aspects op the Fishing Industry at Los 
Angeles Harbor. By Edwin F. Bamford. 
Southern California Sociological Society, Uni- 
versity of Southern California, Los Angeles. 
Price 20 cents. 
Report on the Wages of Women Employed in 
the Manufacture of Food Preparations and 
Minor Lines of Confectionery in Massa- 
chusetts. Department of Labor and Industries, 
Division of Minimum Wage, State House, 

Selected Pictures. The National Board of Re- 
view of Motion Pictures, 70 Fifth ave., New 
York city. Price 25 cents. 
The Present Chaos in Monetary Standards and 
How to Deal With It. By Irving Fisher, 
professor of political economy, Yale University. 
From the author. 

The Economic Value of Upper Silesia for 
Poland and Germany Respectively. Materials 
collected from official statistics. The St. 
Catherine Press, Stamford St., Waterloo, S. E. 1, 

My Impressions of New Poland. By William 
C. Boyden. National Polish Committee of 
America, 1214 N. Ashland ave., Chicago. 

Upper Silesia and Poland. By Vincent Rzy- 
mowski. Translated by Harriette E. Kennedy. 
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Health Inventory. The Woman's Press, 600 
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The Educational Needs op Immigrants in 
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Tendencies and Developments in the Field 
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Medical Relief Work in Soviet Russia. The 
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Decline of Alcohol and Drugs as Causes o* 
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Patients with Mental Disease, Mental Defect, 
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in the United States, January 1, 1920. By 
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The Labor Policy of the Shipping Board. By 
Horace B. Drury. Reprinted from the Journal 
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5025 Wisconsin ave., Washington. 

The Physiological Basis for the Shorter 
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The Distribution of Scientific Information in 
the United States. By Robert B. Sosman. 
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The Case Against Censorship. National Motion 
Picture Theater Owners' Association, 1482 
Broadway, New York city. 

After-Care Study of the Patients Discharged 
from waverly for a period of twenty-flve 
Years. By Walter E. Fernald, M.D. From 
Massachusetts Society for Mental Hygiene, 1132 
Kimball Bldg., 18 Tremont Street, Boston. 

Special Parties and Stunts. Compiled by Era 
Betzner. From Bureau of Social Education. 
Young Womens Christian Association, 600 Lex- 
ington ave., New York city. Price, 20 cents. 

What Do the Sixty Per Cent Want? By F. 
Roger Miller, general secretary of the Chamber 
of Commerce, Macon, Ga. 

Are They Doomed? By Art Shields. From the 
Workers Defense Union, 7 East 15 St., New 
York city. Price, 10 cents. 

A Public Debate. Capitalism versus Socialism. 
Prof. Edwin R. A. Seligman of Columbia Uni- 
versity vs. Prof. Scott Nearing of Rand School 
of Social Science. Introduction by Oswald Gar- 
rison Villard, editor of The Nation. From Fine 
Arts Guild, Inc., 27 West 8 St., New York city. 

Wages and Hours of Labor in the Metal Trades 
of Massachusetts. From the Department of 
Labor and Industries, State House, Boston. 

Poetry in the High School. By Reed Smith. 
Bulletin of the University of South Carolina, 
Columbia, S. C. 

The Mobility of Industrial Labor. By Paul F. 
Brissenden and Emil Frankel. From The Acad- 
emy of Political Science, New York city. 

High School Discussion League. Subject: Th* 
Housing Problem. By Adela K. Bittner. Bul- 
letin of Extension Division, Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Ind. 

The World Petroleum Problem, Mexico. By 
Frederick R. Kellogg. From the Association of 
Petroleum Producers in Mexico. 32 Broadway, 
New York city. 

Medical Social Service in Dispensaries. Re- 
print from the New York Medical Journal for 
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Women and Machines. By Mary Van Kleeck. 
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E •' 






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SUPERINTENDENT for a custodial home 
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Street and Vanderbilt Ave., New York city. 

SOCIAL WORKERS, dietitians, industrial 
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Bi :. 



WANTED: Superintendents for two sum- 
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perienced in administrative work with chil- 
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TRAINED nurse to learn orthopaedic 
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GRADUATE Nurses, Dietitians for Hos- 
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WANTED: Experienced man to head 
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MAN with successful executive experience 
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administration, desires change. 3809 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE with broad experience in 
institutional care of children, child plac- 
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eastern city, will consider change for 
larger opportunities for service. 3822 

YOUNG WOMAN, several years' secre- 
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A YOUNG LADY, very fond of children, 
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3830 Survey. 

COUPLE, seven (7) years' child caring 
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CHAUFFEUR, mechanic, married, expert 
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YOUNG Married Man desires appoint- 
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Maple Syrup and Sugar 

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Highland Farm, Alstead, New Hampshire 


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An Attractive Summer Residence 



The Berkshire Hills 

with garage for two cars, vegetable garden, 
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field, Lenox ,and Springfield. Altitude 1,400 
feet. Beautiful view of surrounding hills. 
For information address E. O. SUTTON, 
12 Ingraham Terrace, Springfield, Mass. 

Adirondacks— Keene Valley, N. Y. 

For Rent: Cottages, fully equipped, very 
modern, baths, toilets, etc. Season $300 to 
?1.000. W. H. Otis. 


A large and exceptionally well built 


in good condition, and corner plot, 86x200, in 


in suburb of greater NEW YORK. 
Plate roof, wide porches, open fire places, 
trees, garden. Suitable for small insitution, 
sanitarian, school. 3831 SURVEY. 

FOR SALE— °' d Hudson River Estate 
110 acres, Dutch Colonial 
stone house, 12 rooms, modern improve- 
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Captain WM. F. HEAVEY, West Point, N.T. 


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Correspondence solicited. JACKSON & HOLT, 
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wanted for publication. Submit Mss. or 
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While many folks were shedding tears over the decadence of the press, a group of labor editors de- 
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The Federated Press Idea 

The Federated Press does not make profits. It is a cooperative association of editors who want the 
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Anyone Can Read the Federated Press Service 

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APRIL 30, 1921 


A Problem in Arithmetic— Another Bedford Situation— Open Shop 
Terminology — City Planning on the Coast — Reorganization at 
Washington— Connecticut's Children's Code— Kansas' Child Welfare 
Bills— The Zionist Split— National Civil Service— A Department of 
Peace— When Pittsburgh Pioneers 

Thompsonism and its Tether 

Pennsylvania's Proposed 

Plowshares at Krupps 

E. Lewis Burnham 
Sanford Griffith 


Starting from a Basement . . . Verna Ruth Dillozv 

Our National Parks— At the Movies— May-Day Minutes 


Health Work with Immigrants 
Infant Mortality in New Zealand 
Nutrition— Health Notes 


The Case Conference : A Reply 
A Challenge to the Vice-President 
A Young Federation 
A Test for Jewish Charities 

Michael M. Davis, Jr. 
. P. L. B. 

Frank J. Bruno 

Robert W. Kelso 

Oscar Schoenherr 


Victor Yarros 138 






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ERS-Miss Ida M. Cannon, pres.; Social Service Department Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital. Boston, Massachusetts MissRuth V. 
Emerson, sec'y; National Headquarters, American Red Cross, Wash- 
ington D C. Organization to promote development of social work 
in hospitals and dispensaries. Annual meeting with National Con- 
ferences of Social Work. 

Andrews sec^y; 131 E. 23rd St., New York. For adequate public 
employment service; industrial safety and health ^s.workmens 
compensation, and rehabilitation of cripples; unemployment, old age 
and health insurance; maternity protection; one day s rest in seven 
efficient law enforcement. Publishes quarterly. "The American 
Labor Legislation Review." 

TAL! TY-Gertrude B. Knipp. sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St. Baltimore. 
Urces prenatal, obstetrical and infant care; birth registration; ma- 
ternal nursing; infant welfare consultations; care of children of pre- 
school age and school age. 

AMERICAN CITY BUREAU— An agency -for organizing and strength- 
ening Chambers of Commerce, City Clubs, and other civic and com- 
mercial organizations; and for training of men in the profession of 
community leadership. Address our nearest office — 

Tribune Building, New York. 

123 W. Madison Street, Chicago. 

716 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 
feild" pres.; C. J. Galpin, ex.'jec; E. C. Lindeman. Greensboro , N. C, 
field secretary. Annual conference with annual reports. Lmphasizes 
the human aspects of country life. Membership, $3. 
Cooper sec'y; Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Or- 
ganized for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions 
and community. Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cath- 
edral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY— Founded 1828, labors for an inter- 
national peace of justice. Its official organ, is the Advocate of Feace 
$2 00 a year. Arthur Deerin Call, Secretary and Editor, 612-614 
Colorado Building, Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency Maintains 
all-the-year-round information bureau on all questions of delinquency 
and crime Advice and counsel of specialists throughout the country 
available free of charge through central office. Annual proceedings 
published. Next congress, Jacksonville, Fla., November. 1921. Mem- 
bership, including proceedings, $5. C. B. Adams, pres.; O. F. Lewis, 
gen. sec'y, 135 E. 16th St., N. Y. C. 

J Osborne, exec, sec'y; 35 W. 45th St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and preven- 
tion. Publicatonis free on request Annual membership dues, $o. 

St New York For the conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion, of 
sound sex educaion. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon 
request Annual membership dues, $2. Membership includes quarterly 
magazine and monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 

tion Against the Saloon. Rev. P. A. Baker, D.D., General Superin- 
tendent' Rev. Howard H. Russell, D.D., Associate Gen. Superintend.; 
Mr Ernest H. Cherrington, General Manager Department of Publish- 
ing Interests and General Secretary World League Against Alcohol- 
ism" and Rev E. J. Moore, Ph.D., Assistant General Superintendent. 
National Headquarters, Westerville, Ohio. Mr. Wayne B. Wheeler, 
Esquire, Attorney, 30-33 Bliss Building, Washington, D. C. 

New York. Dr. L. Emmett Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, Di- 
rector To arouse public interest in the health of school children; to 
■ encourage the systematic teaching of health in the schools; to develop 
new methods of interesting children in the forming of health habits: 
to publish and distribute pamphlets for teachers and public health 
workers and health literature for children; to advise in organization 
of local child health programme. 

to secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to im- 
prove standards anld methods in the different fields of work with 
children and to make available in any part of the field the assured 
results of successful effort. This League will be glad to consult 
with any agency, with a view to assisting it in organizing or re- 
organizing its children's work, C. C. Carstens, Director, 130 E. 22nd 
St., New York. 

York. Organized in February, 1919, to help people of all communities 
employ their leisure time to their best advantage for recreation and 
good citizenship. While Community Service (Incorporated) helps in 
organizing the work, in planning the programme and raising the 
funds, and will, if desired, serve in an advisory capacity, the com- 
munity itself, through the community committee representative of 
community interests, determines policies and assumes complete con- 
trol of the local work. Joseph Lee, pres.; H. S. Braucher, sec'y. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. Oi C. Glaser, exec, 
sec'y. A pu